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er Wroxeter, near Shrewsbury, the antient capital of the Cornavii, Etocetum, or Wall, near Lichfield, and Manduessedum, or Manceter, in Warwickshire, though the two last belong more properly to the Coritani. The Huicii, or Jugantes, as they were called by Tacitus, were a tribe of the Cornavii settled in Warwickshire and Worcestershire. XV. North of the Coritani were the Parisi, but a small nation, situated in that part of Yorkshire called Holderness, and subject to, XVI. The Brigantes, the greatest, most powerful, and most antient of the British nations. They possessed the whole extent of Britain from sea to sea, comprising the counties of York, Durham, Lancaster, Westmoreland, and Cumberland. The famous Cartismandua, with whom Caractacus took refuge, was queen of the Brigantes. The principal towns were Eboracum, or York, one of the greatest in the island, and Isurium, or Aldborough, near Boroughbridge, which was at one time the capital of the Brigantes. These are the principal British nations. The antient inhabitants of Scotland were very little known to the Romans; and it may suffice to mention the Otadeni, who were seated in the counties of Northumberland, Merse, and the Lothian; the Gadeni, North West of the Otadeni, in Northumberland and Teviotdale ; the Selgovæ, in Eskdale, Annandale, and Nithisdale, on the shores of the Solway Firth : still West, the Novantæ, in Galloway, Carrick, Kyle, and Cunningham ; and on the North West, above the Otadeni and Gadeni, the Damnii, in Clydesdale, Renfrew, Lenox, and Stirlingshire. These five nations were sometimes comprehended under the general name of the Mæatæ.
* When Britain was formed into a regular Roman province, the nations above enumerated were comprised in the five following grand divisions:--- I. Britannia Prima, comprising the East and South East of Britain. II. Flavia Cæsariensis, containing the West and South West. III. Britannia Secunda, containing Wales. IV. Maxima Cæsariensis, containing the North of Britain. And subsequently, V. Valentia, comprehending the five Scottish tribes, already mentioned under the name of Mæatæ, lying between the walls of Antoninus and Severus, about to be described, which were built to prevent the incursions of the barbarous Scottish tribes into the Roman provinces. The first of these was built by Agricola, A. D. 79, nearly in the situation of the Rampart of Hadrian and Wall of Severus, hereafter to be described. But in A. D. 81, Agricola built a line of very strong forts, advanced considerably North, from the Firth of Forth, on the East, to the Firth of Clyde, on the Western coast of Scotland. These, however, appear to haye been insufficient to restrain the progress of the barbarians after the departure of Agricola, A. D. 85;, and in A. D. 120 the Emperor Hadrianplanned and executed that mighty rampart about to be described. It began from Tunnocelum, or Boulness, on the Æstuarium Itunæ, or Solway Firth, on the Western coast, and was continued, almost in a direct line, to Segedenum, or Cousin's House, beyond Pons Ælii, or Newcastle upon Tyne, on the Eastern shore, being a distance of rather more than 68 English, or 74 Roman miles. It consisted of a principal agger, or vallum, that is a rampart, about 10 or 12 feet high, a ditch, on the North of this vallum, 9 feet deep and it feet wide, an agger 20 feet on the North side of this ditch, and an agger, without a
ditch, 5 feet on the South of the principal agger, and nearly of as large dimensions. This work was garrisoned by soldiers stationed at proper intervals, in forts which had formed the first wall of Agricola. Twenty years after this, A.D. 140, Lollius Urbicus, under the Emperor Antoninus, having re-conquered the Mæatæ, restored the second Wall of Agricola, which is commonly called the Vallum Antonini. This work consisted of a ditch about 12 feet wide, the principal wall, or vallum, on the South brink of the ditch, whose foundations are 12 feet thick, but the height is unknown, and a military way on the South of the vallum. There were forts, or stations, at the distance of every two miles, and smaller towers in the intervals between the forts.
But the greatest work of all was that of Severus, yet to be described. It was begun A. D. 209, and finished the next year, and was only a few yards to the North of Hadrian's Wall. This great work consisted of a ditch, the dimensions of which are not known, except that it was in all respects larger and wider than that of Hadrian, on the South brink of which stood the wall, built of solid stone, and cemented with the strongest mortar. The height of this wall was 12 feet, besides the parapet, and its breadth 8 fcet, defended at intervals by fortresses of three different kinds. Those called stationes were very strong garrisons, the least of them capable of containing 600 men, and having a town without their walls; the number of these was not less than 18, at an average distance of four miles from each other, but placed with some irregularity, according to the nature of the surrounding country and the exigency of defence. Besides these, there were, in the intervals of the stations, 81 castella, at the distance of about 7 furlongs from each other. These were very strong forts, each exactly 64 feet square Lastly, between every 2 castella were 4 turres, or turrets, 12 feet square, 324 in number, and 300 yards distant from each other. These were used as watch towers, and, being within reach of each other, communications could be made with the utmost facility. For convenience of relieving guards, there was a military way, made of square stones, the whole length of the wall, on its South side, and communicating with each turret and castle; and at some distance, South of this, was another larger military way, paved also with square stone, communicating from station to station. The whole body of forces employed to garrison this stupendous work was not less than 10,000 men, 1600 of whom were cavalry, and 600 mariners, at the points where the ramparts coinmunicated with the shore. .
The four principal Roman roads, Viæ stratæ, hence called Streets, were the Watling Street, across the country from Dover to Cardigan, Anglesea, or Ches ter, (for authors are not agreed on this point, but the latter appears the more probable,) passing through London, St. Albans, Dunstable, Towcester, Atherstone, Wall, and Wroxeter. Its etymology is uncertain, but it is perhaps corrupted from the name of Vitellianus into Vitellin or Watling Street. The Foss Way, derived from fossa, a ditch, extended from Totness in Devonshire through Cirencester and Lincoln to North Britain. The Ikenild Street, probably so called from the Iceni through whose country it ran, extended from Southamptony through York, to Newcastle upon Tyne. The Ermin Street, most probably derived from the Saxon Herrman, a warrior, signifying that it was a military road, extended from St. David's to Southampton. From these principal roads there were many minor branches.
Of the British Islands, Vectis was the Isle of Wight; the Cassiterides were the Scilly Islands, which are said to have been frequented by the Phænicians; Mona Taciti, or the Mona described by Tacitus in his Life of Agricola, is the Isle of Anglesea ; and Mona Cæsaris the Isle of Man. Terne, or Hibernia, was Ireland.
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