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116 Of the Old and New STILE. March

Though her excellency reacheth to wings to the sorrowful. Let the the heavens, and her perfection is to penitent fly from the ways of folly, endure for ever: Yet man, betrayed and return no more. Let the tears hy the false cclouring of deceit, of contrition prepare for the flowings hath despised her counsel. Sensual

of mercy. life hath prevailed ; and the chick Take comfort, ye true mourners. fog of concupiscence hath blinded A Fix your eyes on the dawn of com

passion, till the heavens shall pour The spotless rose of innocence is down the mid-day of glory, and withered: And the baleful flowers Paradise be opened to the children of of destruction are sprung up in her room.

The delusive path of error hath As a Bill is now depending in the turned him aside. He hath paft B House of Lords for fixing the Bethrough the broad and flattering gate ginning of the Year to the first of of vice : And, lost in the milt of January, instead of the 25th of appetite, or cloud of ambition, he March, as well as for altering the wanders in the labyrinth of per- Old Stile to the Nere Stile; (see p. plexity and death.

92.) for the Reasonableness and ExWho can be found to disperse the pediency of the former, we refer our mist, dispel the cloud, or lay open C Readers to our Magazine for 1747, the labyrinth, which holds the feet p. 173 And we think the followof the strayed?

ing concise but clear Account of the It is written on the walls of Pa. Ground's on which the latter Part radise ; it is ingraven in the courts of the Bill proceeds, cannot be unof Heaven ; it glows more bright acceptable. than the rays of the sun over the Y

is supposed to consist of 365 Favour is referved for the children of days and fix hours. The odd hours, man.

added together, amounting every An hour shall come, when the de. fourth year to a day, three years cree of the Most High will go forth. successively consist cach of 365 days, The declaration of mercy shall be and the fourth year of 366, which published on earth, and pardon pro- is called lcap-year. claimed to the man who turncih to E But the true solar year consisting wisdom.

only of 365 days, 5 hours, 49 minutes, It is recorded in the roll of the and 16 seconds, there is an overwise ; that a star af spleador, pre- seckoning of 10 minutes and 44 se. cminent in the heavens, shall pre- conds every year ; which, of concede che divine Messenger * sequence, has made a variation of who are bound in the fatal fetters of one day, in every 134 years that appetite and pasfion! be ready to F have passed fince the first settling this welcome your Deliverer. Strew his account : By which means the vernal way with the beauties of the flowery equinox, or sun's entrance into Aries, meadows of Tibet.

is now on the roth of March, which Till that heat-rejoicing hour of in Julius Cæsar's time was on the brightnels fhall arise, let hope give 24th.

Pope Our correspondent seems bere ro bave in bis eye, what Suetonius and Tacitus, and cober bearben writers say, That an opinion, time out of mind, bad prevailed all over ibe East, bat a poft extraordinary person fould arise from among the Jews, who should

obtain the empire of the qorld; wbich many cbrifliams bave applied to our billed Saviour ; and Tacilus saying, baribis was contained in ibe moft antient books of the prieste, may fuit very well to ibe OEconomy of Human Life, wbicb, by ebe Letter prefixed, is supposed to be wroie by a Bromin long befora ibe coming of our Saviour.

throne of the Omnipotent One, thaed By the Julian account the year

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1751. The Gregorian or New Stile the most exact.

117 Pope Gregory XIII, finding the by which you may easily observe, Julian account to be erroneous, re- that in process of time, if our Stile solved upon a reformation of it, is not rectified, the times of the seawhich he finished in the year 1582, fons of the year will be very much and which from him is called the changed, and we hall err most egreGregorian account, or New Stile. giously in the fixt as well as movea

The pope in his reformation look- A ble feasts ; as indeed the error is too ed no further back than the time of considerable already to be disregardthe council of Nice, which was held ed. in the year 325, and finding the ver- Pope Gregory, in the year 1582, nal equinox was then on the 21st of observing this material difference, in March, he ordered ten days of the order to restore the vernal equinox year 1582 to be omitted, which was to the zift of March, as supposed done by calling the 5th of October B at the Nicene Council

, rejected ten (his birth-day) the 15th ; so that the days (at which time the equinox was next vernal equinox, which otherwise so much anticipated) in the Julian would have been on the nith, fell year, and made the orth of March on the 21st of March.

(the day whereon the vernal equiAnd to prevent errors of the like nox then happened) to be the zit; nature for the future, he ordered the and, in order to fix it there, ordered fubtracting three days from every re. C every roodth year, which should be volution of 400 years, which was to biffextile, to be but a common year, be done by omitting the 29th day of for three centuries successively, and February at the end of three centu- the fourth century to be bislextile ; ries succesfively, and at the end of and so on continually. the fourth century to retain it.

According to this institution there This is the reason, that before the will not be above one hour $4 mi. 29th of February, 1700, the diffe- D nutes difference between the civil and rence between the New and Old solar year in 400 years, which will Srile was only 10; whereas fince not amount to an entire day in 50 that time it has been 11 days. centuries ; which is near as much

time as the vulgar account of the As the following Account is fome- creation : Therefore, the moveable qwhat more minute and circumstantial, and fixt feasts being once set upon "we have thought fit likewise to infert E good footing, they will continue so, it.

for 60,000 years, without differing The kalendar, as rectified by pope from the original institution, any Gregory XIII. is much the best and more than the Julian account differs correctes for regulating the movea- at this present time. (See more of ble feasts, and will continue agreea- this in our Mag. for 1747, p. 162.) ble to the solar year for a long series of time, with but very little variati- f From the PhilosoPHICAL TRANS

ACTIONS, No. 493, just publihed. Consider how much the Julian account has erred in time since che Ni- A Description of an extraordinary cene council, in the year of Christ Rainbow observed by Peter Daval, 325. The sun then entered the ver- Esq; Sec. R. S. nal equinox, March 20, (cho' the N Monday, July 18, 1748, acouncil of Nice fixed it on March 21.) bout a quarter before seven in

'The fun entered the vernal equi. G the evening, the weather being tembox this present year, March 9,

in perate, and the wind about N. N, W. the afternoon, which is eleven days' as I was walking in the fields, be. between the solar and civil Julian yond Illington, I saw a distant rain. year, in the space of 1426 years ;



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An Extraordinary RAINBOW. March bow, which appeared to take in a non, I was surprised, that the dia: large portion of the heavens ; but meter of the bow appeared to me had nothing remarkable, and vanished very small, compared with that I by degrees.

had seen a little before. The oc-
Continuing my walk, about 20 casion of this, I think, must have
minutes after the disappearing of been, that the legs of the first-men-
the first rainbow, a rainy cloud A tioned bow appeared to me to tera
crossed me, moving gently with the minate at distant places : Whereas
wind, which exhibited to me a more in the latter appearance I could
perfe&t and distinct rainbow than I plainly fee both ends of the inner
had ever before seen; wherein I could and outer bows terminate, in the
plainly distinguish all the secondary or- neighbouring fields, at a very small
ders of colours taken notice of by the distance from each other : Hence,
late Dr. Langwith, in his letter to Dr. B and from my being involved in the
Jurin, published in the Philosophical shower which occasioned this rain-

Transactions, No. 375; that is to bow, I conclude it was very near
say, within the purple of the com- me; which might be one cause of
mon rainbow, there were arches of the great vividness of its colours, and
the following colours ; 1. Yellowish

of my diftinguishing the inner arches.
green, darker green, purple. 2. But whether this was the only cause
Green, purple. 3. Green purple. C of those appearances, or whether they

This innermost arch Dr. Lang. might not be owing to some particular
with calls fair: vanishing purple, and I disposition of the atmosphere at that
likewise found, that it iometimes ap- time, I much question : As well be-
peared and disappeared alternately; cause I have often seen rainbows,
but during about two minutes it which have been very near me, and
seemed to me to be as permanent as opposed to a bright fun, wherein I
any of the other colours.

D could not discern these inner orders
I stood ftill, and looked attentively of colours, as that I have heard from.
at this appearance, during the whole some intelligent persons, that some
time of its continuance, which was very bright rainbows were seen soon
near eight minutes, and could for after the solar eclipse which hap.
the greateft part of that time dif- pened on July 14, 1748 * ; particular-
cern all the above mentioned co-

ly, that an unusually vivid and dif-
lours, except the innermost purple, E tinct rainbow was obierv'd at I'wick.
in the upper parts of the bow ; but enham three or four days after that
could not distinguish any of them in eclipse; which agrees with the day
those parts of it which were near on which I saw the above mentioned
the horizon, tho' they were ex. appearance.
tremely vivid, as was likewise the
outer bow, in which the colours ap- Extract of a Leiter from Mr. W.
peared as bright, tho' not so well F Aideron, F. R. S. 10 Mr. H.
defined, as in most inner rainbows Baker, F. R. S. giving an Ac.
I had seen.

count of the present Condition of the
As I had read Dr.Langwith's letter Roman Camp at Caftor in Nor.
a short time before I saw this beauti.

ful appearance, and as I compared 'HE town of Caftor is at pre-
his account with what I had seen, sent in a very low condition,
the same evening, and again the next G containing no more than between 20
morning, I can the better be assured

and 30 small cottages.

It stands of the exact agreement of our ob- about


miles S. W. of Norwich, fervations.

and by tradition, and some learned On my first seeing this phænome.

authors See London Magazine for 1748, p. 333.


1751. An Account of a Roman CAMP. 119 Ruthors, is supposed to have been a to discover how long before, the sea considerable city, out of whose ruins had paffed this height. Norwich took its rise. However, I have been pretty exact in exa. at this day, (excepting the camp) mining the fituation of this camp, not the least trace or footstep of imagining the two sides had pointed any thing remarkable is left remain- due E. and W, and the two ends N. ing

A and S. But I find they differ from is The camp itself lies near a fur- full 10 degrees, after allowing for the long S. W. from Castor, and leads variation of the needle: Whence it you by a gentle descent down to the is plain, the meridian of the place little river Wentsum, (by some cal- must have altered better than hali a led Taus, or Tese) which swiftly degree cach century to the westward, glides close to the end thereof, and, provided the situation of the camp no doubt, at the first forming of the B was placed due N. and S. when it camp was designed to be part of the was firit formed. But, poffibly, the fortification on that fide, as well as Romans might not be exact as to the to supply the army with water, and points of the compass, or perhaps to bring up such things as they wanted this variation was at first dispensed from the sea, if so be their commu- with, to accommodate the camp to nication by land should at any time the natural declivity of the ground. be impended. What confirms me C These difficulties, however, may betin this opinion, is a large staple and ter be cleared up, if some ingenious sing of iron, which I myself have gentlemen would take the trouble to seen on the side of the tower that examine some other Roman camps ftands near the river ; tho' now I in different parts of this kingdom, find that curious monument of an. to discover whether the Romans paid tiquity is taken away. However, a strict regard to the dispoling of on my supposition, this river muft D their camps with their fides to the have been much larger at that time' four cardinal points of the compass ; than it is at present, or it could have which, I think, it will nearly amount been of little use for water carriage. to a demonstration that they did, if

We are told by tradition, as well they are found to agree with this as by fome learned authors, that the camp in its variation from 'due N. fea came up to this camp ; and in- and S. deed every intelligent oblerver mult E The figure of the camp is not a confess, that the marine bodies found square (as it is described by most au. in every part of Norfolk, on the hors) but a parallelogram, whose two highest hills, as well as in the lowest longest sides are each 440 yards, and pits and valleys, are indubitable its ends, or two shorter lides, 360 each. proofs, that at some time or other These are iss dimensions without. the sea must have covered this whole fide the rampart and ditch ; but with county: But then we may be al. Finlidethelength is 392 yards, and the fured, by the present condition of this breadth 264. I measured the breadth camp, that the fea hath not exceeded of the fosteard rampart,which I found the level of it since it hach been in in some places, where it remains molt being, which, if we credit several of perfect, to be 48 yards, tho' in others our antient historians, it was upivards not above 30. And according to of 1700 years ago.

It may there

my computacion, the whole ground fore serve to prove, that the sea G taken up, including the ditch and since that time has not exceeded these rampart, is 32 acres, 2 rood, and bounds, and that the fossils dug up 36 pole ; or the area within the above this level are more antient ditch and rampart, 21 acres, i rond, chan it, tho' we have no proper data 21 pole


120 Roman Bricks, and their Manner of Building. March · At about 3 or 4 furlongs N. W. high as the old ruins now remain of the camp rises a ridge of hills, standing. appearing something like a second The mortar is found extremely sampart, and descending gradually hard at this day : It is a composition to the camp. These hills add greatly of lime, sand, and thes, and so to the prospect, and must have been compact, that I could by no means no little advantage to the safety of the A break a piece of it of an inch dia. placé, as a constant watch might be meter from the base of one of the kept thereon to prevent any surprise; towers at the east gate, but on ftriknot could an enemy advance nearer ing it with a sharp fint it flew off in than the summit of these hills, with. durt. put being exposed to the view of the The Roman bricks which I ex. whole camp;

amined, were made of two dif. Three sides only of this camp B ferent sorts of clay mixed; when have been fortified with a rampart, burnt, one appears red, and the whose upper part was faced with a other white : At the time of my thick and strong wall made of lime viewing them they were exceeding and flints, of which wall there are hard and solid, and far fuperior to still remains in several places of the any thing

the kind now made rampart, besides a very deep ditch,

with us.

Perhaps they are little that seems to have been most consi- C worse than when they were first laid derable on the E. and S. fides. • The wall on the N. Side appears These bricks were made without to have been built at two different the aslistance or addition of sand, as times ; that is, it seems to have is too much the practice at present been raised higher than it was built here in Norfolk: For when fand at first, at some distance of time enters the composition in any conafterwards ; for a parting may be D fiderable proportion, it renders the observed at a certain height, run- brick friable, soft, and rotten, fub. ning from end to end.

ject to be broke or ground to pieces The ruins of two old towers still with the least motion or pressure. remain, one of which stood on the I took the exact dimensions of se. N. lide, and the other at the W end; veral of these bricks, and found their the last of which is at present the most length to be 17 a inches, or a Ro. considerable of the cwo. They were £ man foot and half; and their breadth both built in a manner, perhaps, 11 inches, or precisely a Ro. peculiar to the Romans at that time, man foot : Which I think may serve and which it may not be improper to as some proof that the Roman meadescribe : They began firit with a sures handed down to us by several layer of bricks laid fat as in pave. authors are right, and may likewise ments ; on that they placed a layer of inform us of the proportionable itaclay and marle mixed together, and I ture of a man at that time. The of the same thickness as the bricks; thickness of these bricksis i ' inch. then a layer of bricks, afterwards The great number of Roman me. of clay and marle, then of bricks dals that have been, and are fill again, making in the whole three found in and about this camp, are to layers of bricks and two of clay : me a matter of great wonder. One Over this were placed bricks and lady who lives near the place, has lime 29 inches, the outside being g (I am credibly informed) picked up faced with bricks cut in squares (like at least 100 with her own hands, the modern way of building in some and several are daily gathered up by parts of Norfolk,) then wricks and boys, and sold to strangers who come clay again, Aratum fuper ftratum; as to visit the place.

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