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dinate and external to the internal changes which exhibit the theme. The real changes are spiritual ; hence this belongs to the class of spiritual narrations. The attention in reading must rest in the series of spiritual changes, and if the writer obey the law of unity he must hold the attention to the spiritual series.
This narration may be tested by casting it in the following form :
I. The changes as a whole.
portunity for the causes of the changes.
other opportunity for the change.
5. Effect — pleases nobody and loses his donkey.
a. Purpose — to please the girls addressing him.
b. Cause — a knowledge of what the girls thought. 2. The miller decides to walk and that his son ride.
a. Purpose — to please the old man addressing him.
b. Cause — a knowledge of what the old man thought. 3. The miller decides that both shall ride.
a. Purpose — to please several who sympathized.
thizers. b. Cause — a knowledge of what the group thought. This outline shows at once that unity is maintained, in that everything is subordinated to the one change in the miller's mind. And this, too, obeys the law of purpose, for it is the impression of these changes, with their results, by which the author seeks his purpose. The law of unity would have been violated in this if the physical changes had been made prominent, or if there had been a confusion of the two lines of changes. The author has kept the physical changes subordinate, since he presents them as mere signs, or effects, in the mind of the miller. In making the analysis, it would not have been true to the selection if there had been given as the first happening the mounting of the boy, etc., or the other external series on the part of those addressing the miller. In the analysis of every selection, there must be found and stated in due form its unity of thought.
Unity is further secured in first presenting the opportunity for causes to produce the changes ; and then having purpose, cause and effect, and parts follow in their necessary order. This the anaylsis, if true, will properly set forth.
Unity to the end sought further requires that enough changes be presented to accomplish the purpose, — enough to show that the miller would change to please anybody. The changes are invented, and the question for the writer was, How many are needed to produce the desired effect on the reader ? Four changes are presented. First, the change caused by the girls, who sympathized with the son ; second, that made by the old men, who appreciated
respect for old age ; third, the change caused by a miscellaneous group, whose sympathy is touched by the effort of the son to keep up; and fourth, that caused by the townsmen, whose feelings were touched by the overburdened beast. What each caused the miller to do was that which led to some extreme, and called forth rebuke from the next group met. Being moved to change by such diverse classes of people and for such contradictory reasons makes it absolutely certain that the miller would change to please any one for no other reason than to please him. Note also that each decision of the miller was more foolish than the preceding. This continually increases the strength of the impression ; otherwise the last point would be useless, and the law of unity broken.
Exercises.—I. Treat the following themes as wholes, either by construction or by analysis, as the case may require :
1. The Civil War. 2. Paul Revere's ride. 3. The Boston Tea Party. 4. Johnson's “ Rasselas.” 5. The battle of Balaklava. 6. The history of the United States. 7. The Norman Conquest. 8. The World's Fair. 9. The conquest of Mexico. 10. The Lisbon earthquake.
II. Treat the following by partition, being careful to note whether the basis chosen is in harmony with the purpose, and whether the law of unity is maintained in the partitions made on the basis chosen:
1. The manufacture of a pen. 2. The writing of an essay. 3. Whittier's “ Snow Bound.” 4. Longfellow's “ Keramos.” 5. The history of slavery in the United States. 6. The American Revolution. 7. England's acquisition of territory in the United States. 8. The formation of the earth. 9. The building of a ship. Also, Longfellow's “ Building of the Ship.” 10. The making of steel.
III. Set forth briefly the following by comparison and contrast :
1. The settlement of the Jamestown and Plymouth colonies. 2. The construction of the Pacific Railroad and the Suez Canal. 3. The election of the President of the United States and of France. 4. The manufacture of cotton and of silk goods. 5. The growth of a plant and an animal. 6. The history of the English and the American governments. 7. The writing of a discourse and building of a house.
IV. In a more complete and systematic way, defining the purpose and testing by the law of unity, construct narrations, or analyze those already constructed, in the following themes. Make outlines :
1. The circulation of the blood. 2. The "History of a Mouthful of Bread.” 3. The story of an iceberg : (a) to instruct, (6) to touch the emotions. 4. The campaign of Burgoyne. 5. “ The Wreck of the Hesperus,” by Longfellow. 6. “ King Volmer and Elsie,” by Whittier. 7. The life of Franklin. 8. The changes of the seasons : (a) to instruct, (6) to excite the feeling, (c) to move the will. 9. A grape from the seed to a raisin. 10. Political freedom in England and America. II. A story invented from a picture, to awaken pleasurable emotions. 12. A story invented to move the will. 13. The story of “ Feathertop,” by Hawthorne. 14. The process of learning the science and the art of narration. 15. “ The Legend of Sleepy Hollow," by Irving. 16. The great Spanish Armada. 17. The story of a drop of water from its change into vapor in the ocean to its return, — first to give instruction, and then to address the feelings. 18. The Sepoy rebellion. 19. The decay of Feudalism. 20. Shakespeare's “ Hamlet.” 21. Holmes' “ One-Hoss Shay."
Exposition is the process by which one mind presents to another, through language, a general idea.
The preceding processes hold the attention to particular individuals, but exposition directs the attention to the unity of individuals through their common nature — their general idea. A description or a narration of individuals may be made for the purpose of presenting their common element, and this is exposition. But so long as the thought is organized in the individuals as such, the process is description or narration. In the first case they become subordinate processes of exposition. Exposition may also be a subordinate process in description and narration. Whenever there is to be described a complex object, as the earth, it is necessary to treat the classes of objects on the earth; and this is exposition. In narrating the history of the United States, there must be an exposition of the classes of colonies that were established. But a description or a narration may be made without exposition, while an exposition cannot be made without involving, in some way, description or narration.
It has already been shown that the theme in exposition is a unit, a whole, consisting of parts; as is the case in description and narration. The whole is the number of individuals which the common idea, or generative activity, binds together, or brings into existence.