« PreviousContinue »
seated her on the throne. Here is also a cruelty, not to say the impolicy, of this prostately church, in which are the mouuments ceeding. The king's son, a minor, remained of some noble families. It is 30 miles E. of in prison to his death, which happened in the Bury, audi 87 N. E. of Londou. Lon. 1. 26 month of June, 1795. Thus France, after E. 'Lat. 57. 25N.
continuing a monarchy, upwards of twelve FRANCE, a country of Europe, bounded on hundred years, was by the national assembly the N. by the English Channel, and the Aus- declared a republic: with the fall of monarchy, trian Neiherlands ; on the E. by Germany, and or indeed before, all titles of nobility were the Alps, which separated it from Switzerland, abolished ; and all ecclesiastical domains, such Savoy, and Piedmont; on the S. by the Media as abbies, monasteries, convents, &c. were terranean sea and Spain, from which king- decreed national property; all tithes were dom it is divided by the Pyrenees; and the abolished; the revenues of the higher orders W. by the Atlantic ocean; extending from of the clergy reduced, and the number lessen5. 5 W. to 7.47 E. lon. and from 42. 30 to ed; annuities were granted to the professed; 51 N. lat. From the Pyrenees in the S. to and to the parochial clergy a provision was Dunkirk in the N. its extent is 625 miles, and granted, moderate, but perhaps superior to something more from the most easterly part of what they had before received as vicars. The Alsace to the most western part of Brittany; ancient division into provinces was also, by a which province, it must be observed, extends solemn decree of the nation, changed into that above 100 miles farther into the ocean than any of 83 departments; these were subdivided into other part of the country. The climate is districts, cantons, and municipalities. The temperate ; the air pure and wholesome; and names of the departments are Ain, Aisne. the soil, which is agreeably diversified, pro- Allier, Alps Upper, Alps Lower, Ardeche, duces all the necessaries of life, and, among Ardennes, Arriege, Aube, Ande, Aveiron, its luxuries, some of the most excellent wines. Calvados, Cantal, Charente, Charente Lower, The principal rivers are the Seine, Loire, Cher, Correze, Corsica, Côte d'Or, Cotes du Rhone, and Gironde, with many others, that Nord, Creuse, Dordogne, Doubs, Drome, give name to the new geographical division of Eure, Eure and Loire, Finisterre, Gard, Gaa this country into departments.
ronne Upper, Gers, Gironde, Herault, Indre, considerable mountains, besides the Alps and Indre and Loire, Isere, Isle and Vilaine, Pyrenees, are those of the Cevennes and Au- Jura, Landes, Loir and Cher, Loire Upper, vergne. France was lately an absolute mo- Loire Lower, Loiret, Lot, Lot and Garonne, narchy, and was divided into several military Lozere, Maine, Maine and Loire, Manche, governments, or provinces. These were Al- Marne, Marne. Upper, Meurthe, Meuse, sace, Angoumois, Anjou, Armagnac, Artois, Morbihan, Moselle Nord, Nievre, Oise, Orne, Aunis, Auvergne, Barrois, Basques, Bearn, Paris, Pas de Calais, Puy de Dome, Pyrenees Berry, Bigorre, Blasois, Boulonnois, Bourbon- Upper, Pyrenees Lower, Pyrenees Eastern, nois, Bresse, Brittany, Burgundy, Cambresis, Rhine Upper, Rhine Lower; Rhone, Bouches Champagne, Couseraus, Dauphiny, Forez, du; Rhone and Loire, Saone Upper, Saone Foix, Franche Comté, French Flanders, Gase and Loire, Sarte, Seine and Oise, Seine Lower, cony, Gevaudan, Guienne, French Hainault, Seine and Marne; Sevres, les deux ; Somme, Isle of France, Languedoc, Limosin, Lorrain, Tarn, Var, Vendee, Vienne Upper, Vosges, Lyonois, Marche, Maine, Marsan, Navarre, and Yonne. Each of these departments Nivernois, Normandy, Orleanois, Perche, has an archiepiscopal or episcopal town. In Perigord, Picardy, Poitou, Provence, Querci, the year 1993, the old calendar, with the obRouergue, Rousillon, Saintonge, Soissonnois, servance of Sundays and holidays, was abolishTouraine, Velay, and Vermandois. These ed, and a new calendar formed. (See CALENvaried much from each other in point of extent DAR). It may be remarked, however, that and importance, and there were others of still in 1802, under the government of Bonaparte, inferior consideration. The population of the the observance of Sundays and some holidays whicle is estimated by the French at 25,000,000. was again established; and some alterations The established religion was the Roman Ca- were made in the state of the clergy. But as tholic; and the ecclesiastical division of the there is no great appearance of permanence country was into 18 archbishoprics, and in the religious system now adopted by the 113 episcopal sees, exclusive of Avignon, Car- French, we shall not enter into a detail of pentras, Caivaillon, and Vaison, which be- their present laws and observances. Suflice it longed to the pope.
to say, that in 1804 Bonaparte was made The kingly government of France had con- Emperor of France; that since that period he tinued from Clovis, who established himself has restored titles of dignity and honour with at Soissons, in the year 486. Others call which to reward his generals and great men, Pharamond the first king of France, who began he has subjugated greater part of the continent to reign in the year 420. Hugh Capet obtain- of Europe, and placed his brothers and other ed the crown of France in the year 987, and relatives upon thrones; and that thus, after a in the year 1793, on the 21st of January, long, train of successes, with very little that Louis XVI. one of his descendants, was exe- can have been called a reverse of sortune, he cuted on a public scaffold at Paris, and with has placed himself at the head of the European him ended the monarchy of France. All continent, where he enthrones and dethrones Europe exclaimed against the injustice and kings, makes and unmakes popes, at his pleasure, and has brought the people of France une country presents, it must flow from the conder a more complete despotisın than they were sideration that during all this cheerless period previous to the revolution of 1789. Depradt, the arts and sciences have never been entirely in his work on the State of the Cultivation neglected, or forgotten; but that, on the conof France, states that one half of the French trary, they have been cultivated with an ardour territory is arable; or that, out of 131,000,000 and success no where exceeded, nor any where of acres, 66,000,000 are cultivated with grain : equalled except in Britain. but then it is to be remarked that more than FRANCE (İsle of), a late province of France, one half of the grain is rye, or corn even in- so called, because it was formerly bounded by the ferior to rye.
That which may be pro- rivers Seine, Marne, Oise, Aisne, and Ourque. nounced good land does not exceed 28,000,000 It now includes the four departments of Oise, of acres. The same writer informs us that Seine and Oise, Seine and Mare, and Paris. " the territory of France is perhaps the best in FRANCE (Isle of), or MAURITIUS, an Europe, the richest in puini of soil, the most island in the Indian ocean, 200 leagues E. of varied in respect of productions, and equally Madagascar. It was early discovered by the removed from the extremes of heat and cold. Portuguese. After them, the Dutch settled There is not in all Europe a tract of land of on the S. E. shore, and gave it the name of equal size, which can bear a comparison with Mauritius, in honour of prince Maurice, their that which extends from Calais to the Loire, stadtholder; but they abandoned it, on their from the heights of Nantes, Orleans, and acquisition of the Cape of Good Hope. It Nanci, 10 Mayence. The part most desirable then remained uninhabited, till the French to inbabit is that which is included between landed there in 1720. This island is about the Loire, the Rhone, the Rhine, and the sea. 45 leagues in circunference. Indigo is the Its northern districts are not so cold as Sweden, general object of cultivation; of which four or nor so humid as Holland; and its southern five crops a-year are produced. In 1789 one provinces are not burnt up like those of Spain person only sent to Europe 30,000lb. weight and Italy. In short, France has been treated of it, of a very superior quality. Atienipts by nature as if she were her eldest daughter.” have been made to rear cochineal, as the island The reader will make some allowance for the abounds with the plant on which the insects exaggerations of this author, who seems warm- lie; but a small bird destroys the insect. The ly attached to his native soil. It must also be soil of this island is little superior to that at recollected that the French are very defective Port Jackson. The town and harbour are both in agricultural science and practice. called Port Louis. The number of inhabitants With these allowances Depradt's account may on the island, exclusive of the military, is assist in forining an estimate of the soil and about 8,000 whites, and 12,000 blacks. Lat. climate of France. Here are mines of iron, 20. 9 S. Lon. 57. 28 E. hrad, and copper ; there are likewise some of FRANCFORT ON THE MAINE, an . silver and gold, but the last are not rich ancient and free imperial city of Germany, in enough to defray the expences of working. the circle of Franconia. This is one of the The chief productions of France, for exporta- most commercial places in Europe, and has tion, are wines, as Champagne, Burgundy, two great fairs every year. The chief structure etaret, &c. brandy, vinegar, fruit, such as is the town-house, in which is preserved the prunes and prunelloes, dried grapes, pears, golden bull, . the origin of the fundamental apples, oranges, and olives; corn, salt, hemp, laws of the empire, and here is the chamber has, silk, resin, oil, soap, cork, kid-skins, per- in which the emperor is elected. All religions funes, drugs, &c. The manufactures are are tolerated here, under certain restrictions ; sulks, such as lastrings, modes, brucades, vel- but Lutheranism is the established faith. The fets, &c. woollen cloch, linen coarse and fine, principal church is in the possession of the lace, paper, china, of exquisite beauty and Roman catholics. The Jews are compelled to freness, soap, &c. The French have for live together in a long narrow streel, separated boine years past obtained the secret from Spain froin the other citizens by a high wall, and at of snaking Castile
soap, as it is called, and have a certain hour of the night both ends of this very large manufactures both at Marseilles street are shut up. Lat. 49.55 N. Lon.8.40 E. and Toulon, and have thereby deprived the FRANCPORT ON THE Oder, a town of Spaniards of that valuable branch of trade. Germany, in the circle of Upper Saxony, and Nur is this the only benefit the French receive Middle Mark of Brandenburg, with an uniby this manufacture; for as one of the chief versity, founded in the year 1506, by the ingredients of making this soap is Levantine elector Joachim, and his brother Albert; comolive oil, their large sale for their soap gives posed of Calvinist professors. It has besides a ther the advantage of constant back-freights noble academy, a society for the promoting of from the Levant with these oils; which, it arts and sciences, two colleges, two faux bourgs, kems, has proved one means of the French and several churches. Lat. 52. 23 N. Lon. advancing their Turkey trade upon the ruin of 14.39 E. the English. The arts and sciences have al- FRANCHE COMTE, a province of Ways been encourager in France; and if there France, before the revolution, and anciently can be any pleasure derived from the conten- a part of the kingdom of Burgundy. It is now piation of the melancholy picture which the divided into the three departmenis of Mount history of the last 20 years of this unhappy Jara, the Doubs, and Upper Saône. VOL. V.
FRANCHISE, in law, Franchise and coins and metals; but applying at last to Jiberty soine use as synonymous terms; and painting, obtained great reputacion by his their definition is, "a royal privilege, or works, particularly by a piece of St. Sebastian, branch of the king's prerogative, subsisting in whom he had drawo bound to a tree with his the hands of a subject." Being therefore de- hands tied wwer bis head. He pined himself rived from the crown, they must arise from into a consumption, by despairing to equal the king's grant; or, in some cases, may be Raphael, and dieel in 1518. held by prescription, which, as has been fre- FRANCIS (Philip), an ingenious divine, quently said, presupposes a grant. The kinds His father was a dean of the Irish church. of them are various, and almost infinite. We The subjeet of the present notice was rector of shall here briefly touch upon some of the Barrow in Suffolk, and chaplain to Chelsea principal; premising only, that they may be hospital. He translated Horace and Demos. vested in either natural persons or bodies. thenes into English, and wrote two tragedies, politic; in one man, or in many: but the same Eugenia and Constantia. He died at Bath in identical franchise, that has before been grant- 1773. His son was one of the supreme couned to one, cannot be bestowed on another; for cil at Bengal. that would prejudice the former grant. To be FRANCISCAN MONKS, FRIARS' Mg. a county-palatine, is a franchise vested in a NOR, or GREY FRIARS, religious of the Tumber of persons. It is likewise a franchise order of St. Francis, founded by him in the for a number of persons to be incorporated and year 1209. subsist as a body-politic; with a power to The rule of she Franciscans, as established maintain perpetual succession, and do other by St. Francis hinself, is briefly this: they are corporate acts: and each individual member of to live in coinmon, to observe chastity, and in such corporation is also said to have a franchise pay obedierice to the pope and their superiors. or freedom. Other franchises are, to bold a Before they can be admiited into the order they court-leet: to have a manor or lordship; or, at are obliged to sell all they have, and give it to least, to have a lordship paramount: to have the poor : they are to perform a year's noviciate, waifs, wrecks, estrays, treasure-trovc, royal and when adoyitted, nerer to quit the order on fish, forfeitures, and deodands: to have a court any account. They are to fast from the feast of one's own, or liberty of holding pleas and of Al Saints to the Nativity. This order has trying causes: to have the cognizance of pleas; produced four popes, forty-two cardinals, and which is a still greater liberty, being an exclus an infinite number of patriarchs. The Fransive right, so that no other court shall try ciseans had sixty-three monasteries in Eng. causes arising within that jurisdiction : to have land, one of which was in the parish of St. a bailiwick, or liberty exeinpt from the sheriff Nicholas in London. It is said this order posof the county; wherein the grantee only, and sessed (before the French revolution) 40,000 bis officers, are to execute all process: to have monasteries, hermitages, or chapels, in the difa fair or market; with the right of taking toll, ferent quarters of the globe. either there or at any other public places, as at FRANCK (Angustus Herman), a pious bridges, wharfs, or ihe like; which tolls must German divine, born at Lubeck in 1663.' He have a reasonable cause of commencement (as was invited by the elector of Brandenburg into in consideration of repairs, or the like,) else his dominious, and made at first professor of the franchise is illegal and void: or lastly, to the Oriental languages at Halle, and afterwards have a forest, chase, park, warren, or fishery, of divinity. Here he laid the foundation of an endowed with privileges of royalıy, See orphan-house, which in 1727 had 2196 chile CHASE, FOREST, &c.
drenti, and more than 130 preceptors. He also FRANCHISE is also used for an asylum or projected and carried into effect a mission for sanctuary, where people are secure of their propagating the gospel in Malabar. This great persons, &c. Churches and monasteries in and good man died'in 17:27. His works are; Spain are franchises for criminals; so were !. Sermons and Books of Devotion. 2. Methothey anciently in England, till they were dus studii Theologici. 3. Introductio ad lec. abused to such a degree that there was a 'ne- tionem Prophetarom. 4. Commentatio de cessity for abolishing the custom. One of the scopo librorum veteris & novi Testamenti. most remarkable capitulars made by Charle- 5. Manuductio ad lectionem Scripturæ sacræ. magne in his palace of Heristal, in 779, was 6. Observationes Biblicæ. Sonre of his practithat relating to the franchises of churches. cal books have been translated into English. The right of franchise was held so sacred, that FRANCKLIN (Thomas),, was born in even the less religious kings observed it to a 1720, and was the son of Richárd Francklin, degree of scrupulousness; but to such excess in the printer of an anti-ministerial paper called tiine was it casried, that Charlemagne resolved The Craftsman. He was educated at Westto reduce it. Accordingly, he forbad any pro- minster school; from whence he went to the vision being carried to criminals retired into university of Cambridge, where he became churches for refuge.
fellow of Trinity college, and was some time To FRANCHISE. v. a. (from the noun). Greek professor. In Dec. 1758 he was instiTo enfranchise, to make free.
tuted vicar of Ware and Thundridge; which, FRANCIA (Francesco), a celebrated Bo- with the lectureship of St. Paul, Covent-Garlognese painter, born in 1450. He was first a den, and a chapel in Queen-street, were all goldsmith or jeweller, afterwards a gtaver of the prefernenta he held till he obtained the
rectory of Brasted in Kent. This gentleman a yellow colour, is mostly employed by the was possessed of no inconsiderable share of common people in dropsical and other disorlearning and poetical abilities, and was long a ders. See RHAMNUS. favourite in the literary world. His transla- FRANK. s. (from the adjective.) 1. A tions of Phalaris, Sophocles, and Lucian, place to feed hogs in ; a sty (Shakspeare). 2. equally evince his learning and his genius, as A letter which pays no postage (Pope). they are not more distinguished for fidelity in To Frank. v. a. (from the noun.) 1. To the version, than congeniality with the spirit shut up in a frank or sty (Shakspeare). 2. To of the admirable originals. Dr: Francklin, feed high; to fat; to cram (Ainsworth). 3. like Mr. Foote, suffered a translation from the To exempt letters from postage (Swift). French to be printed in his name; but the Frank, or franc, meaning literally free Orestes and Electra are supposed to be all that from charges and impositions, or exempt from were really by him. It was a translation of public taxes, has various significations in the Voltaire's works, to which also Dr. Smollet's ancient English customs. name appears. His own dramatic composi- FRANK ALMOIGN, signifies a tenure by Lions, of which the principal are the tragedies spiritual service, where lands or tenements ef the Earl of Warwick and Matilda, are uni- were held by an ecclesiastical corporation, sole tersally known, and deservedly esteemed by the or aggregate, to them and their successors, of publie; so that his death, which happened some lord and his heirs, in free and perpetual March 15, 1784, may be considered as a real alms. loss to the republic of letters.
FRANK tee, signifies the same thing as FRANCOIS (the abbé Laurent), a zealous holding lands and tenements in fee simple ; that antagonist of the French philosophers, born in is, to any person and his heirs, and not by such 1098, and died in 1782, His works are ; 1. service as is required by ancient demesne, but A Treatise of Geography. 2. Proofs of the is pleaded at common law. Religion of Jesus Christ, 4 vols. 3. Defence FRANK PERM, anciently signified lands of Religion, 4 vols. 4. Examination of the charged in the nature of the fee by feoffment, Catechism of an honest Man. 5. Examina- &c. out of the knight's service for other certain tion of the Facts on which Christianity is yearly services. founded, 3 vols. 12mo. 6. Observations on the FRANK FOLD, is where the lord has the Philosophy of History.
liberty of folding his tenants' sheep within his FRANCOIS (Cape), a town in the N. part manor. of the island of St. Domingo. Lat, 19. 46 N.
FRANK LANGUAGE, or lingua franca, a Long. 72. 18 W.
kind of jargon spoken on the Mediterranean, FRANCONIA, a circle of Germany; ' and particularly throughout the coasts and bounded on the north by Meissen and Thu- parts of the Levant, composed of Italian, nogia, on the east by Bohemia and the Upper Spanish, French, vulgar Greek, and other lauPalauinate, on the south by Bavaria and Suabia, guages. and on the west by the Lower Palatinate and FRANK LAW, a word applied to the free the electorate of Mentz. It is situate near the and common law of the land, or the benefit a Centre of Germany, the form inclined to a cir- person has by it. cle, whose diameter is about fifty leagues. In FRANK MARRIAGE, is where a person, the centre the land is fertile in corn, wine, fruit, seised in fee of lands or tenements, has given &c; but the frontiers are full of forests and them to another with his daughter, sister, or mountains, and little cultivated. The princi- some woman otherwise of kin to him, in free paf river is the Maine. The inhabitants of marriage, by virtue of which the husband and many towns are Roman Catholics, though the wife have an estate in special tail, and shall principal part are Lutherans. The Calvinists hold the land of the donor, discharged of have some churches, and the Jews soine syna. all services, except fealty, to the fifth degogues. At the division of 300,000 forins to gree. the chest of the empire, this circle was rated at FRANK PLEDGE, in our law, signifies a 92,698 forins, 47 kraitzers.
pledge or surety for the behaviour of freeinen. FRANEKER, a town of the United Pro- According to the ancient custom of England, sinces, in Friesland, with a castle, and a noted for the preservation of the public peace, every university. The públic buildings are magnifi- free-born man, at the age of 14, except relicent, and the town well watered by two ca: gious persons, clerks, knights, and their eldest dals. Lat. 53. 11 N. Lon. 5. 33 E!
sons, was obliged to give security for his truth „FRA'NGIBLE, a. (frango, Latin.) Fra- and behaviour towards the king and his subgile: brittle; easily broken (Boyle).
jects, or else be imprisoned. Accordingly, a FRANGULA. (frangula, from frango, to certain number of neighbours became interbreak, so called because of the brittleness of its changeably bound for each other, to see each branches,) Black alder. This officinal tree person of their pledge forthcoming at all times, is the rhamnus frangula; inermis floribus mo- or to answer for the offence of any one gone pogynis hermaphroditis, foliis integerrimis of away ; so that whenever any person offended, it Linnéas. The berries and bark are used medi- was presently inquired in what pledge he was; cinally as strong purgatives. The former are and there the persons bound either produced often substituted for those of the buckthorn; the offender in 31 days, or made satisfaction the butter, which is the internal bask, and of for bis offence.
FRANK. R. (franc, French.) 1. Liberal; in the navy, army, militia, fencible regiments, generous; not niggardly (Sprat). 2. Open; artillery, or marines, shall be charged with more ingenuous ; sincere ; not reserved. 3. With- postage than one penny, but the same must be out conditions ; without payment. 4. Not re- paid at the time of putting the same into the strained ; licentious (Spenser).
post-office; and such letter inust have written FRANK, also denotes an ancient coin cur thereon, in the handwriting of and signed by rent in France: the frank was either of gold or the commanding officer, the name of such silver, the first being worth something niore commanding officer, and of the ship, vessel, than the gold crown, the latter, a third of the corps, regiment, or detachment. Also no sive former. In the French new money they have gle letter directed to any such non-commissionretained the term frank or franc. Their three ed officer, seamnan, or private, shall be charged denominations are jo decimes=1 centime; 10 with more postage than one penny, to be paid centimes=1 franc; I livre=3 deniers tournois, on the delivery thereoof; but such liter must of the old French money, or nearly 10%. En- be directed to such persons, specifying the ship, glish money,
vessel, regiment, troop, corps, company, or FRANKED LETTERS. The privilege of detachment to which they belong : and the letters coming free of postage to and from postmaster must deliver such leter either to the members of parliament'was claimed by the party to whom it shall be directed, or to sonic House of Commons in 1660, when the first person appointed to receive the same by the legal settlement of the present post-office was commanding officer, and to no other. made; but afterwards dropped, upon a private Every cover containing patterns or samples assurance from the crown, that this privilege of goods, not exceeding one ounct, shall be should be allowed the members. Accordingly charged only as a single letter, it
' sent open at a warrant was constantly issued to the post- the sides, and without any letter or writing master-general, directing the allowance there- therewith, other than the name of the person of to the extent of two ounces in weight: till sending the same, the place of his abode, and at length it was expressly confirmed by 4 Geo. the prices of the articles. III c. 24. which added niany new regulations, FRANKENDAL, a town of Germany, in rendered necessary by the great abuses in the the palatinate of the Rhine. Lat. 49. 25 N. practice of franking; whereby the annual
Lon. 8. 29 E. amount of franked letters had increased from FRANKENHAUSEN, a town of Upper 23,6001. in the year 1715, to 170,7001. in the Saxony, with some extensive salt-works. Lat. year 1763. Other regulations afterwards took
50. 42 N. Lon. 11.5 E. place; in particular, franks were required to
FRANKENIA. Sea-heath. In botany, he dated (the month written at length), and put a genus of the class hexandria, order niologyinto the office the same day; notwithstanding nia. Calyx five-cleft, funnel-form ; petals five; which, the revenue still lost by this privilege stigmas three ; capsule one-celled, three-valved. above 80,000l per aunum. The following are Four species, one a native of the Cape, one of the regulations of frauking required by 35 Geo. Siberia, and two common to the salt marsbes JII: and now in force.
of our own country: they are not cultivated in No letter directed by or to any member of our gardens. parliament shall be exempted from postage if it FRANKFORT BLACK, is the chief in. exceeds one ounce in weight. No letter di- gredient in the copper-plate printer's ink; it is rected by any member shall be exempted unless made of the lees of wive, burnt, washed in he shall actually be in the post-towii, or within water, and ground in mills, together with ivory, the limits of its delivery of letters, or within or the stones from peaches and other fruii. twenty miles of such post-town, on the day The best is that made at Frankfort on the or on the day before the day, on which the let. Maine, though a great deal is niade at Mentz, ter shall be put into the office. No member Strasburgh, and different parts of France. shall be entitled to send free from postage more
FRANKINCENSE. See Thus. than ten letters in one day, nor to receive more
FRANKINCENSE TREE. See Pinus. than fifteen.
FRANKINCENSE (Jews.) See STYRAX. Whenever the number of letters sent or re- FRANKLAND'S ISLANDS, a cluster of ceived by such member in one day shall ex
islands in the N. E. coast of New Holland, iu ceed the number exempted, and ine postage the S. Pacific ocean. Lat. 17. 19 S. Lon. upon any of them shall differ, the letters charge- 146° E. able with a higher postage shall be included FRANKLIN. s. (from frank.) A stew: in the number exempted, in preference to any ard, or bailiff of land : not in use. chargeable with a lower postage, and the re- FRANKLIN (Benjamin), a celebrated Amemainder shall be chargeable with the postage rican philosopher and politician, was born at to which common letters are chargeable. Per. Boston in New England, in 1706. His father sons who may now in right of their offices was a soap-boiler and tallow-chandler in that send and receive letters free may continue so to town, and intended him for the same business ; do. Printed votes or proceedings in parliament, but conceiving a disgust to it, he was bound and printed newspapers, may also be sent as apprentice to one of his brothers, who was a psual.
printer. He did not serve out his time, owing No single letter sent by the post from any to some quarrels between him and his brother, pon-commissioned officer, seaman, or private, but withdrew privately to New York in 1723.