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dislike the Hebrew shepherds; and on Could the painter at least have given a the monuments we find clear indica- more striking confirmation of the histions of as marked a distinction be- tory which Moses has presented of that tween Egyptian and foreigner, as same period? Those bricks, however, afterwards existed between Greek and made in that olden time, had commonly barbarian, or even Jew and Gen- an impression stamped on them, and tile, while the order of pastors was also at times inscriptions ; many have so much despised, that on all been found with the name of Thothcasions they were represented mes ; and stone-makers were wont to dirty and unshaven, sometimes as de
engrave upon each square block an informed and unseemly.* But Moses scription in hieroglyphics; and the also gives us to understand that when Egyptians generally delighted to inthe Egyptians did eat, they had good scribe their names on their implements supplies of animal food upon their and garments, and to carve their doortables ; for when Joseph would enter- posts, the exterior and interior of their tain his brethren, he sent word to his houses, and the innumerable walls of steward to make a slaughter, and the their subterranean burying-places with Israelites remembered from the wilder- inscriptions. $ Such was the prevalence ness the flesh-pots of Egypt. But of writing, and, we might almost say, surely it was too hot a climate, some the passion for its employment among of our modern rationalists have hinted, the Egyptians, even at very remote pefor such a strong appetite for flesh, riods. No surprise whatever for Moand then the sacredness attached to so ses that it should be found to have many animals there, must have stood been so, for he designates the officers in the way of its gratification to the ex- among the Israelites by the very name tent implied. The monuments, however, of shoterim, or writers, and everywhere discover no such difficulties, and seem speaks of writing as an art commonly unconscious of any such scruples; for ne- understood and in general use ; but a ver did kitchens present more animated confounding circumstance for those scenes, cooks with their numerous assist- semi-infidel correctors of his, who, by ants preparing for dinner, not merely some scraps of heathen learning, rice and pastry, but such articles as an thought they had succeeded in proving ox, kid, wild goat, gazelle, geese, ducks, that from such account being made of quails, and other birds.† But those writing, the Pentateuch in its present same tombs, which exhibit such lively form could not be the production of so and comfortable scenes as these, pre- early an age. sent others of a very different kind. But we must stop, though we have For looking into the tomb of Roch- not half exhausted the materials which scere at Thebes, who was a high court this interesting field has supplied to officer, an overseer of public buildings confirm the exact and perfect truthfulin the reign of Thothmes IV. (of the ness of the representations given in 18th dynasty), we discern labourers, Moses. In the one, as well as in the plainly of Asiatic countenance and other, we have the artificial labours mien, plying busily the work of the connected with the husbandry of Egypt brick-field, some transporting the clay —the horses and chariots of war-the in vessels, some intermingling it with manifold use of instruments of music, straw, others taking the bricks out especially of timbrels or tambourines and placing them in rows, &c., while by women, accompanied by singing two are seen pot less plainly of Egyp- and dancing in chorus—the frequent tian aspect, carrying rods in their employment of trumpets-workmanhand; and one is in the act of apply- ship of great variety in linen-weaving ing it to the shoulders of a poor la- and embroidery, in iron, brass, and bourer. Who sat for this doleful precious stones—to say nothing of the picture? Was it not the Hebrews incidental allusions in the Mosaic prewith their Egyptian taskmasters ? cepts to many religious practices appearing on the monuments, as existing brought to bear upon his narrative, in Egypt. So that from the review of and which has only established his the past we may well look forward with claim anew to our implicit faith and confidence to the future. Had Moses unsuspecting confidence. Nor is it not been guided by a spirit of unswerv- conceivable, that what has so remarking veracity, he could not have stood, ably proved him a faithful historian, as he has done, the test, which in the should issue in convicting him as a wonderful providence of God has been weak and erring chronologist.
* ii. 16.
† xi. p. 367.
I Rossellini, ii. 2, p. 254.
§ Rog. I. 3, p 241. ss.
PASSING VISITS TO DISTANT CHARITABLE INSTITUTIONS.
Die Barmherzigen Schwestern.
66 While some affect the sun and some the shade,
much wanted, and might be of esSome seek the palace, some the hermitage,
Their ends as varied as the roads they take, sential advantage, are entirely unour taste as travellers led us to hospitals, schools, and churches. To meet Kaiserswerth is the name of a small with establishments whose object is to village on the east bank of the Rhine, remedy the ills that flesh is heir to, about an hour from Dusseldorf. The and pause at spots where “the salt of village is clean and orderly, but very the earth” is accumulated in its legiti- ancient in its houses, and still more so mate office of correcting and prevent- in the aspect of its church and manse. ing the putressence of moral corrup
This circumstance the more fixes the tion, is instructive and improving. attention of the traveller on a new Scenery, however beautiful, cannot fill street running at right angles to the the heart. Alps, however magnificent, old one. All the buildings in it are may leave the moral being untouched. peculiar, and piece on but awkwardly Yet, Father Rhine, in his ceaseless pur- with the old manse, whence they spring. suit of his one great object, to bury his
The Rev. Th. Fliedner is pastor of majestic flow of waters in the bosom this small parish, and has found full of the ocean, suggests solemn thoughts occupation for his benevolent energy of eternity. To the meditative mind in the institution of which he is the it is somewhat of an escape from the founder. crowded deck of a steamer, or the pro- We unwittingly made our visit of longed ceremonial of a table d'hote, investigation on the great anniversary; to find one's self in an hospital or a a day for school examinations, for inschool, and to observe the same springs specting the hospitals, and for setting in operation for doing good in other apart, for the exercise of their funccountries, as those which work so power- tions, wheresoever they may be called, fully at home.
such deaconesses as have satisfactorily It is my design to describe what cane passed through their period of trainunder our observation of this class, in ing. The whole place was therefore a recent journey on the Continent of in its best attire. Windows bright, Europe, beginning with “the School walls newly coloured, and every here for Deaconesses at Kaiserswerth on the and there, where an arch or a peg to Rhine.” The reason for giving this hang a wreath upon could be found, institution the precedence is, thatothers active and tasteful hands had transfer
be mentioned are not re- red the garden's autumnal treasures of quired in this country, or that similar flowers to the various chambers of the ones are already carried on, while such dwellings. In a room on one side of as this deaconess school, which are the street, the floor was covered with
beds for the repose of visiting school- nevolent instruction of the young in mistresses and deaconesses who had Germany and Prussia. returned to enjoy the day with their Presently an amiable and gentleformer associates; while, on the other, manly man, who apologised for his the hall with its table of many covers, imperfect English, came and guided and the savour of good food from the us to the school-room, in which an inkitchen, indicated that the mother was telligent teacher was calling forth the on that day to entertain her children. attainments of his pupils. The auIn short, it was a gala day—the day dience, if we might guess how it was of all the year when many acquisitions composed, consisted of Mr Fliedner's are brought to light, and for which co-presbyters, the physician, a few many a studious preparation is made. personal friends, the teachers who As all were engaged in the examina- were that day visiters to the school tion of the orphan school, we had lei. where they had themselves been trainsure, while waiting, to observe the cha- ed, and as many of the deaconesses racteristic furniture of the manse par- as could be spared from their regular lour, where, according to the fashion avocations. of the country, the pale sand crackled Here, too, we had a glimpse of an under our feet. There hangs a por- aged but very lively person, whose trait of Mrs Fliedner, the honoured name we failed to retain.
His outand most useful coadjutor of her hus- ward garb would indicate that he beband. She has been a fitting mother longs to the Society of Friends. He of that institution, of which he is the told us he is a native Swiss, but refather. Having given out all her sides in Amsterdam, and said, somestrength to it, she was in her prime what in the mood of “ narrative old translated from the land of labour and age,” that he is a philanthropic cosanxiety to the land of eternal rest. mopolite, and can speak a great many
Near her is placed, in meet compa- languages. He holds office, under what nionship, a portrait of our Mrs Fry, king we did not learn, as inspector of whose experienced eye took in at once, prisons and hospitals. From what with much delight, the utility of the passed, this seemed to be far from his whole institution. On the same wall first visit to Kaiserswerth. appears a portrait of Mr Fliedner's the curiosity of the assemblage, and it mother, a venerable widow of a former is probable that this description may pastor, whose lovely Christian bearing bring him to the mind of some of we had occasion to respect and admire, our readers, as he is well known among having made her acquaintance in a dis- lovers of his species. tant city. She had reared a large fa- The orphans under examination are mily for the Church, and suffered many many of them the children of pashardships while her country was the tors and schoolmasters. They looked scene of French warfare, being long more vigorous and hearty than most separated from her husband, uncertain children of their age do in Germany, of his safety, and moving from place and are receiving good, sound educato place with her young children, at tion, which will fit them to help both times at a loss for a lodging and all themselves and others in future life. necessary provision.
We were led from the school-room Opposite to these portraits are en- to the dormitories, and found each gravings of some of the Protestant containing six small beds, and one Reformers, amongst whom appear Lu- larger. The deaconess, who occupies ther and Calvin ; and in a corner a the arger bed, is regarded as the cupboard with a glass door, furnished mother of these six children, and fills with books for sale, chiefly such as are that office as to washing, clothing, meemployed in the schools or report their dicating, and instructing them, just as condition. Also the noble set of Scrip- a real mother ought to do. Each bed ture prints which was prepared for the has a drawer which draws out at its institution, but which is now to be foot, containing all the little tenant's found in many seminaries for the be- property, and on the opposing wall is
hung a tin basin, jug, and tooth-brush charities to all the above, and our norfor the use of each. The deaconess mal training is a very successful imisoon feels attachment to the orphans tation of that in the Prussian domispring up in her bosom, while she also nions. We have now, however, reached feels responsibility about their neat the point in our investigation of Kaiand healthy appearance, proper de- serswerth, about which we feel most meanour, and attainments of all kinds. solicitude, as it is the point where we
We next saw the delinquents’ shel- met with the very provision which for ter, and two women in charge, one an years we have seen to be wanting in older, sensible, firm-looking person, our own country—that is, the training whost post is probably never changed, of deaconesses as sick-nurses. and another younger, her pupil. They We crossed the little street, and showed us with some satisfaction the entered on the opposite side, the hosneedle-work they had taught to a pital, a handsome building entirely of set of lowering-browed, unpromis- recent erection, in a pretty extensive ing looking females, who, like their and neatly-laid out garden, where we peers in Scotland, gratify their curio- observed some patients of all agessity by side-peeps, but never look you the children at play or carried in the fairly in the face. From the educa- arms of their tender-looking nursestional system of Prussia, it rarely oc- the adults resting on benches in the curs that reading requires to be taught sun, for the day was cool, or moving to adults. The senior deaconess spoke feebly as their reduced strength enamildly and sensibly of some intractable, bled them. two or three runaway, some reconciled Our guide, whom we here discoverto friends, some restored to society, ed to be chaplain to the hospital, led and acquitting themselves well in ser- us first into the apothecary's room, vice. In short, it was a fac-simile of where we saw two sensible energetic poor humanity, and the uncertain re- looking women compounding medisults of benevolent effort at home. cines after the prescription of the phyThese women sleep in small apart. sician. They are licensed by governments, which fill one side of a long ment, serving a regular time to the acgallery--each contains a bed, a stoo!, quisition of this important branch of and a box, and in the midst of them knowledge, and are always on the spot is the room for the deaconess, who is to watch the effect of their administraby means of her open door, enabled tions. The place is fitted up like a to observe all movements, and pre- druggist's shop at home. We forgot vent all communications on the subject to enquire if the counter within whose of past transgressions. The delin- railed off quarter the chief apothecary quents are shut into their night-rooms. stood, is rendered necessary by the
In the infant school department, we shop being frequented by the villagers, did not observe anything differing which seems probable. The other deafrom what is to be seen in the best schools coness was working at a mortar. From of the same style elsewhere, unless we this place we passed to the kitchen, might mention an extensive frame of and saw the huge apparatus necessary pigeon-holes, each numbered to indi. for feeding such a family, and the excate the proprietor, and occupied by tra supply required on that festal day, pieces of bread. Thus the little people when their family was greatly inare furnished with their vormittag brod creased. The plans for keeping food and their vesper brod-supplies which in that warm country, the cleanliness in that country are deemed indispens- and beautiful order of the larder and able between meals by almost all laundries, indeed of every corner, was classes. In this Normal school have quite remarkable, and the ventilation been trained teachers who are now en- so perfect, that even when we ascended gaged in managing the infant popu- to wards occupied by persons in bed, lation over a great part of Prussia and or resting on the long benches, who Germany.
looked very ill, the atmosphere was toWe have already with us similar lerably fresh and agreeable. Our con
ductors dropt here and there a good for his soul's health, as an impious one word to the sick as we passed. In the has sometimes been known to do, they male wards a part of the attendance breathe balm while they turn the pilseems to be done by men, but each has low, and speak of the way of reconciliaits quota of deaconesses who have tion while they endeavour to lull pain. their own charge and responsibility. Barmherzigen Schwestern, in the true In one chamber we found five women sense of that emphatic title, they soothe who had joined the establishment a few the distressed they speak of sin and days before, who were engaged in the fountain opened, without speaking learning the useful art of cutting out of penances or confessional, and teach clothing under two instructors. There to adore Him who laid down his life for was something touching in the ward of the perishing, without interposing crusick children, where we saw many eyes cifixes, or Mary, or saint, or angel. beaming tenderness, and many hearts They are by the bed in the midnight exercising all the maternal instincts, hour, and can seize the moment of coolalbeit not mothers. Some who were ness and clearness to speak to the afvery sick formed for the time the sole flicted—a moment which neither chapcharge of one deaconess, while three lain, nor medical man, nor friendly or four might be intrusted to the visiter, may be so happy as to hit care of another. In addition to mi- upon; and, while they are forbidden to nute watchfulness over the body, there be preachers, their living actions, their is, as they can bear it, an endeavour Christian bearing, and their faithful adto occupy the memory with suitable vices, are calculated to drop like balm hymns and passages of Scripture, and to on the wounded spirit, and have, in engage their minds on subjects that many cases, accomplished good which we lead them to glorify God by honouring may justly call incalculable, for its conand loving Him in the days of their sequences are eternal. youth. The chaplain was acquainted After examining the excellent arwith each face, and its owner's little rangement of the sick wards, we found history, and tried to draw out a little ourselves in the chapel. It is placed at repetition of their small store of Scrip: the lower extremity of the long range of ture learning. In this, however, he building, and so crosses the end of four was not very successful, partly because wards, two on the first, and two on the they were at the conclusion of their second story, the door of entrance to dinner, and partly because they were the chapel being placed in the centre. pre-occupied by the sight of strangers. Each ward has a folding door of glass One could not but remark the useful in the side of the place of worship, by discipline which such employment must opening which the Word of God can be for the young women who are en- sound along even to the remoter beds. gaged in it, or fail to observe the lov. On communion occasions, the pastor is ing patience with which one or two accustomed to convey the elements into met the feverish fractiousness of their these wards, so that many a fainting nurslings.
soul is thus refreshed, which, in any The office of these « sisters of other circumstances, would be denied charity,” (in the best sense of the word the privileges of the house of God. they are so), which elevates them above There are, on one side of the chapel, the cominon sick nurse, and engages seats where the feeble can recline, and them in concerns that touch on eternity, some with muslin curtains, behind wbich is that of reading the Scriptures to the the unhappy or unsightly can find sick and aged, and dropping a word of shelter. In this small, but sacred, consolation into the languid ear, while place of worship, at three o'clock on they minister to the bodily wants. This that afternoon, October 5th, were the they are authorised and expected to do, deaconesses, whose term of training was 80 that, instead of doing it by stealth, satisfactorily come to a close, questioned as a pious sick nurse may do in our before the congregation with respect to hospitals; or, instead of railing on the their willingness to devote themselves poor sufferer who cries out in concern to the work of mercy for the next five