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helping to provide situations in which they can grow and that are intimately connected with the job to be done.

The present situation.-Thirty States report a great variety of activities more or less consciously directed to provide opportunities for growth for administrative personnel. These can be summarized in a rough order of frequency as follows: Administrative conferences and discussion groups for superintendents and principals held annually or more frequently, State-wide, county-wide, district or regional; curricular and instructional study programs, State-wide or local; study groups, superintendents, principals; self-evaluation plans, superintendents, principals; through relations with graduate schools for special courses; summer schools conducted by State departments; State-wide cooperative teacher education programs; schools for bus drivers, janitors, county superintendents; school visitation and conferences with administrators and school-board members.

Opportunities for administrators to participate in creative educational activities with groups outside their own organizations were reported by 27 States. The number of different groups checked, among the 6 listed, varied very much from State to State. Only 5 States checked all groups. The group checked by the lowest number of States (7) was the "pupil" group. Only one State specified the kind of participation involved with a pupil group.

Suggestions and implications.-Implicit or expressed in statements filed by the majority of the States is a conviction that professional growth on the part of administrators is most effectively stimulated through group participations in activities closely related to the challenges of the job as viewed locally or in terms of broad State-wide purposes and plans. In those States where progress seems most apparent it is clear that an effort is made to broaden materially the base of participation in educational study and planning activities to include all interested groups, lay and professional youth and adult. This trend makes relevant and important the first suggestion offered here: 1. Increasing efforts should be directed to helping administrators materially to widen their contacts within and beyond the local situations in which they operate.

This can be achieved most effectively by a leadership which will use every influence at its command to bring together into as many working relationships as possible other school administrators, teachers, pupils, college and university faculties, educational and professional agencies, organized lay groups, civic-minded individuals, and parents. Among the groups mentioned some are less frequently involved in these participations than others, notably pupils, lay groups, and

parents, in that order. The returns filed in this study give definite support to the observation that school people generally have just begun to appreciate and act upon the possibilities for social interpretation through lay participation. No more profitable area is open for cultivation by school administrators from the point of view of real professional growth and resultant effectiveness of service. This serves to point up very definitely the second suggestion offered: 2. Among the most pressing problems confronting public education today is the development of a community education program commensurate with the needs and obligations of youth of secondary school age. This very promising area of activity should receive very special attention as programs of cooperative study are planned.

Here again reference is made to the report of the Evaluating Committee of the National Committee on Co-ordination in Secondary Education. Its proposals for organization through which it may be possible to achieve a comprehensive, unified youth program are worthy of careful consideration. One of the instrumentalities recommended is a Community-Youth Council. The proposed membership of such a council involves participations and relationships which should be significant and stimulating. The section of this report which outlines the responsibilities of the State in providing and operating a program of education is of special interest and pertinence at this time.

III. Inter-relationship between State supported teacher-education institutions and public school systems contributory to professional growth of school administrators.

Conclusions.-"Commerce" between teacher-education institutions and the public schools systems, especially in the immediate neighborhood of those institutions should be greatly expanded and intensified. Demonstrations of the kind stimulated by the Teacher Education Commission at present in a few States should be followed up and applied generally. The possibilities of exchange of services in instruction and supervision between the two should be intensively canvassed and materially expanded to include every phase of school operation, including the revitalized and expanded field of adult education. Teacher-education institutions should no longer anywhere operate in isolation but should accept the responsibility of leadership in the

Maxwell, G. L. and Spaulding, Francis T. The relationship of the Federal Government to the education of youth of secondary-school age. National association of secondary school principals of the National edu. cation association. Washington, D. C., The Association, 1941. 24 p.

production and development of materials and methods. All that has been discussed and suggested in part I with respect to institutional programs and services for professional education is pertinent here. As previously stated the question of where responsibility rests for taking the initiative in setting in motion the processes of cooperation in any given situation can be answered best by assuming that it rests within that group or agency or institution where consciousness of need and urgency, and the will to do, is most acute. The important consideration is that once the process is under way, all concerned shall undertake to do their part in facilitating the process.

The present situation.-A considerable majority of the States reported progress in terms of the availability and service of teachereducation staff members for cooperative supervisory services in the schools. An equally large number reported the utilization of practicing administrators in the education of teachers. The most common form of utilization seems to be through their engagement as instructors at summer sessions. Other activities reported included the following: Participation in conferences at teacher-education institutions: teaching extension classes during the school year; participations in planning education courses and programs of professional education; administration and supervision of student teacher programs; participation in special assembly programs; and meeting with classes for special discussions and demonstrations.

Suggestions and implications.-The most obvious implications to be drawn from proposals to develop inter-relationships between teachereducation institutions and the public schools relate to the possibilities for the improvement of instruction in the schools served. These possibilities are apparently pretty well recognized. Implications relating to the problems of developing increasingly effective programs of professional education for teaching and administration have not been as generally understood or recognized. As shown in chapter I of part I there seemed to be, implicit in the statements filed by institutions, an assumption that teacher-education institutions have primary responsibility for the development of suitable programs for professional education. That assumption recently has been brought into question. Cooperation with individuals and schools served by these institutions is no longer sought solely for the purpose of verifying the soundness of program and evaluating the product. So it is suggested here that these cooperations continue to be expanded further to the point where programs of professional education for administration and for teaching represent the best thinking and planning of all participants in, and beneficiaries of, the total process. This calls for a new and vital kind of inter-relationship between these institutions and the public schools and their leadership personnel.

IV. The Study and Implementation of Educational Problems on a State-wide Basis as a Medium for Effective Participation of School Administrators.

Conclusions.-While administrators and teachers are concerned primarily with the continuing improvement of educational services in the local situations in which they are placed, a State department of education should be concerned with somehow seeing to it that local and community efforts and achievements are coordinated and related effectively to the interests and needs of the people of the State as a whole. This function should be implemented by cooperative rather than by dictatorial means. Cooperative means are more to be desired both from the point of view of ultimate soundness of policy and program and from the point of view of their contributions to growth in grasp and professional competence on the part of those who administer and teach. State departments, therefore, should exert leadership in the direction of continuous study and planning on a State-wide basis. This continuing process should be implemented through a type of organization which would mobilize and release the creative talents of the professional and the layman alike. Continuous fact-finding, experimentation, and evaluation should characterize the process. From the point of view of the lay participants it would be a challenging and improving experience in adult education. To the school people it would serve as a proving and growing ground; for education it would mark the beginning of the end of the lag between theory and practice which for too long has retarded educational progress.

The present situation.-Reports concerning the status of educational study and planning activities indicate that in 22 States these are looked upon as part of a continuing process. Among 9 other States these were reported as, "undertaken and completed" by 3, "in process" by 3, and "projected for the future" by 4. There was no program reported from 4 States. The great majority of States (30) reported that recommendations for legislative action on educational matters are based upon findings resulting from cooperations and researches involving participation by professional groups within the State. Descriptive statements filed reveal a considerable variety of activities in this area. There seems to be general acceptance by the States of responsibility for educational planning for instruction and that this responsibility should be limited to furnishing leadership and stimulation to communities through local leadership. A few States appear to have developed functionalized organizations which do not depend solely upon the office of the State superintendent of instruction for coordination. In these States the emphasis is upon State guidance programs rather than upon standardized State programs. The

emphasis is upon cooperation rather than upon directive supervision. Suggestions and implications.-No attempt will be made here to suggest any precise pattern of organization for carrying forward the kind of studies proposed above. Organizational patterns and approaches as developed in Connecticut and Michigan have been referred to as worthy of study and consideration. It seems clear, however, that generally there are two possible approaches from the point of view of a State department. The total education program may be studied, evaluated, and consequently redirected by superimposing a program on the State or these same processes may be carried on through wide discussion of common problems and the development of a willingness on the part of school people and citizens alike to face facts realistically and act upon the facts. This involves a democratic procedure which gives promise of growth from the bottom up. Ways and means, therefore, should be found and developed which will provide for the following kinds of activity:

Functional reorganization of State departments of education. The development of a research and planning program. Wide discussion of findings, conclusions and recommendations. Citizen education through discussion and study of many problems. A program of action cooperatively developed. This program should be conceived as a long-term program rather than one based solely upon momentary situations. Such a program— at least has the advantage of growing out of the actual needs of the individual in society and the consideration of these needs by a multitude of people. It permits not only the growth of the teaching personnel to see and to meet needed changes, but also it assures that the lay population will have a greater knowledge of what goes on in the school. The ultimate goal is improved educational outcomes.

Op. cit. Redirecting an educational program, p. 19.

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