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Quem fugis, ah, demens! habitârunt di quoque sylvas,
gro.sikung farshad Semiputata tibi frondosâ vitis in ulmo est.
70 Quin tu aliquid saltem potìus, quorum indiget usus,
71. Quin potius tu Viminibus mollique paras detexere junco ?
paras detexere saltem
aliquid eorum, quorum Invenies alium, si te hic fastidit
usus indiget viminibus.
60. Demens: O foolish boy, whom do you 66. Referunt. After the labor of the flee? Demens, compounded of de and day, they drew home the plough inverted,
so that the share would glide easily over the 61. Paris. See nom. prop. under Paris. ground, and hang, as it were, lightly upon Dardanius, an adj. of Dardanus, one of the the yoke. founders of Troy. Pallas, the same as Mi- 71. Quin tu, &c. Why do you not rather See Geor. I. 18.
prepare to make (weave) at least some of 62. Colat : in the sense of incolat. those things which need requires, of osiers
65. Sua voluptas trahit quemque : his own and pliant rushes ? The verb indigeo gopleasure draws every one every one is verns the genitive. Usus: need, or necesdrawn by his own pleasure.
What is the subject of this pastoral ?
Who is represented under the character of Corydon?
Who under that of Alexis?
Who was Pan? What is said of him?
What were his festivals called by the Greeks? What by the Romans ?
By whom were they introduced into Italy
When were they celebrated?
Who were the Nymphs? Into how many classes may they be divided ?
Was each of these classes subdivided into other classes ?
Can you mention some of those subdivisions?
Who was Echo said to have been?
From what language are the names of the Nymphs derived?
MENALCAS, DAMETAS, PALÆMON.
The subject of this pastoral is a trial of skill in music between the shepherds Menalcas
and Damætas; who after rallying each other a while, resolve to try a song in the presence of their neighbor Palæmon, whom they constitute judge of their performances, Having heard each of them attentively, he declared he was unable to decide so weighty a controversy ; but pronounced each one to be deserving of the pledge. This beautiful pastoral is in imitation of the fifth and eighth of the Idylls of Theocri.
tus. It is conjectured that under the character of Damætas, we are to understand Virgil ; and under that of Menalcas, some rival poet at Rome.
1. Cujum pecus est Men. DIC mihi, Damæta, cujum pecus ? an Melibæi? estud? an est pecus Me- DA. Non, verùm Ægonis: nuper mihi tradidit Ægon. libæi? non : Verùm est
ME. Infelix, ò, semper, oves, pecus! ipse Neæram pecus Ægonis.
Dum fovet, ac, ne me sibi præferat illa, veretur,
5 Et succus pecori, et lac subducitur agnis.
Da. Parciùs ista viris tamen objicienda memento 8. Novimus et qui Novimus et qui te, transversà tuentibus hircis, corruperint te et in quo Et quo, sed faciles Nymphæ risêțe, sacello. sacello, hircis tuentibus
ME. Tum, credo, cùm me arbustum vidêre Myconis, 10 transversà, sed
10. Tum, credo, illæ Atque malâ vites incidere falce novellas. riserunt, cum videre me Da. Aut hìç ad veteres fagos, cùm Daphnidis arcum incidere arbustum Fregisti et calamos : quæ tu, perverse Menalca,
Et cùm vidista puero donata, dolebas ; 16. Audent facere ta. Et, si non aliquà nocuisses, mortuus esses.
ME. Quid domini facient, audent cùm talia fures ?
1. Cujum : an adj. agreeing with pecus: minished or taken away proportionably in the sense of cujus.
from their young. This was a heavy charge 2. Ægon. The name of a shepherd, the brought against Dametas. He highly rerival of Menalcas in the love of Neæra. sented it. It is derived from a Greek word signifying
8. Transversà : crosswise_asquint. An a goat.
adv. from the adj. of the neu. plu. in imi3. O oves, infelix pecus. The sheep are
tation of the Greeks. called unhappy, because their master Ægon, while in love with Neæra, had given up all 9. Sacello : any place consecrated to the care of them; and because they had fallen worship of God-a cave or grotto; as in into the hands of a hireling, who treated the present case. them so inhumanly.
10. Arbustum : properly, a place plantea 5. Alienus. An alien, or hireling shep- with trees for vines to grow up_by. By herd-custos.
meton. the trees themselves. See Ecl. I. 40. 6. Succus : may mean the same with lac Novellas : new, or young. mentioned just after. By milking the dams, 13. Quæ tu, &c. Which (bow and arrows) the natural food (lac) of the young would when you saw given to the boy, you both grieved, be taken from theni, and they suffered to and would have died, if you had not, in some starve. Or succus may mean nourishment way, injured him. in general. It being taken away or dimi- 16. Fures : slaves. They were sometimes nished to the dams, the milk would be di- so called, because notorious for stealing.
Non ego te vidi Damonis, pessime, caprum
DA. An mihi cantando victus non redderet ille,
Me. Cantando tu illum ? aut unquam tibi fistula cerâ 25 25. Tu vicisti illum Juncta fuit? non tu in triviis, indocte, solebas
cantando? Stridenti miserum stipula disperdere carmen?
Da. Vis ergò inter nos, quid possit uterque, vicissim
Me. De grege non ausim quicquam deponere tecum;
35 35. Verum, quoniam Insanire libet quoniam tibi, pocula ponam
libet tibi insanire, ponam Fagina, cælatum divini opus Alcimedontis :
id quod tute ipse fate
bere esse multò majus Lenta quibus torno facili superaddita vitis
pignus, nempe, duo fagiDiffusos hederâ vestit pallente corymbos.
na pocula, cælatum opus In medio duo signa, Conon : et quis fuit alter, 40
18. Lycisca. A mongrel dog--an animal 38. Lenta vitis quibus ; around which a half dog and half wolf.
limber vine, superadded by the easy carving in20. Posl carecta : behind the sedges. See strument, covers over (mantles) the diffused Ecl. 1. 68.
(loosely hanging) clusters with pale ivy.21. .An non victus cantando : vanquished These lines are somewhat intricate, and in singing, should he not return to me the goat have divided the opinioris of commentators. which, &c.
Ruæus takes quibus in the abl. and inter26. Triviis. Trivium, a place in which prets facili torno by ope facilis torni. Dr. three ways met. So Bivium and Quadrivium, Trapp and some others take facili torno in places in which two and four ways met. the dat. and understand by it the wood after Disperdere miserum carmen: to murder a it is smoothed and polished in the turner's sorry, or wretched tune, on a squeaking straw- lathe, by meton. Davidson, on the other pipe.
hand, takes quibus for the dat. and facili 30. Ubere : the udder. By meton. for the torno for the abl. but then he takes these last milk contained in it. Fætus : calves. for the ingenious carver, or easy skilful work
31. Quo pignore : with what pledge or bet. man, which he might do by meton. The Tell me what pledge you will put against sense I have given is the most natural and
easy. The meaning of the poet is this : 34. Ambo numerant : they both count the That each of these bowls was engraved or flock twice in a day; and one counts the kids. carved with vine and ivy boughs, so curiously Pecus is properly a flock or herd of neat- interwoven, that the ivy-berries were shaded cattle, as here. Alter, properly is one of two or mantled with the limber or pliant vine. -unus, one of many.
40. Conon. The name of a famous ma36. Insanire: to be beside yourself-to play thematician and astronomer of Samos, a co the fool; by contending with me, who am temporary and friend of Archimedes. Signa: so much more skilful than you. Pocula fa- figures. Et quis fuil alter? This is a very gina : beechen bowls-made of the beech- pleasant turn. There is something agreeable wood.
in this picture of pastoral simplicity. He 37. Alcimedontis. The name of a very had mentioned the name of one, but had skilful and ingenious carver. Mr. Martin forgotten the name of the other. He turns thinks he was some intimate friend of Vir- to himself and asks : quis fuit alter? but gil, who wished to transmit his name to the name not recurring to him, he goes on posterity. History is silent respeoting him. to describe him by his works : It was lie,
Descripsit radio totum qui gentibus orbem ?
Da. Et nobis idem Alcimedon duo pocula fecit,
ME. Nunquam hodie effugies : veniam quocunque vo-
Da. Quin age, si quid habes ; in me mora non erit ulla :
who, &c. It is supposed that Aratus orbehold his long-lost Eurydice. He saw her, Archimedes is meant. The former wrote in but she immediately vanished away. He Greek a treatise concerning the situation attempted to follow her, but was refused. and motions of the heavenly bodies : which The only consolation he could find, was in was translated into Latin. The latter the sound of his lyre in groves and moun. was a famous mathematician and astrono- tains apart from society. The Thracian mer of Syracuse, in Sicily. By the help of women, whom by his neglect and coldness his burning-glasses and engines, he nobly he had offended, set upon him, while they defended that city when besieged by the were celebrating the orgies of Bacchus, and Romans under Marcellus. After a siege of having torn his body in pieces, they threw three years, however, it was taken by stra- his head into the river Hebrus, which contagem. Archimedes was slain by a soldier, tinued to articulate Eurydice! Eurydice ! while in the act of demonstrating a propo- as it was carried down the stream into the sition.
Ægean sea. After his death, some say, he 45. Amplexus est ansas : he encircled received divine honors. His lyre was transthe handles around with soft acanthus. The ferred to the heavens, and made a constelparts of the verb are here separated for the lation. Sequentes : obedient to his lyre sake of the verse, by Tmesis. Acantho : a 47. Condita : laid up safe: a part. from plant called Bear's-foot.
condo, agreeing with pocula. 46. Orphea: acc. of Greek ending.-- 49. Nunquam effugies hodie : you shall by Orpheus was a most ancient and excellent no means avoid the trial this day. Damcepoet, the son of Eagrus, king of Thrace. tas had proposed to stake a heifer which But according to fable, he was the son of Menalcas said he could not do through fear Apollo and Caliope, one of the Muses. He of his father and step-mother ; but proposed received a lyre from Apollo, some say from to pledge his bowls. Damætas insisted upon Mercury, upon which he performed in such a the heifer, and so seemed to avoid the conmasterly manner, that the rivers ceased to test, because the conditions could not be flow-the savage beasts forgot their ferocity accepted by Menalcas. At length, however, —and the lofty oaks bowed their heads and confident of victory, and laying aside his listened to his song. He was beloved by all fear, he says: Veniam quocunque vocâris · the nymphs. Eurydice alone could make I will come to
proan impression on his mind. He married pose. Accordingly the bowls are laid aside, her ; but their happiness was short. For and a heifer is the prize. Aristæus fell in love with her; and fleeing 50. Tantum vel qui venit, &c. Only (I have from him, a serpent lying in the way nothing more to say) even let him who wounded her in the foot, of which she died. comes yonder, hear these things. Menalcas Orpheus was so much afflicted at the loss, was so sure of victory, that he was willing that he resolved to recover her, or perish in to submit to the decision of any third perthe attempt. For this purpose, he descend- son; and accordingly seeing some person ed to Hell, and gained admittance to Pluto, at a distance, says : even let him, who is who was so charmed with his music, that coming there, be the judge of our controhe consented to restore to him liis wife, upon versy, whoever he may be. Upon his near the condition that he would forbear to look approach, discovering who he was, he says: behind him till he passed the bounds of behold, it is Palæmon our neighbor. Voce: his empire. The condition was accepted; in the sense of cantu. hut as they were very near the region of 51. Efficiam : I will cause.
t, the unhappy lover turned his eyes to 53. Fugio: in the sense of recuso.
Sensibus hæc imis, res est non parva, reponas.
Pal. Dicite: quando quidem in molliconsedimus herba :
Da. Ab Jove principium, Musæ ; Jovis omnia plena : 60. O musæ, princiDle colit terras; illi inea carmina curæ.
61 pium omnium est ab ME. Et me Phoebus amat: Phæbo sua semper apud
62. Sunt Phæbo semMunera sunt, lauri, et suavè rubens hyacinthus.
per apud me sua muDa. Malo me Galatea petit, lasciva puella :
nera, nempe, lauri Et fugit ad salices, et se cupit antè videri.
65 Me. At mihi sese offert ultro, meus ignis, Amyntas : Notior ut jam sit canibus non Delia nostris.
Da. Parta meæ Veneri sunt munera : namque notavi Ipse locum, aëriæ quo congessere palumbes.
Me. Quod potui, puero sylvestri ex arbore lecta 70 Aurea mala decem misi: cras altera mittam.
71. Quod solum potui Da. O quoties, et quæ nobis Galatea locuta est ! facere Partem aliquam, venti, divům referatis ad aures.
72. Et quæ dulcia ver
ba Me. Quid prodest, quòd me ipse animo non spernis, Si, dum tu sectaris apros, ego retia servo ? [Amynta,
Da. Phyllida mitte mihi, meus est natalis, lola. 76 Cùm faciam vitulâ pro frugibus, ipse venito.
ME. Phyllida amo ante alias : nam me discedere flevit :
54. Imis sensibus : your deepest attention, times called Delia from Delos, the place of or thoughts. Res: the controversy. her birth. She was the goddess of hunting,
59. Alternis : in alternate verses. This and protectress of Dogs. Ruæus and Dr. is called carmen amæbæum. It consists not Trapp understand by Delia, not Diana, but solely in the dialogue; but requires that a servant of Menalcas by that name. what the first says shall be replied to by the other upon the same or similar subject. object of my affections.
68. Meæ veneri : for my love—the dear Carmina : verses, is understood. Camænce : the Muses. It was formerly written Car- 69. Congessere : in the sense of nidificamence and Casmena. Theme, carmen. verunt.
60. Muse. They were nine in number, 71. Aurea : yellow-ripe. the daughters of Jupiter and Mnemosyne. 72. Venti, referatis : bear some part of They were supposed to preside over the them, O winds, &c. Either because her arts and sciences. They were born in words were so sweet that they would dePieria in Macedonia, and were said to re- light even the ears of the gods: or that the side on mount Helicon and mount Parnassus, gods might be witnesses to her promises. the former in Beotia, the latter in Phocis. 74. Quid prodest, &c. Damætas had been Their names are: Calliope, Clio, Erato, just before expressing his joy at the converThalia, Melpomebe, Terpsichore, Euterpe, sation which he had with his mistress. Me. Polyhymnia, and Urania.
nalcas now endeavors to go beyond him in 61. Ile colit: he regards the earth ; he sentiments of tenderness and affection; and regards my verses.
intimates that he cannot have any enjoy62. Phæbus. The same as Apollo and ment while Amyntas is absent; nay, unless Sol; the son of Jupiter and Latona. The he share with him his dangers. laurel and hyacinth were sacred to him. 75. Retia : plu. of rete : toils, or snares Hence they are called sua munera, his own set to take any prey. gifts. See Ecl. IV. 10.
76. Phillida : a Greek acc. of Phillis. 66. Ignis : properly a fire or flame. By She was the slave of Iolas, and mistress both meton. love--also the object of love; as in to Dametas and Menalcas. the present casc.
77. Faciam vitulâ : that is, faciam sacra 67. Ul jam Delia non : 80 that Delia now et vitula : I will make the sacrifice of a is not better known, &c. Diana is some heifer for the fruits.