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Temperet a lacrimis ? et iam nox humida caelo
Praecipitat, suadentque cadentia sidera somnos.
Sed si tantus amor casus cognoscere nostros
Et breviter Troiae supremum audire laborem,
Quamquam animus meminisse horret, luctuque refugit,

Fracti bello fatisque repulsi
Ductores Danaum, tot iam labentibus annis,
Instar montis equum divina Palladis arte

Aedificant, sectaque intexunt abiete costas;

and Dolopes (II. 9. 484) were the soldiers with armed men, and leave behind them of Achilles, the greatest, and Neoptolemus, as a pretended offering to Pallas. We the most savage, enemy of Troy. So the pour out of the town, and question what epithet duri' is intended to mark the should be done with the horse, some being soldier by the general, perhaps with a re- for taking it in, others for destroying it.' ference to his Homeric title monótaas : see 13.) • Incipiam’ appears rightly underon 3. 94.

stood by Henry, ' I will essay, rather than 8.] 'Et iam,' an additional reason for 'I will begin. E. 5. 10, G. 1.5, Lucr. 1. declining the task : imitated from Od. 11. 55. So the ordinary sense of “inceptum.” 330, where Ulysses breaks off in the middle Fracti,' nearly the same as “fessi,” v. 109, of his narrative with a similar excuse. but stronger. Repulsi,' beaten back from

9.] Praecipitat' is hurrying down the the attack on Troy. steep of the sky, midnight being past. 14.] Ductores Danaum,' Lucr. 1. 86. Possibly also it denotes the fall of the dew, Labentibus,' the present, is to be distinbeing connected with 'humida,' as “ruit” guished from “lapsis," though the stress is with “imbriferum," G. 1. 313. For the falls as much on tot' and `iam. Now intrans. use of the verb comp. Cic. de that the flying years had begun to number Orat.3.35, “sol praecipitans me admonuit.” so many.'

10.] Hom. Od. 11. 380. *Amor,' as in 15.] Instar montis,' with reference to 6. 133, where it is immediately explained the height rather than to the bulk. So 9. by “cupido.” For the construction, see 674, “abietibus iuvenes patriis et montibus on G. 1. 213.

aequos," and Od. 9. 191., 10. 113, where 11.] ‘Supremum laborem,' its destruc- the Cyclops and the queen of the Laestrytion, as “dies supremus” is the day of gonians are compared to mountains. Comp. death, and “sors suprema (5. 190) the also vv. 186, 187, “ Hanc tamen inmensam final doom. Claud. Eutrop. 2.289, “Phry. Calchas attollere molem Roboribus textis giae casus venisse supremos." Labor' by caeloque educere iussit.” “Divina Palladis itself means no more than novos or uóxoos arte' is a translation of Eur. Tro. 10, in Greek, sorrow or suffering, l. 597., unxavaio. Marxádos. Hom. Od. 8. 493 2. 362., 4. 78., 9. 202. To hear the brief has τον 'Επειδς εποίησεν συν'Αθήνη. Pallas tale of Troy's last agony.'

is selected from the deities favourable to 12.] Muretus thinks this passage imi- the Greeks as the patroness of art. So tated from Cic. Phil. 14. 3,“ refugit ani- she is the builder of the Argo, the first mus, P. C., eaque formidat dicere." It is ship. See the next note. Rom. has diitself imitated by Sen. Ag. 417, “refugit vinae.' loqui Mens aegra tantis atque inhorrescit 16.] 'Aedificant' and 'intexunt' are malis," which seems to show, as Wund. both terms of ship-building. Catull. 62 thinks, that “refugit' as well as horret' (64). 9, “Ipsa (Pallas) levi fecit volitantem goes with meminisse.' The perf. seems flamine currum, Pinea coniungens inflexae best explained as expressing the instantane- texta carinae,” which Virg. perhaps had ous and instinctive action of the feeling. in his mind. Even costa" is used in

13–39.] • Despairing of reducing Troy speaking of a ship, Pers. 6. 31. Lucr. 5. by siege, the Greeks feign departure, having 1297 has “in equi conscendere costas.” first built a wooden horse, which they fill


Votum pro reditu simulant; ea fama vagatur.
Huc delecta virum sortiti corpora furtim
Includunt caeco lateri, penitusque cavernas
Ingentis uterumque armato milite conplent.

Est in conspectu Tenedos, notissima fama
Insula, dives opum, Priami dum regna manebant,
Nunc tantum sinus et statio male fida carinis;
Huc se provecti deserto in litore condunt.
Nos abiisse rati et vento petiisse Mycenas.
Ergo omnis longo solvit se Teucria luctu.


17.] Votum,' to Pallas, as explained v. are summed up in the nine who come out 183. Serv. quotes from Attius (Deiph. fr. of the horse in v. 260, as v. 328, 401, 1), “ Minervae donum armipotenti hoc would lead us to suppose that the number abeuntes Danai dicant,” which he says was larger, even if we do not suppose Virg. was the inscription on the horse ; and so to be in agreement with Hom., who in Od. Hyginus (fab. 108), “ In equo scripserunt; 4. 287, mentions one, Anticlus, not included Danai Minervae dono dant.” Pallas is in Virgil's list. •Penitus' goes with 'consent down, Il. 2. 156, to prevent the Greeks plent.' from departing. The custom of making 21.] Notissima fama,' as Wagn. revows for a safe return is largely illustrated marks, is said rather by the poet than by by Cerda. Taubmann quotes an epigram- the hero (comp. 3. 704), though in Hom.'s matic expression from Petronius, "in voto time (11. ì. 38) the island is famous for a latent (Danai).” • Ea fama vagatur:' the temple of Apollo Smintheus. emphasis is on 'ea' rather than on 'vaga- 22.] Dives opum,' 1. 14. tur. 'Such is the story they spread,' not 23.] The island is said to be a 'sinus,' a the story spreads far and wide.' So bay, forming a doubtful roadstead, being “ fama volat,” 3. 121.

all for which it was then remarkable. 18.} Huc’ is further defined by 'caeco Male fida,' opposed to “statio tutissima," lateri” (“huc includunt,” G. 2. 76), a mode G. 4. 421. Forb. rightly distinguishes of expression illustrated by Wagn. on E. 'statio' from 'portus,' and Henry appo1. 54, and not unlike the double acc. in sitely refers to Vell. Pat. 2. 72, “ExitiaGreek, TÚTTW de Kepalhr. Delecta virum lemque tempestatem fugientibus statio pro corpora : Hom. Od. 4. 272, Inny én (POTportu foret.” ν' ενήμεθα πάντες άριστοι 'Αργείων. Thus 24.? 'Huc' may be taken with con.

sortiti' must mean simply having picked dunt,' as Forb. (G. 1. 442, "conditus in out,' as in G. 3. 71, unless we suppose a nubem ”), but it had perhaps better go “sortitio' to have taken place among the with 'provecti,' as otherwise we should * delecti,' so as to assign to some their have expected “in litus.' Deserto in places in the horse, while others, such as litore’ shows that the change in the for. Agamemnon and Diomede, remained to or- tunes of Tenedos had already begun. ganize the forces at Tenedos. Delecti' 25.] Wagn. is hardly right in explainis the epithet of the chieftains at Aulis, ing 'vento petere' here and v. 180 to Lucr. 1. 86. In Od. 8. 495, Ulysses is the mean no more than “navibus petere.” main agent in putting the warriors into In 1. 307., 4. 46, 381, where similar the horse, which he enters himself. “Cor- expressions are used, the meaning evipora,' periphrastic, like dépas, 5. 318., 6. dently is that the person is supposed to 22, 391., 7. 650., 10. 430, though in each be driven by the winds : here the notion case there is of course a special significance seems to be that of dependence on the in the word, as here to suggest the notion winds, though we are meant to infer of occupying space.

that the winds are favourable. Thns 19, 20.) Henry seems right in taking Heyne's interpretation “ vento secundo" the latter part of the sentence as simply is virtually true. In 3. 563 the addi. explanatory of the former, the 'armato tion of remis' makes the case somewhat milite' being identical with the delecta different. corpora,' but it is not so certain that these 26.] From Eur. Tro. 524, where the


Panduntur portae ; juvat ire et Dorica castra
Desertosque videre locos litusque relictum.
Hic Dolopum manus, hic saevus tendebat Achilles ;
Classibus hic locus ; hic acie certare solebant.
Pars stupet innuptae donum exitiale Minervae
Et molem mirantur equi; primusque Thymoetes
Duci intra muros hortatur et arce locari,
Sive dolo, seu iam Troiae sic fata ferebant.
At Capys, et quorum melior sententia menti,
Aut pelago Danaum insidias suspectaque dona


Trojans address each other it', & merav- virtually an offering to Troy and the Troμένοι πόνων. .

jans--a consideration which reconciles the 27.] •Panduntur portae,' as a sign of present passage with those where it is peace. Hor. 3 Od. 5. 23, A. P. 199. spoken of as a gift to the Trojans (vv. 36, Cerda. •Dorica castra :' see on v. 462. 44, 49), and accounts for the epithet 28.] Nearly repeated 612.

• exitiale.' That some such object was 29.] This and the next verse express pretended before Sinon came forward to in an objective form what is said or thought develope the story we have seen in v. 17. by the parties of Trojans. Comp. 7. 150 "Minervae' seems still to be the gen., as in foll., where however the discoveries of the Cic. Verr. 2. 3. 80, “civium Romanorum reconnoitrers are put in oratio obliqua. dona,” presents made to Roman citizens * Dolopum :' note on v. 7. “Tendebat,' (referred to by Gossrau). pitched his tent, 8. 605, a military word, 32.] Molem equi,' v. 150 below. Thywhence “tentorium.” For the implied moetes is one of the old men sitting on anachronism see on 1. 469.

the wall, Il. 3. 146. Diodorus Siculus, 3. 30.] “Classibus hic locus. The ships, 87, makes him son of Laomedon. as Henry remarks, were drawn up on the 33.] In Hom. (Od. 8. 504) the Trojans shore, and the tents pitched among them. first drag the horse to the citadel (which The opposition is between classibus' and in Virg. does not happen till v. 245), and ‘acie. Here they pitched; here they then deliberate as here what to do with it, fought with us.' • Acie' was restored by the party of Thymoetes being represented Heins. from Med., Rom., and other MSS. by the words Å čáąv uby' Syahna Dewv * Acies' is however supported by Gud. a m. Dearthprov elvai. 5., Canon., and others, and given as an alter. 34.] ‘Dolo :' because, according to the native by Serv.

legend mentioned by Serv., and a scholiast 31.] Donum Minervae,' “non quod on Lycophron, Thymoetes had a grudge ipsa dedit, sed quod ei oblatum est.”. Serv., against Priam, who in consequence of an rightly, as is shown by the parallel v, 189, oracle that a child born on a certain day and by the passage from Attius quoted on would be the ruin of Troy, put to death an v. 17, from which Virg. doubtless took the illegitimate son of his own by Cilla, wife of words. The epithet 'innuptae,' which is Thymoetes, not Paris, who had the same rather in the Homeric style than appro- birthday. “Iam,''now at last,' as Henry priate to any thing in the context, makes takes it. Ferebant:' to pépov is the it likely that he was referring also to Eur. Greek synonyme for Fate. Tro. 536, χάριν έζυγος αβροτοπώλου, which 35.] Capys, a companion of Aeneas, 9. according to the ordinary interpretation is 576., 10. 145. Quae sit dubiae sententia understood in precisely the same way, menti” 11. 314. though Hermann questions the applica- 36.] 'Insidias' for the horse itself, like bility of åßpotoT6Xou to the goddess, and doli' v. 264. Hom. Od. 8. 494, Šv TOT' supposes άζνξ αβροτόπωλος to be the horse. ές ακρόπολιν δόλον ήγαγε διος 'Οδυσσεύς, The offering was made to Minerva as one unless sóxov be an adverbial or cognate of the tutelary deities of Troy, whom the acc. So Eur. Tro. 530, 8xlov ótav, also Greeks had outraged, and as such it was of the horse. "Dona :' see on v. 31.

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Praecipitare iubent, subiectisque urere flammis,
Aut terebrare cavas uteri et temptare latebras.
Scinditur incertum studia in contraria volgus.

Primus ibi ante omnis, magna comitante caterva,
Laocoon ardens summa decurrit ab arce,
Et procul : O miseri, quae tanta insania, cives ?
Creditis avectos hostis ? aut ulla putatis
Dona carere dolis Danaum ? sic notus Ulixes ?
Aut hoc inclusi ligno occultantur Achivi,
Aut haec in nostros fabricata est machina muros
Inspectura domos venturaque desuper urbi,
Aut aliquis latet error; equo ne credite, Teucri.


37.] It

may be doubted from the word 'magna comitante caterva,' which would * praecipitare' whether Virg. meant to be jejune. The meaning is, at this junctranslate Od. 8. 508, A kata terpáwv ture Laocoon, followed by a large numBanéew epúpavras émtrepns. 'Subjectis- ber, plunges into the arena and takes que' is the reading of the MSS. Heyne the lead. Thymoetes had been called introduced subjectisve,' on a warrant 'primus,' v. 32, as having first made himfrom Servius. Wagn. (Q. V. 34. 1) ad. self heard. duces other instances where 'que' couples 41.] ‘Ab arce :' Pergamus, which overnotions which though not strictly com- looked the shore. Heyne. patible with each other have some point 44.] Has this been your experience in common, -as here burning and sinking of Ulysses ?? who is mentioned not as are two modes of destroying the horse, and actually having been a principal in the so are distinguished from any plan of exa- scheme, which the Trojans could not mining it.

have known, but as the natural author 38.) Od. 8. 507, where the three pro- of fraud, “ hortator scelerum Aeolides," positions debated are breaking open the 6. 529. horse (Platuñal, stronger than 'tere- 45.] The two cases put in this and the brare'), casting it from a precipice, and following line are that the horse is a reaccepting it as a peace-offering to the ceptacle of soldiers, and that it is a means gods. Temptare' here is simply to of scaling the walls. In the former case it search, with no notion of danger, as Forb. would be fatal if admitted within the city, thinks, whatever it may have elsewhere. in the latter even if left outside. There is • Cavas latebras,' a translation of koîrov not the slightest reason to suppose with λόχον, Οd. 4. 277., 8. 515.

Ribbeck that Virg. meant to retain only 39.] ‘Scinditur in studia contraria' im- one of the two. plies that they take opposite sides, appa- 46.] Heyne, after Vegetius, 4. 19, points rently those of Thymoetes and Capys, with out an allusion to the turris," a military warmth, 'studia' being almost an antici- engine with several stories, run on wheels pation of Tacitus' use of the word in the alongside the walls, which it approached sense of factions, “Ultio senatum in studia by throwing out a bridge. See Dict. A. diduxerat,” Hist. 4. 6. The line is doubt- sub voce. less meant, as it is generally quoted, to 47.] *To come down on the city from characterize a mob contemptuously ; but above. « Urbi’ for “ in urbem.” it points as much to party spirit as to gid. 48.] Aliquis' is rightly explained by diness.

Wagn, as virtually equivalent to "alius 40–56.] * Laocoon warmly denounces quis :' comp. 9. 186, and see on 6. 533. the horse as a Greek stratagem, and hurls • Error,' means of misleading, hence deceit. his spear at it.'

Forb. comp. Livy 22. 1. 3, "errore sese 40.] ‘Primus ante omnis' is not said, ab insidiis munierat." as Heyne thinks, with reference to


Quidquid id est, timeo Danaos et dona ferentis.
Sic fatus validis ingentem viribus hastam
In latus inque feri curvam conpagibus alvum
Contorsit. Stetit illa tremens, uteroque recusso
Insonuere cavae gemitumque dedere cavernae.
Et, si fata deum, si mens non laeva fuisset,
Inpulerat ferro Argolicas foedare latebras,


49.]. Et' for 'etiam,' like kal. Hand, spear made it penetrate into the womb Turseil. 2. 520. Lachmann on Lucr. 6, 7, within, so that it remained quivering in “Cuius et extincti propter divina reperta the wood. Trapp seems to have underDivolgata vetus iam ad caelum gloria fer- stood the words rightly, and so Gossrau. tur," denies that 'et'has this sense either ‘Recusso,' like 'repercusso,' expressing the here or there, explaining the meaning to shock resulting from the blow, be “ et eius extincti," " et eos dona feren- 53.] ‘Cavae cavernae,' a pleonasm, betis.” Whether he means to deny that longing, as Forb. remarks, to the earlier

et' ever stands for 'etiam,' is not clear ; times of the language, though the words but it would seem impossible to give it are so arranged as to convey the effect of any other sense in such passages as Ov. a forcible repetition. * Insonuere cavae,' Her. 20. 183, “ Nec bove mactato caelestia 'sounded through their depths,'or ‘sounded numina gaudent, Sed, quae praestanda est as hollow.' Comp. G. 1. 336, “cava flumina et sine teste, fide," and both here and in crescunt Cum sonitu." "Gemitum:' merely Luer. I. c. the sense of even’ is certainly of the hollow noise (applied to the sea 3. favoured by the context.

555, to the earth 9. 709), not of the arms, 50.] This verse may remind us that it as in v. 243, much less of those within, as is not always safe to argue from the posi- some imitators of the passage, beginning tion of words to their construction, as with Petronius, have thought, perhaps * validis viribus' clearly goes with con- with reference to the other story, Od. 4. torsit,' not with “ingentem. Comp. 5. 280, &c. 500.

54.] “Si mens non laeva fuisset,” E. 1. 51.] Some ingenuity has been wasted 16. Here 'non' is to be taken closely (see Wagn., Forb., Henry) in explaining with laeva,' "si fata fuissent' being ex* in latus inque alvum.' Generally where plained as in v. 433 below, “had fate so the preposition is repeated there is no co- willed.” Heyne's other explanation, si pula, as in v. 358, the former, as Forb. re- fata non fuissent,' “had it not been fated marks, supplying the place of the latter. that Troy should fall,” though supported Here we have both, as in v. 337. All that by Od. 8. 511, aloa yep iv, is harsh, as we can be said grammatically is that two no- should rather have expected ‘si non mens tions are coupled : how they are coupled laeva. A third possible view, which would depends on the context. Here the ques- make · laeva’ the predicate to both fata' tion simply is whether the ‘alvus' is re- and “mens,' might be defended from G. 4. garded externally, in which case it would 7; but ‘mens' in that case would be condefine the latus,' or internally, the spear trasted rather baldly with 'fata deum.' piercing through the ‘latus' into the al- 'Fata deum' 6. 376, note. vus,' as the spear e. g. of Turnus, 10. 482, 55.] • Inpulerat. See G. 2. 133, note. pierces through the various parts of Pallas' The distinction attempted by Wagn.“ si armour. Either would be defensible: but fuisset, inpulerat: at non fuit : si fuwhat follows seems to recommend the lat- isset, ut esse poterat, inpulisset," seems, ter. •Feri,' simply the beast: used especially in spite of the authorities appealed to by of a tame animal 7. 489; of horses again Forb., not only arbitrary but irrational, as 5. 818. Ferus,' “fera,' and 'ferum,' are the difference, whatever it be, is not in the all used substantively,

protasis but in the apodosis, and the ind. 52.) Contorsit :' Key, $ 1323, b. c. d. is not likely to have been substituted for 'Stetit illa tremens' is generally taken by the subj. to denote a less probable and the commentators of the horse; but it ob- in fact impossible contingency. Ferro viously refers to the spear, were it only foedare,' 3. 241, of wounding the Harpies. that 'alvus' would have to be supplied, Here there seems a mixture of the two not 'equus' or 'ferus. The force of the notions of wounding the horse and slaying VOL. II.


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