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house, and the army for the present seemed satisfied with this mark of submission.

Pretending that the parliament intended to levy war upon them, and to involve the nation again in blood and confusion, they required that all new levies should be stopped, and the parliament complied with this demand.

There being no signs of resistance, the army, in order to save appearances, removed at the desire of the parliament to a greater distance from London, and fixed their head quarters at Reading, carrying the king along with them in all their marches.

Charles now found himself in a better situation. ' All his friends had access to his presence; his correspondence with the queen was not interrupted ; his chaplains were restored to him. His youngest son, the duke of Gloucester, and the princess Elizabeth, were once allowed to pass a few days with him at Caversham, where he then resided. Such an indulgence in the army was extremely grateful to him, as no father more passionately loved his family than did this good prince. Cromwell, who visited him, and was witness of the meeting of the royal family, confessed that he had never been present at so tender a scene; and he seemed delighted with the benignity which displayed itself in the whole behaviour of Charles.

The parliament, afraid of his forming some accommodation with the army, addressed him in a more respectful style than formerly, and invited him to reside at Richmond, and contribute his assistance to the settlement of the nation. The chief officers treated him with regard, and spoke on all occasions of restoring him to his just powers and prerogatives. In the public declarations of the army the settlement of his revenue and authority was insisted on. The royalists every where enter

nignity Charles afraid

tained hupes of the restoration of monarchy, and the favour which they universally bore to the army, contributed very much to discourage the parliament and forward their submission.

The more the national confusion increased, the more the king expected that all parties would at length apply to his lawful authority as the only remedy for the public disorders. “You cannot be « without me," said he on several occasions ; you 6 cannot settle the nation but with my assistance."

The parliament had recovered its spirit on seeing that the army was drawn back to a farther distance, which persuaded them that they could proceed with more energy against those officers who, they knew, excited the troops to disregard parliamentary authority. They published declarations to the kingdom, expressing their desire “ to bring the king in

“ honour to his parliament, but that he was de! " tained prisoner against his will in the army, and

~ that they had great reason to apprehend for the sc safety of his person.” The army, on the other hand, declared, “ that his majesty was neither pri6 soner, nor detained against his will, and that 6 they appealed to his inajesty himself, and to all « his friends, whether he had not now more liberty " and was not treated with more respect, than dur6 ing the time he remained under the custody of “ the parliamentary commissioners and their reti« nue.” The city was unanimously devoted to the parliament, and seemed resolute to defend thein against the army, not only with their train-bands and auxiliary regiments, but with all the new forces they could inlist. The parliament, farther encouraged by these dispositions, sent a committee to his majesty with an address of a very different style than they had lately used, and declaring " that if he was s not in all respects treated as he ought to be, and 66 as he desired, it was not their fault, as they

¢ wished that he might be at full liberty, and do « what he would.”

The king had been so barbarously used by the presbyterians, that he had no mind to put himself in their hands. On the other side, he was far from being satisfied with the army's apparent good intentions towards him, as, though the officers and soldiers behaved very civilly towards him, they were at least as vigilant as his former guards had been. His majesty concluded accordingly, that neither the parliament's addresses should be rejected nor the army disobliged, by his appearing to have jealousy of them, or desire to be out of their hands. So he desired both parties, “ to hasten their consultations, “ that the kingdom might enjoy peace and happi. 4 ness, in which he should not be without a share; « and he would pray to God to bring this to 66 pass as soon as possible.”

In the mean time, the army, being informed of the unfavourable dispositions of the metropolis towards them, demanded imperiously that the militia of London should be changed, the presbyterians' commissioners displaced, and the command restored to those who, during the course of the war, had constantly exercised it. The parliament, in obedi. ence to the army, complied with this violent demand, and reversed their ordinance of the month of May last, by which the militia of the city had been settled with the consent and upon the desire of the common council. The city was extremely offended at this ordinance being so soon repealed, without so much as consulting with the common council according to custom, and therefore they caused a petition to be prepared, to be presented by the two sheriffs in the name of the city, but before they were ready, many thousands, apprentices and young citizens, besieged the doors of the upper and lower house, with a petition against the alteration

of the militia, and by their violent seditious clamour obliged them to reverse that vote which they had passed so lately.

As soon as the army was informed of these extraordinary proceedings, Cromwell wrote a very sharp letter to the parliament, declaring that the army looked upon themselves as accountable to the kingdom, if this unheard of outrage, by which the peace and settlement of the nation had been so non toriously interrupted, should not be strictly examin. ed, and justice speedily done upon the offenders. Meanwhile the army was put in motion towards Hounslow-heath, where the rendezvous was appointed; and the king was removed to Hampton Court, which was prepared and put into as good order for his reception as would have been done in the best times. When the army reached Hounslowa heath, the speakers of both houses, who had privately before met with the chief officers of the army,

appeared there with their maces, and such other *members as accompanied them, complaining to the

general that they had no freedom at Westminster,
but were in danger of their lives, and appealed to
the army for their protection. They were received
with shouts and acclamations; respect was paid to
them as to the parliament of England; and the
army, being provided with so plausible a pretence,
advanced to chastise the rebellious city, and rein.
state the violated parliament.
i The two houses had chosen new speakers, re.
newed their former orders for inlisting troops, and
for the service of the trained-bands. The whole
city was in ferment, and resounded with military
preparations. The army, however, without the
least opposition, marched in triumph through the
city, preserving the greatest order and decency.
They conducted to Westminster the two speakers,
who took their seats as if nothing had happened,

VOL. III.

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The eleven impeached members being accused as the authors of the tumults, were expelled, and most of them retired beyond sea. Seven peers were impeached; the mayor, one sheriff, and three aldermen sent to the tower; several citizens and officers of the militia committed to prison; every deed of the parliament annulled, from the day of the tu. mult till the return of the speakers; the lines about the city levelled; the militia restored to the independents; regiments quartered in Whitehall and The Mews; and the parliament being reduced to a regular formed servitude, a day was appointed of solemn thanksgiving for the restoration of its

liberty.

f fortune, in his countena hands of his

The independent party among the commons ex. ulted in their victory. The whole authority of the nation they considered as being now in their hands, and they expected by the terror of the sword to impose a perfect system of liberty on the reluctant people.

Charles lived for some time at Hampton Court with an appearance of dignity and freedom. Such equanimity of temper did he possess, that during all the variety of fortune which he underwent, no difference was perceived in his countenance or behaviour; and, though a prisoner in the hands of his most inveterate enemies, he supported towards all who approached him the majesty of a monarch. His manner, which was not in itself popular nor gracious, now appeared amiable, from his great meekness and equanimity. .

The parliament renewed their applications to him, and proposed the same conditions they had offered at Newcastle. The king declined accepting them, and desired the parliament to take the proposals of the army into consideration, and make them the foundation of the public settlement. He still entera tained hopes that his negociations with the generals

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