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wae notion of what is meant by dife I jult apprehension of danger or

1951. PROCEEDINGS of the POLITICAL CLUB, &c. 109 know what the noble lord means by Upon this C. Trebonius ftood up again, it: I know of no severities that have and spoke in Substance as follows, been lately introduced into this bill, viz. nor has any alterations or amend: ments been made to the articles of

Mr. President, war, but in order to give people a


А ALWAYS thought, a cipline, or to describe clearly and fully the offence, the punishment, mischief was fufficient for inducing or the method of proceeding intend- this house to agree to a new regulaed. And as to any new regulations, tion, or to abolish an old and useless no one has been introduced but what custom ; but the Hon. gentleman was before, established by custom in who spoke last, it seems, thinks, our army ; upon the whole of which B that we cught not to stop up the I will say, that no army in the world hole in a bridge till some person has is better regulated, nor are the sol. fallen through and been drowned : diers in any country less severely We ought not to abolish that ab. dealt with, or better secured against solute power, which the colonel has injustice or oppression. They are assumed over the staff officers of his so far from being in a state of flavery, regiment, till an instance be given of that they are, in my opinion, less lia. C its having been egregiously abused. ble to be rigorously dealt with when I confess, Sir, I always thought guilty, than those criminals are that otherwise, and for this reason, when are to be tried by common law ; for I opened this clause to you, I endeacourts-martial are always more in- voured only to shew, that this power clined to lenity than severity, and was in itself dangerous and useless, are but too shy of declaring a man that it might be very much abused, guilty, when there is not the Irongest D and that it never could be necessary evidence against him.

for any good purpose; but now I am We have not therefore, Sir, the called upon, I think myself obliged least cause to apprehend, that our to give an instance of its having been foldiers will ever look upon them- abused, which I do with reluctance, selves as slaves, or that they will because I do not like to rake into enable any commander to overturn the misconduct of officers, either of a that constitution, under which they E high or low degree; and I must say. enjoy so much security, and from I am so far from being of opinion, which they reap so much benefit. that this power never was abused, With respect to our army, we have that I believe, it would be found, upnothing to fear but a relaxation of on inquiry, that hardly any use was discipline, which might render them ever made of it, but what was an unfit for defending us against our abuse. foreign enemies, and too ape to be F Now, Sir, as to the facts I am troublesome not only in their quar- going to mention, I must premise, ters, but in every country they pass that I do not affert them from my through ; and as a relaxation of own knowledge : I had them only discipline might probably be the ef- by information ; and therefore alt í fect of the clause now offered, I Mall say is, that I shall faithfully must be against making it a part of the relate them, and exactly as they have bill, especially as the Hon. gentle. been told to me. During the heat man who offered it, did not attempt G of the Westminster election, a serjeant to shew, that in any one instance an and corporal had the misfortune ( I unjust use had been made of the call it a misfortune, from what after. power, which the colonel has over

wards the staff ofücers in his regimenta

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wards happened) to be marching a. I must fill look upon it as a very seJong the streets with a party, going, vere punishment ; and I shall conti

I I suppose, to the playhouse, or upon nue in that opinion, unless the Hon. some other duty; and as they were gentleman could convince me, that upon their march, some of the fol- there is no difference between 10s. diers behind them joined in the po- 4 d. per week, and, 4.5. 6 d. per pular cry then reigning in the streetsA week, or between commanding and and called out, Tandeput for ever. being commanded.

being commanded. This I believe These uncourtly words, for tho' he will never be able to convince me they were popular, they were cer- of ; and while I continue in this otainly at that time uncourtly, neither , pinion, I must think, that this was the serjeant nor corporal cook any a very great abuse of the power notice of ; but after their duty was which the colonels in our army have over, returned to the .parade, and B by custom affumed, of reducing dismissed their party, without making staff oficers to the rank of private any report of this accident to the centinels, whenever they pleale. commanding officer. The acci.

The Hon, gentleman, Sir, may dent was however taken notice of, - talk of the happy condition of the and related by some busy tale-bearer: . soldiers of our army, and of its beThe ferjeant and corporal were senting preferable to that of the soldiers for and examined : They confessed Cof any other army; but no man that they had heard some such words reflects can think himself happy, from some of the soldiers in their , whillt he is liable to be severely pu. rear; and because they could not fix nished at the mere whim of any man upon the man who had committed whatsoever. And tho' I shall althis heinous trespass, nor had made, low, that a little manual correction any report of it to the commanding may now and then be necessary: yet, officer upon guard, they and their Dit is what a good officer will always whole party were sent prisoners to be very sparing of, and will never the Savoy, and both the lerjeant and make use of it, till, he finds that no corporal were reduced into the ranks, . amendment can be expected without where they have ever fince served, it. But this is not what is now comand are like to serve for years to plained of, or proposed to be semecome, as common soldiers.

died by the clause I have offered to These, Sir, are the facts as they E your confideration. It is to prevent have been related to me ; but that any military commander's taking upyou may not entirely depend upon on him io subject a soldier to such as my relation, I must inform you, that have always been decmed military the two men are now at your door, punishments, by his own sole authoand ready to attest what I have told. sity; for that this is sometimes done, you, if you will please to call them every gentleman knows, that knows in for that purpose. And now I F any thing of our army; and that must appeal to gentlemen, whether this should ever be permitted, I can this was any military crime, or in- . never think necessary, considering deed a crime of any kind, much less : how soon a court-martial may be a crime which deserved such a severe held, and the proper punishment inpunishment, as that of reducing a ; filted, after due proof of the crime, lerjeant and corporal to private cen. , by the authority of their fentence. tinels; for notwithftanding what has As to courts-martial, Sir, I bebeen said as to its being no punish G lieve it may be true, that they have ment, and notwithitanding the trial generally a bias to lenity, when un. at law, which the Hon. gentleman influenced by any particular resenswas pleased to give us an account of, ment, and when they fit upon the

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1951. PROCEEDINGS of the POLITICAL CLUB, &c. It' trial of a brother officer'; and I' likewife believe, that they have a. The next that spoke in this Debate pretty strict regard to justice, when ccas C. Salonius, ubofe Speech aus the complaint is by one officer againft

to this Effr.7: another'; but I doubt if they have the same bias to lenity, when a poor

Mr. President, fellow of a common soldier comes to A

SIR, by tried before them, or the same 7 Haterer doubt I may have as regard to justice, when the complaint to the truth of the facts reis made by a'private centinel against lated to us by the Hon gentleman who a commisioned officer, or by such an spoke laft, I have not the least doube officer against a common soldier. of his having had such an informaAnd as to our soldiers being so well' tion; and I am fully convinced, that secured againft injuftice, I wonder to B he believed his information to be well heat any gentleman talk of it, that founded, otherwise he would not has ever read the report of a com. have communicated it to the house ; mittee of this house, made but a ve. but from the very nature of the facts ry few years ago, relating to our ar. related I cannot think, that they my; for the off-reckonings of every farnish us with a sufficient reason for regiment certainly belong to the solabolishing a custom, or a power, that diers of the regiment, and if not c has so long prevailed in our army, wholly employed in cloathing, the and which, when properly exercised, furplus ought to be divided among must always contribute to the prethem, or employed some way for servation of that authority, which their benefit ; the colonel has no every colonel ought to have over the right to put a fhilling of it into his regiment he commands; and this own pocket.

power is the less liable to objection, I was likewise surprised, Sir, to p because if it should ever be improhear it said, that no alterations or perly exercised, the error might be amendments had been lately made corrected by a board of general ofto our military laws, when every ficers, who would order the colonel one knows, that great alterations, to replace a serjeant, whom he had I shall not call them amendments, reduced and turned into the ranks, have been made both to the mutiny for a reason which he could not jusa bill, and to the articles of war, e tify: within these last three or four years : Now suppose, Sir, that the two Nay, this very power, which the men at your door, upon being calcolonel has over the staff officers of led in and examined, should, and I his regiment, has been but lately believe they would, give the same brought into our articles of war; accour:t that the Hon. gentleman and it is no excuse for any oppressive has done : Nay, I will go farther, I regulation, to fay, that it is founded & will fuppose the facts to be true; yel upon an old custom ; for such a cuí- can it be supposed, that they can tom, when taken notice of, instead of tell the motives which the colonel being confirmed, should be abolished, had for turning them into the ranks? by a written law; this was what in. Can any one with certainty tell those duced me to offer this clause to your motives but the colonel himself? He confideration, which must, I think, might have had other motives for be approved of by every gentlemane doing what he did, and such moties, who believes the story I have related; perhaps, as these men would indura and if any one doubts the facts, he triously conceal, even that they may easily satisfy himself, by calling were fenfible of their being well in and examining the two men, who

founded. are now attending at your door,


founded. But again, suppose that the solve on, I hope you will not call, colonel had no other motives than soldiers to your bar to traduce the what are alledged, I will say, that character of their officers, unless it would be a very ungrateful return

those officers were likewise present ; in us, to take a power from the co- therefore, however gentlemen may lonel, which he seems to have ex. think fit to vote as to the principal ercised purely out of regard to the A question, I hope, no gentleman will freedom of our elections ; for no. be for having those men now called thing can be of more dangerous con

in and examined. If you do resolve fequence to the freedom of elections, to examine them, I hope, for the than the army's intermeddling, or sake of justice, you will at the same the soldiers interfering in any of

time give the officers an opportunity those mobs that usually happen upon

to justify themselves ; but upon the such occasions. If this should ever B whole I must think the affair of such become customary, as the noble lord a trifling nature, as no way to deserve was pleased to observe, another the interposition of parliament, espeCaius Marius may arise in this coun- cially as it is of no manner of confe. try; for I must suppose that it was quence with regard to the question by a mob of soldiers, the Roman now before us. Caius Marius got the candidate for [This JOURNAL to be continued in the tribuneship murdered, who set Cour next.] up againft his interest. Therefore, whatever the serjeant might think, 0000000000000

!! a soldier's joining in such a mobbish cry at an election, was not such a tri. To the Author of the LONDON fling matter : It was a matter of such

MAGAZINE. consequence that he ought to have

To banish Gin, let each good man con. taken notice of it, and of the man D {pire,

(fire. that was guilty of it ; and he ought As he'd rebellion quench or spreading to have made it a part of his report

From a MS. to the commanding officer upon

SIR, guard. doing was a *HE essays printed in your pe.

riodical work, have frequently proceeded probably from his igno- inculcated do&trines highly useful to rance as to the consequence, the E the publick ; but give me leave to punishment, if it can be called a pu- affert, that you never gave place to nishment, may be thought too fevere ; a subject, the due prosecution of therefore, instead of coming to this which could be of more essential house to complain, where surely advantage to these nations in general, he can meet with no redress, he as well as to individuals, than that ought to have made use of his friends I am now going to lay before you. to have pleaded his ignorance for


The subject I mean is Gin ; that his excuse, and to have folicited his “subtile poison which glides pleasantly being restored, which by this me. thro' the veins ; that liquid fire which thod he might probably have soon parches the entrails; and debauchobtained.

ing, and unhumanizing (if I may be I have said, Sir, that these men allowed the term) the understanding, cannot surely expect any redress from rouses the mad quaffer to theft, murthis houle, and I think I am right ing der, and the most enormous crimes.

G faying to; because it would look like

To remedy this horrid, this far.. our punishing a colonel for shewing spreading evil, one pencil has been a regard to the freedom of our elec- taken up (that of the very ingenious tions; but whatever you may re: moral painter, Mr. Hogarth) as fome



neglect of duty; but as his negled TH


1751. Extraets from the Bishop of Worcester's Dedication. 113 writers of eminence have likewise plies for national service, by murdering their pens, among which that of its inhabitants, and lefening trade justice Fielding makes a very conside- in numberless branches. It is indeed rable figure.

very true, that there is no positive But among the several pieces, on law, no formal injunction, to comthis most interesting subject, perused by mit these numerous murders. But me, none seems so emphatical, and A yet it is as crue, that whatever inso much to the purpose, as the dedica- dulgence is allowed in cases less tion, (concerning /pirituous liquors,) atrocious, in the death of a subject, to the lord mayor, aldermen and

the law considers every person concommon council of the city of Lon. cerned as principal, and does not don, by the present bishop of Wor- even admit of accessaries in murder. cester ; prefixed to a charity sermon, Nor is it less certain, chat connivance preached by his lordship, at St. E in cases of this nature is encourageBride's. As I look upon the reflec- ment, according to the allowed tions, the exhortations in that dedi. maxim, qui non probibitjuber. The cation to be excellent; che farther Sword of authority is not borne they are spread, the more happy may in vain ; and it is the great end and be their influence : And it is solely design in government to preserve in this view that I send you the fol- life, as well as property ; and with lowing extracts. (See p. 83.) C this view, to punish, restrain, and, if

How falutary, how delicate, how possible, extinguish wickedness of Sagacious are the following reflec- every kind : And the more enortions of the bishop! “ Is the loss of mous and extensive any vice becomes, a single subject by murder, or is a theft, for example, in the publick fingle robbery made capital, and ac- ftreets or private houses, or forgery, tually punished with death? And is or murder, the more serious and earnit of no consequence, is it below all D est endeavours are in all such cases attention and regard, if thousands of justly called for, to discourage and lives are every year destroyed; and suppress the growing evil."-Surely, the publick defrauded of the mani. every British senator, who has a fold advantages, all the riches and foul turned to virtue, and a due restrength, that would arise from the gard to the happiness of his native multitudes of its loft subjects? The country, will be moved by the above antient precaution, Ne quid detrimenti e confiderations. capiat respublica, is a primary con- The subsequent extract claims the fideration in every well ordered ftate: most serious attention of every inAnd if any species of liquor, tho' habitant in our island, as all are perhaps somewhat Nower in the more or lets concerned in it.--"How operation, does yet prove as per- many commodities, and how many nicious and fatal as infected meat utensils does this pernicious gin fupor infected goods, is there not the F plant or supply the place of, to those same reason in true policy, and the wretches addicted to it, who as yet same justice to the community, to lay crawl about, à publick nuisance ? restraints upon liquid, as upon folid How much less bread-corn, mall, poisons ?” Is it possible for any re- hops ; how much less meat of all flection to be more alarming ?

kinds; how much less cloths, both These which follow appear to me

linen, woollen and leather, &c. &c. no less fo.“ Unbappy Britain, and G &c. do these belotted, miserable creaundone for ever! If the boasted tures consume, than an equal num. wisdom of the present enlightned ber of fober and laborious subjects age, even in a time of publick peace of the fame rank? Look in upon and tranquillity, can only raise fup- she dwelling of a regular, industrious



Match, 1751.

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