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It is of great importance to make youth observe, in reading good authors, the use which true eloquence makes of figures; the assistance it draws from them, not only to please, but to persuade and move the affedtions, and that without them, expression is weak, and falls into a kind of monotony, and is almost like a body without a soul. Quintilian gives us a just idea of them by a very natural comparison o. A ftatue, says he, quite uniform and of a piece from top to bottom, with the head strait upon the shoulders, the arms hanging down, and the feet joined together, would have no gracefulness, and would seem to be without motion and lifeless. It is the different attitudes of the feet, the hands, the countenance and head, which being varied an infinite number of ways, according to the diversity of subjects, communicate a sort of action and motion to the works of art, and give them, as it were, life and soul.

Figures of Words. The metaphor is a figure which substitutes the figurative terms it borrows from other subjects, as it were by a kind of exchange, in the room of proper words which are either wanting, or have not energy enough. Thus gemma was called the bud of the vine, there being no proper word to express it: incenfus ira, inflammatus furore, were used instead of • Reati corporis vel minima cessicas genuit inopiâ coacta primò

Neque enim adverfa & anguftiis, poft autem delectatio Le facies, & demiffa brachia , & jucunditasque celebravit Nain utjun&i pedes, & à fummis ad ima vestis frigoris depellendi causâ rerigens opus. Flexus ille, & ut Gc perta primò, post adhiberi cæpta dixerim motus, dat actum quan- est ad ornatum etiam corporis & dam effi&is. Ideo' nec ad unum dignitatem : sic verbi tranNatio modum formatæ manus, & in instituta eft inopiæ caula, frevulcu mille species ... Quam qui- quentata delectationis . Ergo dem gratiam & delectationem af- hæ transaciones quali mucaciones ferunt figuræ, quæque in sensibus, funt, cùm, quod non habeas, aliquæque in verbis sunt. Quint. I. 2. unde fumas. Illæ paulo audaciores, C. 14

quæ non inopiam indicant, sed p Tertius ille modus transfe- orationi splendoris aliquid accerrendi verbi lacè patet, quem nec fun:. 3. de Orat. 8. 155, 156.



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iratus, furens, in order to paint the effe&t of those passions the better. We see by this, that what there was at first invented through neceffity, from the defect or want of proper words, has fince contributed towards embellishing speech ; much after the fame manner that clothes were at first employed to cover at the body, and defend it against the cold, and ferved ex afterwards to adorn it 4 Every metaphor therefore must either find a void in the place it is to fill up, or, it at least, (in case it banishes a proper word) must have the more force than the word to which it is fubftituted.

This is one of the figures that gives moft ornament, strength and grandeur to discourse, and the reader may have observed in the several paffages I have cited, that the most exquifite expressions are generally metaphorical, and derive all their merit from that figure". Indeed, it has the peculiar advantage, according to Quintilian's observation, to shine from its own light in the most celebrated pieces, and to distinguish itself most in them : it enriches a language, in some measure, by an infinity of expreffions, by subftituting the figurative in the room of the fimple or plain; it throws a great variety into the stile ; it raises and aggrandizes the most minute and common things ;

it gives us great pleasure by the ingenious boldness with which it Itrikes out in quest of foreign exprelfrons, instead of the natural ones which are at hand it deceives the mind agreeably, by shewing it one thing, and meaning another. In fine, it gives a body,

9 Metaphora aut vacantem oc- vel quòd ingenii spec men eft quod cupare locum debet ; aut, fi in dam tranfilire ante pedes pogica, alienum venit, plus valere eo quod & alia longè repetita fumere : vel expellit. Quini.l. 1. 8. c 6. quòd is, qui audit, aliò ducitur co

r Ita jucunda atque nx.da, ut giratione, neque tamen aberrar, in oratione quamlibet clara, pro- quiz maxima eft delectatio.... prio tamen lumine eluceat. Quint. vel quòd omnis - tranNatio, quæ 1. 8. c. 6.

quidem sumpta ratione eft, ad fin[ In fuprum verborum max- sus ipfos admovetur, maximè ocuima copia, tamen homines aliena lorum, qui eft sensus acerrimus. . multo magis, si sunc ratione trans- Lib. 3. de Orat. n. 159, 160. lata, delectant. Id accidere credo,

usif we may so fay, to the most fpirited things, and

makes them almost the objects of hearing and sight by the sensible images it delineates to the imagination,

In order to give an idea of the force of metaphors, z great care muft be taken to begin always with ex• plaining the plain and natural sense, upon which the , figurative is founded, and without which the latter could not be well understood.

The fureft and likewise the easiest way to represent the beauty of the metaphor, and, in general, to explain the beautiful passages in authors with juftness, is to fubftitute natural expreffions instead of the figurative, and to divest a very bright phrase of all its ornaments, by reducing it to a simple proposition. This was Cicero's method; and what better method can we follow ? He explains the force and energy of a metaphorical expression in these verses of an ancient poet.

Vive, Ulysses, dum licet : Oculis poftremum lumen radiatum rape.

He performs it thus : * Non dixit cape, non pete ; baberet enim moram speranris diutius ele sese victurum :

Hoc verbum eft ad id aptatum, quod ante dixerai, dum licet. Horace uses the same thought.

"Dona presentis cape lætus horæ.

An able interpreter afferts, that we must read rape instead of cape. I doubt whether he be not in the right; for the man portrayed by Horace, is one who is free from all care and uneasiness; and by Aattering himself with the hopes of a long life, enjoys peaceably the pleasures which each day offers ; and the word cape agrees very well with such a condition; whereas, in the ancient poet, Ulyffes is exhorted to lay hold of the present moments, lelt they should escape him, and he be deprived of them by a sudden and unexI ib, 34 de Orat. n. 167.

* Ode 8. 1. 3.

pected w Pro Qu'nt. Rosc. n. 31.

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pected death: Poftremum lumen radiatum rape. Cicero employed a word like this full as gracefully : Quo quisque eft folertior & ingeniofior, học docet iracundius & laboriofius. Quod enim ipse celeriter arripuit : id cum tarde percipi

videt, difcruciatur. It is enough to observe, that he does not say, facile didicit, but celeriter arripuit ; the difference is very

obvious. When the metaphor is continued, and does not consist in one word, it is called an Allegory. Equidem cæteras tempeftates & procellas in illis duntaxat

fluctibus concionum semper Miloni putavi elle subeundas. He might have said plainly, Equidem multa pericula in populi concionibus femper Miloni putavi effe fubeunda.

* Remember the beginning and progress of the war, which though but a spark in the beginning, now sets all Europe in a flame.

Those clouds which arise from diflike or suspicion, never appeared in his serene countenance.

His virtues made him known to the public, and produced that first flower of reputation which spreads an odcur y more agreeable than perfumes, over every other part of a glorious lift.

2 When we use this figure we must always observe to continue the fimile, and not fally abruptly from one image to another ; nor, for example, conclude with a conflagration, after we began with a a storm. Horace is charged with that error in this

line :

Et malè tornatos incudi reddere versus ; where he joins two ideas widely different, the turning wheel, and the anvil. But some interpreters excuse him. I know not whether Cicero may not be charg’d

ut quo ex genere coeperis craalla* M. Fléchier.

tionis, hoc definas. Multi enim, y Melius eft nomen bonum, cùm inicium à tempeftate sumpquàm unguenta pretiosa. Eccles. serunt, incendio aut ruina finiunt: vii. 2.

quæ est inconsequentia rerum fæ2 Id imprimis eft custodiendum diflimam. Quintil. Lib. 8. c.6.

with the fame fault in this passage of the second book de Orat. y Ut cum in fole ambulem, etiamfi ob aliam caufam ambulem, fieri tamen natura ut colorer : fic, cum iftos libros ad Misenum studiosius legerim,* fentio orationem meam illorum quafi cantu colorari. How can we reconcile these two words, cantu and colorari ? and what relation can there be between cantus and a piece of writing?

The periphrafis or circumlocution. This figure is sometimes absolutely necessary, as when we speak of things which decency will not allow us to express in their own námes ; 2 ad requisita naturæ. 'Tis often used for ornament only, which is very common with poets; and sometimes to express a thing the more magnificently, which would otherwise appear very low and mean ; or to cover or soften the harshness of fome propositions which would be shocking, if shewn in a naked and simple dress.

1. For Ornament.

2 The King, in order to give an immortal testimony of bis esteem and friendship for that great general (M. de Turenne) gives an illustrious place to his renowned afbes, among those lords of the earth, who fill preserve, in the magnificence of their tombs, an image of that of their thrones ; instead of saying simply, gives his ashes a place in the tombs. of the Kings.

C'est-là ce qui l'emporte aux lieux où naît l'aurore, Où le Perse est brûlé de l'astre qu'il adore.

Englished. “ 'Tis this transports him to far distant climes, " Where gay Aurora rises, where the Persian “ Is scorch'd by the bright planet he adores."

1 Lib. 2. de Orat. n. 60,
2 Salluft.

* Mascaron,
b Despr.

2. To

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