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1. What monuments and works have been left in this country by the Britons and Saxons?
2. Enumerate the kingdoms established by the AngloSaxons, describing, in general terms, their relative positions.
3. What existing institutions are derived from the Anglo-Saxons? Describe them briefly.
1. Arrange the following battles in the order of timeHastings, Bosworth, and Worcester; and state the immediate results of each.
2. What circumstances led to the signing of Magna Charta? State its chief provisions.
3. State some of the principal circumstances attending the establishment, or introduction, of the present chief manufactures of England.
1. State the circumstances which led to the introduction of the Potatoe, Tobacco, Cotton, and Tea. 2. Give some account of the authority exercised by the Pope in England before the Reformation; and of the troubles which, at different times, arose in consequence.
3. State the difference between the habitations, fuel, food, and clothing of the poorer classes of people
in the reigns of Alfred, of Elizabeth, and of Victoria.
4. State the circumstances under which the following places were annexed to the British Dominions ;— Jamaica, Gibraltar, Canada.
1. Illustrate the growth of the naval power of this country by reference to its most remarkable engagements at sea, and to their consequences.
2. Under what circumstances was Scotland united to England; and what were the most important terms of the union.
3. State the difference in what were considered the
necessary accomplishments of a person of fortune in the times of Alfred, of Edward III., of Elizabeth, and of Victoria.
4. Give a brief account of the leading political events, and enumerate the most distinguished statesmen of the reign of George III.
1. "What monuments and works have been left in this country by the Britons and Saxons ?"
Our existing memorials of the British period are numerous tumuli or barrows, of which Salisbury Hill, in Wiltshire, is thought to be one, though its colossal dimensions almost preclude the hypothesis; some specimens of fortification and castrametation, as the British Camp on the Malvern Hills, better known as the Hereford Beacon; remains of Druidical temples, of which Stonehenge and Abury are the most conspicuous;
canoes of rude workmanship, formed of hollowed trunks of trees, of which a good specimen is preserved at the British Museum; spear-heads, and other fragments of arms and armour; coins and ring money.
The Saxon period, being subsequent to the British and of growing civilization, affords more numerous mementoes. Of these, its architectural monuments, few of which however are well authenticated, may be first mentioned. Among the undoubted specimens are Edward the Confessor's Chapel, Westminster Abbey ; Lindisfarne Abbey; Holy Island; Earl's Barton Church, Northamptonshire; Bamborough Castle, Northumberland; the parish church of Darent, in Kent, &c., &c.
The eighth, and several succeeding centuries, were prolific in Anglo-Saxon works of caligraphy and illumination, an art that was fostered and developed in the Cloister. These quaint and remarkable illustrations give the chief value to the ponderous volumes of manuscript that form the pride and glory of our museums, and that would be cheaply purchased for their weight in gold. Among such illustrations are remarkable initials, composed by the interlacing of foliage with birds, serpents, &c.; elaborate representations of historical and domestic events; representations of national spirits, costume, industrial occupations, the minutiae of feasts and religious festivals and ceremonials; and many of them in such consecutive and serial arrangements as almost to imply a disposition to cater for the tastes of after and inquiring ages. Saxon coins are generally of a rude workmanship, a circumstance which has been thought to indicate that our ancestors were not indebted for their knowledge of coining to the imitation of Roman models. (For extensive information on these and similar points, see night's Pictorial History.)
2. "Enumerate the kingdoms established by the Anglo-Saxons, describing, in general terms, their relative positions."
The first was Kent, established by Hengist, after long hostilities, which commenced in 449; the second, Sussex, or the South Saxons, founded by Ella, in 477; it included the present counties of Sussex and Surrey ; the third, Wessex, or the West Saxons, was founded shortly after by Cerdic, and included Hampshire, the Isle of Wight, and a varying portion of the neighbouring counties to the north and west; the fourth was Essex, or the East Saxons (with part of Hertfordshire and Suffolk), founded 527-29, by Ercenwine; the fifth was Northumbria (composed by the union of two smaller ones, Berenicia, established by Ida, 547, and Deira, somewhat later), in which were Northumberland, Durham, Yorkshire, and Lancashire; the sixth was East Anglia, the present Norfolk and Suffolk; the seventh, and most extensive, was Mercia, extending from the Thames to the Severn, and the Humber. The boundaries of the kingdoms of the Heptarchy, were subject to continual fluctuation, according to the fortune of war.
3. "What existing institutions are derived from the Anglo-Saxons? Describe them briefly."
We trace among the Saxons, as among the other Germanic tribes, the germs of three great institutions, from whose well-balanced and co-operative development we derive the leading feature of our present government. 1. Assemblies of freemen; in which affairs of national importance were debated. 2. Kings, hereditary or elective, in the times of our Saxon ancestors. 3. The principle of an aristocratic leadership, either of a military chief over his companions in arms, or of a landed proprietor over his dependents (Course of His
tory, vol. ii. page 268. Guizot). Tithings, hundreds and counties, or shires, were territorial divisions of the Saxons. From the earl or alderman of the shire we have our lord-lieutenants; and from the deputies of the alderman our sheriffs. The wittenagemot was the original of our parliament. Trial by jury is considered to have existed among the Saxons, but grave objections are advanced against the opinion, chiefly on the ground of the well-known paramount ascendancy of the ordeal. Until comparatively recent ameliorations were effected in our criminal code, it bore strong traces of its derivation from the old Anglo-Saxon legal punishments, among which were fines, death, imprisonment, outlawry, banishment, slavery, transportation, whipping, branding, the pillory, amputation of limb, mutilation of the nose, ears, and lips, plucking out of the eyes, and tearing off of the hair.
1. "Arrange the following battles in the order of time:-Hastings, Bosworth, and Worcester; and state the immediate results of each."
The Battle of Hastings occurred on the 14th of Oct., 1066. Its results were the subversion of the Saxon dinasty, and the acquisition by the Norman victors of all the fruits of conquest-government, landed-property, and priority in all the distinctions of civilized life.
The Battle of Bosworth Field was fought on Aug. 22, 1485, and secured the final ascendancy of the Lancastrian party, after a protracted and desolating civil war
of nearly thirty years duration. Richard III. (House of York) was killed in the battle; Richmond became king, under the title of Henry VII., and strengthened his claim by his marriage with the princess Elizabeth, sister of the murdered princes Edward V. and the Duke of York.