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Æmil. Do not you chide; I have a thing for Farewel the neighing steed, and the thrill trump,

[thing. The spirit-ftirring drum, the ear-piercing fife,
lago. You have a thing for me? --It is a common The royal banner; and all quality,
Æmil. Ha !

Pride, pomp, and circumstance of glorious war! lago. To have a foolish wife.

[now 5 And O you mortal engines, whose rude throats Æmil. O, is that all? what will you give me The immortal Jove's dread clamours counterfeit, For that same handkerchief?

Farewel! Othello's occupation's gone ! lago. What handkerchief?

lags. Is it possible? -My lord, Æmil. What handkerchief?

Oıb. Villain, be sure thou prove my love a whore ; Why, that the Moor first gave to Desdemona; 10 Be sure of it ; give me the ocular proof; That which so often you did bid me steal.

[Catching, bold or bima lago. Haft ftolen it from her ?

Or, by the worth of mine eternal foul,
Æmil. No; but she let it drop by negligence; Thou hadft been better have been born a dog,
And, to the advantage, I, being here, took it up Than answer my wak'd wrath.
Look, here it is.

151 lago. Is it come to this
Jago. A good wench; give it me.

Oib. Make me to see it; or (at the least) fo Æmil. What will you do with it, that you have been so earnest

That the probation bear no hinge, nor loop, To have me filch it?

To hang a doubt on: or, woe upon thy life! lago. Why, what is that to you? [Snatching it. 20 Iago. My noble lord,

Æmil. If it be not for some purpose of import, Oib. If thou dost Nander her, and torture me, Give it me again : Poor lady! (he'll run mad, Never pray more: abandon all remorse 4; When the shall lack it.

On horror's head horrors accumulate ; lago. Be not you known on't ; I have use for it. Do deeds to make heaven weep, all earth amazid; Go, leave me.

[Exit Æmil. 25 For nothing canst thou to damnation add,
I will in Cassio's lodging lofe this napkin,

Greater than that.
And let him find it: Trifes, light as air,

lago. O grace! O heaven defend me!
Are, to the jealous, confirmations strong

Are you a man? have you a soul, or sense ? -
As proofs of holy writ. This may do something. God be wi' you; take mine office.-0 wretched
The Moor already changes with my poison :- 30

Dangerous conceits are, in their natures, poisons, That liv'st to make thine honesty a vice!
Which, at the first, are scarce found to distaste; O monstrous world! Take note, take note, O world,
But, with a little act upon the blood,

To be direct and honest, is not safe.-
Burn like the mines of sulphur.-I did say so :- I thank you for this profit: and, from hence,
Enter Olbello.

35I'll love no friend, fith love breeds such offence. Look, where he comes! Not poppy, nor man- Otb. Nay, stay :--Thou shouldst be honest. dragora,

lago. I should be wise ; for honesty's a fool, Nor all the drowsy syrups of the world,

And loses that it works for.
Shall ever med'cine thee to that sweet seep

Dib. By the world,
Which thou ow'dt 3 yesterday.

40 I think my wife be honest, and think Me is not ; Orb. Ha! ha! false to me? to me?

I think that thou art juft, and think thou art not ; lago. Why, how now, general? no more of that. I'll have some proof: Her name, that was as fresh Oib. Avaunt! be gone! thou haft set me on As Dian's visage, is now begrim'd and black the rack :

As mine own face.--If there be cords, or knives, I swear, 'tis better to be much abusid,


Poison, or fire, or suffocating streams,
Than but to know 't a little.

I'll not endure it.-'Would, I were satisfied!
lago. How now, my lord ?

lago. I see, sir, you are eaten up with passion ; Oib. What sense had I of her stolen hours of luft: I do repent me, that I put it to you. I saw it not, thought it not, it harm'd not me: You would be satisfied ? nept the next night well, was free, and merry ; 59 Oıb. Would? nay, I will,

(lord ? I found not Cassio's kiffes on her lips:

lago. And may; But, how ? how satisfied, my
He that is robb’d, not wanting what is stolen, Would you, the supervisor, grossly gape on?
Let him not know it, and he's not robb’d at all. Behold her tupp'd 5 ?
lago. i am sorry to hear this.

Orb. Death and damnation ! O!
oth. I had been happy, if the general camp, 55 lags. It were a tedious difficulty, I think,
Pioneers and all, had tasted her sweet body, To bring 'em to that prospect : Damn them then,
So I had nothing known: O now, for ever, If ever mortal eyes do see them bolster,
Farewel the tranquil mind! farewel content ! More than their own! What then? how then?
Farewel the plumed troop, and the big wars, What Mall I say? Where's satisfaction?
That make ambition virtue!. O, farewel! 6o it is impossible, you should see this,

'i.e. I being opportunely here, took it up. 2 The mandragoras, or mandrake, has a soporific
quality, and the ancients used it when they wanted an opiate of the most powerful kind.
Polifedf, or bad. 4 i. e. pity 5 A ram in Staffordfire and some other counties is called
3 Y 4


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3 i.e.

Were they as prime' as goats, as hot as monkeys, To the Propontic, and the Hellespont;
Aş salt as wolves in pride, and fools as gross Even so my bloody thoughts, with violent pace,
As ignorance made drunk. But yet, I say, Shall ne'er look back, ne'er ebb to humble love,
If imputation, and Itrong circumstances

"Till that a capable and wide revenge Which lead directly to the door of trutham 5 Swallow them up.--Now, by yon marble heaven, Will give you satisfaction, you might have it. In the due reverence of a Sacred vow [He kuees.

Otb. Give me a living a reason that she's disloyal. I here engage my words. lago. I do not like the office :

lago. Do not rise yet.

[Iago kaceis. But, fith I am enter'd in this cause so far,-- Witness, you ever-burning lights above! Prick'd to it by foolish honesty, and love, 10 You elements that clip us round about! I will go on. I lay with Cassio lately;

Witness, that here lago doth give up And, -being troubled with a raging tooth,

The execution of his wit, hands, heart, I could not neep.

To wrong'd Othello's service ! Let him command, There are a kind of men so loose of soul,

And to obey shall be in me remorse,
That in their lieeps will mutter their affairs; 15 What bloody work foever ?.
One of this kind is Caffio :

Oib. I greet thy love,

[ous, In Deep I heard him say,--Sweet Desdemona, Not with vain thanks, but with acceptance bounteLet us be wary, let us bide our loves !

And will upon the instant put thee to't : And then, sir, would he gripe, and wring my hand; Within these three days let me hear thee say, Cry,-0 sweet creature! and then kiss me hard, 20 That Cassio's not alive.

[queft: As if he pluck'd up kisses by the roots,

lagi. My friend is dead; 'tis done at your reThat grew upon my lips : then lay his leg

But let her live. Over my thigh, and figh, and kiss; and then Oib. Damn her, lewd minx! O, damn her! Cry,–Curfed fate! that gave tbee to the Moor! Come, go with me apart; I will withdraw, Oih. O monstrous! monstrous !

125 To furnish me with some swift means of death lago. Nay, this was but his dream.

For the fair devil. Now art thou my lieutenant. 0:b. But this denoted a foregone conclufion 3 lugo. I am your own for ever. (Excel. *Tis a shrewd doubt, though it be but a dream. lag. And this may help to thicken other proofs,

SCENE IV. That do demonstrate thinly.


Anorber Apartment in ibe Caftle. 0:b. I'll tear her all to pieces. Iago. Nay, but be wile: yet we see nothing Enter Desdemona, Æmilia, and Clown. done;

Des. Do you know, firrah, where lieutenant She may be honest yet. Tell me but this -

Caflio lies? Have you not sometimes seen a handkerchief,

35 Clwn. I dare not say, he lies any where. Spotted with strawberries, in your wife's hand ? Def. Why, man?

0;b. I gave her such a ont; twas my first gift. Clown. He's a soldier; and for me to say a fol.

lago. I know not that: but such a handkerchicf| dier lies, is stabbing. (I am sure, it was your wife's) did I to-day

Def. Go to; Where lodges he? See Callio wipe his beard with.

40 Clown. To tell you where he lodges, is to tell Oib. If it be that

Jyou where I lie. lago. If it be that, or any, if 'twas hers,

Def. Can any thing be made of this ? It speaks against her, with the other proofs.

Clorun. I know not where he lodges; and for Oib. O, that the save had forty thousand lives; me to devise a lodging, and say-he lies here, or One is too poor, too weak for my revenge! 4 5 he lies there, were to lie in mine own throat. Now do I fee 'tis true. Look here, Jago;

Des. Can you enquire him out? and be edify'd All my fond love thus do I blow to heaven: by report? "Tis gone.

Clown. I will catechize the world for him; Arise, black vengeance, from thy hollow cell ! that is, make questions, and make them answer. Yield up, O love, thy crown, and hearted throne 4,50 Des. Seek him, bid him come hither : tell him, To tyrannous hate! swell, bosom,with thy fraughts, I have mov'd my lord in his behalf, and hope, all For 'tis for afpicks' tongues !

will be well. Iago. Pray, be content.

Clown. To do this is within the compass of man's Otb. O, blood, lago, blood! [change. wit; and therefore I will attempt the doing of it. lago. Patience, I say; your mind, perhaps, may 55

(Exit. Oih. Never, Iago : Like to the Pontic sea,

Def. Where should I lose that handkerchief, Whole icy current and compulsive course

Æmilia? Ne'er feels retiring ebb, but keeps due on

Æmil. I know not, madam. 1 Prime is prompt, from the Celtic or British prim. 2 Living for speaking, manifest.

3 Conclufack for fact. 4 Hearted throne, is the beart on which thou wart entbroned. si.e. swell, because the draught is of poison. 6 j. e. ample; capacious. 7 Mr. Tollet explains this passage thus : “ Let him command any bloody business, and to obey shall be in me an act of pity and compaflion for wrong d Othello. Remorfe frequently signifies pity, mercy, compassion, or a tenderness of heart, unattended with the ftings oi a guilty conscience.



the way?

my lady.


1065 Def. Believe me, I had rather have lost my purses |A sibyl, that had number'd in the world Full of cruzadoes': And, but my noble Moor The sun to course 3 two hundred compasses, Is true of mind, and made of no such baleness In her prophetic fury few'd the work : As jealous creatures are, it were enough

The worms were hallow'd, that did breed the filk; To put him to ill thinking.

5 And it was dy'd in mummy, which the skilful Æmil. Is he not jealous ?

Conserv'd of maiden's hearts. Def. Who, he ? I think the sun, where he was Def. Indeed! is it true? born,

Otb. Moft veritable; therefore look to it well. Drew all such humours from him.

Def. Then 'would to heaven, that I had never Æmil. Look, where he comes.

seen it! Def. I will not leave him now, 'till Cassio be Oth. Ha! wherefore ? Callid to him.-How is it with you, my lord ? Des. Why do you speak so startingly and 4 rath?

Oib. Is it lost? is it gone ? speak, is it out of Enter Orbello. Oib. Well

, my good lady:-[ Afide.] O, hard-15 Des. Heaven bless us ! » ness to diffemble !

Otb. Say you? How do you, Desdemona?

Des. It is not loft; But what an if it were ? Def. Well, my good lord.

Oıb. Ha!
Orb. Give me your hand: This hand is moist, Des. I say, it is not loft.

(sorrow.20 Orb. Fetch it, let me see it. Def. It yet hath felt no age, nor known no Des. Why, so I can, fir, but I will not now :

Orb. This argues fruitfulness and liberal heart;- This is a trick to put me from my suit;
Hot, hot, and moist: This hand of yours requires I pray, let Cassio be receiv'd again.
A fequefter from liberty, fafting and prayer,

Otb. Fetch me that handkerchief: my mind Much castigation, exercise devout;


misgives. For here's a young and sweating devil here,

Def. Come, come;
That commonly rebels. 'Tis a good hand, You'll never meet a more sufficient man.
A frank one.

Otb. The handkerchief,
Def. You may, indeed, say fo;

Def. I pray, talk me of Callio.
For 'twas that hand that gave away my heart., Oib. The handkerchief,
Otb. A liberal hand : the hearts, of old, gave Des. A man that, all his time,

Hath founded his good fortunes on your love;
But our new heraldry is hands, not hearts. Shar'd dangers with you ;-
Def. I cannot speak of this. Come now, your Orb. The handkerchief.


Def. In sooth you are to blame. 0:h. What promise, chuck?

Orb. Away!

[Exit Orbelle. Des. I have sent to bid Caffio come speak with you.

Æmil. Is not this man jealous ? Otb. I have a salt and sullen rheum offends me; Def. I ne'er saw this before. Lend me thy handkerchief.

Sure there's some wonder in this handkerchief: Def. Here, my lord.

401 am most unhappy in the loss of it. Orb. That which I gave you.

Æmil. 'Tis not a year or two thews us a man : Des. I have it not about me.

They are all but ftomachs, and we all but food; Orb. Not?

They eat us hungerly, and, when they are full, Def. No, indeed, my lord.

They belch us. Look you! Caffio, and my husband. Orb. That is a fault : That handkerchief


Enter lago, and Caffio.
Did an Ægyptian to my mother give:
She was a charmer, and could almost read

Iago. There is no other way; 'tis the must do it; The thoughts of people; she told her, while me And, lo, the happiness! go, and importune her. kept it,

Def. How now, good Caffio? what's the news 'Twould make her amiable, and subdue my father 50

with you? Intirely to her love; but, if the lost it,

Caf. Madam, my former suit: I do beseech you,
Or made a gift of it, my father's eye

That, by your virtuous means, I may again
Should hold her loathly, and his fpirits Mould hunt Exist, and be a member of his love,
After new fancies : She, dying, gave it me; Whom I, with all the duty of my heart,
And bid me, when my fate would have me wive, 55 Intirely honour; I would not be delayed :
To give it her. I did fo : and take heed on't, If my offence be of such mortal kind,
Make it a darling like your precious eye ; That neither service past, nor present sorrows,
To lose 't, or give 't away, were such perdition, Nor purpos'd merit in futurity,
As nothing else could match.

Can ransom me into his love again,
Des. Is it possible?

160 But to know so must be by benefit; 0:b. 'Tis true; there's magic in the web of it: So shall I clothe me in a forc'd content,

"A Portugueze coin, (so called from the cross stamped upon it) in value three shillings sterling. 2 i. e. a rbeum obftinately troublesome. 3 i.e. number'd the sun'; courses. + i. c. vebement, violent.


And shut myself up in some other course,

Æmil. Lady, Amen. To fortune's alms'.

Def. I will go seek him.-Caffio, walk hereabout : Def. Alas ! thrice-gentle Cassio,

If I do find him fit, I'll move your suit, My advocation is not now in tune;

And seek to effect it to my uttermost. My lord is not my lord; nor Mould I know him, 5 Caf. I humbly thank your ladyship. Were he in favour 2, as in humour, alter'd.

[Exeunt Desdemona and Emilia, So help me every spirit sanctified,

Enter Bianca.
As I have spoken for you all my beft;

Bian. Save you, friend Caffio!
And stood within the blank of his displeasure 3, Caf. What make you from home?
For my freespeech! You must a while be patient: 10 How is it with you, my most fair Bianca ?
What I can do, I will ; and more I will,

Indeed, sweet love, I was coming to your house. Than for myself I dare; let that suffice you. Bian. And I was going to your lodging, Caffio, lago. Is my lord angry?

What! keep a week away? seven days and nights? Amil. He went hence but now,

Eightscore eight hours? and lovers' abient hours, And, certainly, in strange unquietness. 15 More tedious than the dial eightscore times ?

lago. Can he be angry? I have seen the cannon o weary reckoning! When it hath blown his ranks into the air;

Caf. Pardon me, Bianca; And, like the devil, from his very arm

I have this while with leaden thoughts been pressid: Puff d his own brother ; And can he be angry? But I shall, in a more continuate time, Something of moment, then : I will go meet him ; 20 Strike off this score of absence. Sweet Bianca, There's matter in 't indeed, if he be angry. (Exit.

[Giving ber Desdemona's bandkercbief. Def. I pr’ythee, do 10.-Something, sure, of Take me this work out ?. ftatem

Bian. O Caffio, whence came this?
Either from Venice; or some unhatch'd practice , This is some token from a newer friend.
Made demonstrable here in Cyprus to him, 25 To the felt absence now I feel a cause:
Hath puddled his clear spirit: and, in such cases, Is it come to this? Well, well.
Men's natures wrangle with inferior things,

Caf. Go to, woman!
Though great ones are their object.

Throw your vile guesses in the devil's teeth, 'Tis even fo; for let our finger ach,

From whence you have them. You are jealous now, And it endues our other healthful members 30 That this is from some mistress, some remembrance : Even to that sense of pain : Nay, we must think, No, in good troth, Bianca. Men are not gods;

Bian. Why, whose is it?

[ber. Nor of them look for such observancy

Caj. I know not, sweet: I found it in my chamAs fits the bridal.---Beshrew me much, Æmilia, I like the work well; ere it be demanded, I was (unhandsome warriors as I am)

|35|(As like enough it will) I'd have it copy'd : Arraigning his unkindness with my soul;

Take it and do't; and leave me for this time. But now I find, I had suborn'd the witness,

Bian. Leave you! wherefore ? And he's indited falsely.

Cas. I do attend here on the general ; Æmil. Pray heaven, it be state matters, as you And think it no addition, nor my with, think;

40 To have him see mę woman'd. And no conception, nor no jealous toy,

Bian. Why, I pray you?
Concerning you.

Caf. Not that I love you not.
Def. Alas the day! I never gave him cause. Bian. But that you do not love me.

Æmil. But jealous souls will not be answer'd so; I pray, you, bring me on the way a little;
They are not ever jealous for the cause, 145 And say, if I shall see you soon at night.
But jealous for they are jealous : 'tis a monster, Caf. 'Tis but a little way that I can bring you,
Begot upon itself, born on itself.

For I attend here: but I'll see you soon. Def. Heaven keep that monster from Othello's Bian. 'Tis very good; I must be circumstanc'd 8,


I The meaning, according to Mr. Steevens, is, “ I will put on a constrained appearance of being contented, and Mut myself up in a different course of life, no longer to depend on my own efforts, but to wait for relief from the accidental hand of charity." We think, however, it means no more than that he would try what Fortune would do for him in some other course of life. 2 In look, in

3 i. e. within the shot of his anger. 4 Some treason that has not taken effect. 5 Urbandsome warrior, is unfair assailant. 6 i. e. a time less interrupted, time which I can call more my own. 7 i. c. “ Copy this work in another handkerchief." Si. e. Your civility is now grown conditional,



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Iago. Will you think fo?


No more than he'll unswear.

0:b. What hath he said ? An Apartment in the Castle.

Iago. Why, that he did, I know not what he did.
Enter Othello, and lago.

Oib. What? what?
TILL think so?

S lago. Lie-
Oib. Think so, Iago ?

Otb. With her? lago. What,

Lage. With her, on her; what you will. To kiss in private ?

Oib. Lie with her! lie on her!-We say, lie Ork. An unauthoriz'd kiss.

on her, when they belie her: Lie with her! that's lago. Or to be naked with her friend abed, 10 fulsome. Handkerchief,confeffions,-handker, An hour, or more, not meaning any harm ? Ichief. To confess, and be hang'd for his labour.

Otb. Naked abed, lago, and not mean harm'? First, to be hang'd, and then--o confess :-/ It is hypocrisy against the devil :

tremble at it.-Nature would not invest herself in They that mean virtuously, and yet do so, ruch shadowing passion, without some instruction. The devil their virtue tempts, and they tempt|15|It is not words, that shake me thus 3 :-Pinh! heaven.

Noses, ears, and lips 4 :-Is it possible ?-Confess! lago. So they do nothing, 'tis a venial Nip: -Handkerchief ! O devil !But if I give my wife a handkerchief,

[Falls in a trance. Orb. What then?

shers, lago. Work on, lago. Why, then 'tis hers, my lord; and, being 20 My medicine, work! Thus credulous fools are She may, I think, bestow 't on any man.

caught ; 0:b. She is protectress of her honour too; And many worthy and chaste dames, even thus, May she give that ?

All guiltless moet reproach.-What, ho! my lord! lago. Her honour is an essence that 's not seen; My lord, I say !--Othello!-How now, Calio ? They have it very oft, that have it not :


Enter Cafio. But, for the handkerchief,

Caf. What 's the matter? Oıb. By heaven, I would most gladly have for- lago. My lord is falien into an epilepsy ; got it :

This is his second fit; he had one yesterday. Thou saidít,-0, it comes o'er my memory, Caf. Rub him about the temples. As doth the raven o'er the infected house, 130 lago. No, forbear: Boding to all,—he had my handkerchief.

The lethargy must have his quiet course : lags. Ay, what of that?

If not, he foams at mouth ; and, by and by, Oib. That's not so good now.

Breaks out to savage madness. Look, he stirs : lago. What if I had said, I had seen him do Do you withdraw yourself a little while, you wrong?

35 He will recover straight; when he is gone, Or heard him sayı-As knaves be such abroad, I would on great occasion speak with you. Who having, by their own importunate suit,

[Exit Caffio. Or voluntary dotage of some mistress,

How is it, general? have you not hurt your head? Convinced ? or supplied them, cannot choose Orb. Dost thou mock me ? But they must blab,

140 lago. I mock you ! no, by heaven : Orb. Hath he said any thing?

'Would, you would bear your fortunes like a man. lago. He hath, my lord; but, be you well assur'd,) Otb. A horned man 's a monster, and a beast.

"This observation, Dr. Warburton says, seems strangely abrupt and unoccafioned. We must suppose that Iago had, before they appear in this scene, been applying cases of false comfort to Othello; as that though the parties had been even found in bed together, there might be no harm done; it might be only for the trial of their virtue; as was reported of the Romith saint, Robert D'Arbrissel and his nuns. To this we must suppose Othello here replies; and like a good proteftant. For so the sentiment does but suit the character of the speaker, Shakspeare little heeds how these sentiments are circumstanced. 2 Convinc'd, for conquer'd, subdued. 3 Dr. Johnson's comment on this passage is as follows : “ There has always prevailed in the world an opinion, that when any great calamity happens at a distance, notice is given of it to the sufferer by some dejection or perturbation of mind, of which he discovers no external cause. This is ascribed to that general communication of one part of the universe with another, which is called sympathy and antipathy; or to the secret monition, inArution, and influence of a superior Being, which superintends the order of nature and of life. Othello says, Nature could not invest berself in such soadowing passion without instruction. It is not words sbat shake me thus. This paffion, which spreads its clouds over me, is the effect of some agency more than the operation of words ; it is one of those notices which men have of unseen calamities." 4 Othello is imagining to himself the familiarities which he supposes to have passed between Callio and his wife.


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