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A fasting tiger safer by the tooth,
Than keep in peace that hand which thou dost hold.
K. Phi. I may disjoin my hand, but not my

faith.
Pand. So mak'st thou faith an enemy to faith;
And, like a civil war, selst oath to oath,
Thy tongue against thy tongue. O, let thy vow
First made to heaven, first be to heaven perform’d;
That is, to be the champion of our church !
What since thou swor'st, is sworn against thyself,
And may not be performed by thyself:
For that, which thou hast sworn to do amiss,
Is not amiss, when it is truly done ; 8

Our author was probably thinking on the lions, which in his time, as at present, were kept in the Tower, in dens fo small as fully to justify the epithet he has used. Malone.

8 Is not amiss, when it is truly done ;] This is a conclusion de travers. We should read :

Is yet amiss, The Oxford editor, according to his usual custom, will improve it further, and readsmost amiss. WARBURTON. I rather read :

Is't not amiss, when it is truly done? as the alteration is less, and the sense which Dr. Warburton first discovered is preserved. Johnson. The old copies read:

Is not amiss, when it is truly done. Pandulph, having conjured the King to perform his first vow to heaven,- to be champion of the church, tells him, that what he has since sworn is sworn against himself, and thesefore may not be performed by him: for that, says he, which you have sworn to do amifs, is not amiss, (i. e. becomes right) when it is done truly (that is, as he explains it, not done at all;) and being not done, where it would be a fin to do it, the truth is most done when you do it noi, So, in Love's Labour's Loft:

“ It is religion to be thus forfworn.Ritson. Again, in Cymbeline :

she is foolid
“ With a most false effect, and I the truer
So to be false with her."

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And being not done, where doing tends to ill,
The truth is then most done not doing it: '
The better act of purposes mistook
Is, to mistake again; though indirect,
Yet indirection thereby grows direct,
And falsehood falsehood cures; as fire cools fire,
Within the fcorched veins of one new burn'd.
It is religion, that doth make vows kept;
But thou haft sworn against religion ;

By placing the second couplet of this sentence before the first, the passage will appear perfectly clear. Where doing tends to ill, where an intended act is criminal, the truth is most done, by not doing the act. The criminal act therefore which thou haft sworn to do, is not amiss, will not be imputed to you as a crime, if it be done truly, in the sense I have now affixed to truth; that is, if you do not do it. MALONE.

9 But thou haft sworn against religion ; &c.] The propositions, that the voice of the church is the voice of heaven, and that the pope uiters the voice of the church, neither of which Pandulph's auditors would deny, being once granted, the argument here used is ir. resistible; nor is it easy, notwithstanding the gingle, to enforce it with greater brevity or propriety:

But thou has sworn against religion :
By what thou swear'against ihe thing thou swear'ft:
And mak'st an oath the surety for thy truth,
Against an oath the truth thou art unsure

To fwear, swear only not to be forsworn. By what. Sir T. Hanmer reads---By that. I think it should be rather by which. That is, thou swearft against the thing, by which thou swear'A; that is, against religion. The most formidable difficulty is in these lines:

And makAt an oath the furety for thy truth,
Against an oath the truth thou art unsure

To fwear, &c.
This Sir T. Hanmer reforms thus :

And mak' f an oath the surety for thy truth,
Against an oath; this truth thou art unsure

To fwear, &c.
Dr. Warburton writes it thus:

Against an oath the truth thou art unfurewhich leaves the passage to me as obscure as before,

By what thou swear’st, against the thing thou

swear'st;
And mak’st an oath the surety for thy truth
Against an oath : The truth thou art unsure
To swear, swear only not to be forsworn;'

I know not whether there is any corruption beyond the omission of a point. The sense, after I had considered it, appeared to me only this: In fwearing by religion against religion, to which thou has already sworn, thou makes an oath the security for thy faith against an oath already taken. I will give, says he, a rule for conscience in these cases. Thou may'st be in doubt about the matter of an oath ; when thou sweareft, thou mayst not be always sure to fwear rightly; but let this be thy settled principle, swear only not to be forsworn; let not the latter oaths be at variance with the former, Truth, through this whole speech, means rectitude of conduct.

Johnson. I believe the old reading is right; and that the line “ By what," &c. is put in appofition with that which precedes it: ." But thou hast lworn against religion; thou hast sworn, by what thou sweareft, i. e. in that which thou haft sworn, against the thing thou sweareft hy; i, e, religion, Our author has many such el. liptical expressions. So, in K, Henry VIII:

“ Whoever the king favours,
“ The cardinal will quickly find employment for],

“ And far enough from court too." Again, ibidem:

“ This is about that which the bishop fpake" [Of ], Again, in K. Richard III:

“ True ornaments to know a holy man" (by], Again, in The Winter's Tale :

" A bed-swerver, even as bad as those
as Th.

“ That vulgars give bold'ít titles" [to]. Again, ibidem :

“ the queen is spotless

“ In this that you accuse her” [of]. MALONE. 22 fwear only not to be forsworn;] The old copy reads fwears, which in my apprehension shews that two half lines have been loit, in which the person fupposed to swear was mentioned, When the same word is repeated in two succeeding lines, the eye of the compofitor often glances from the first to the second, and in consequence the intermediate words are omitted. For what has

Else, what a mockery should it be to swear?
But thou dost swear only to be forsworn;
And most forsworn, to keep what thou doft swear.
Therefore, thy latter vows, against thy first,
Is in thyself rebellion to thyself:
And better conquest never canst thou make,
Than arm thy constant and thy nobler parts
Against these giddy loose suggestions :
Upon which better part our prayers come in,
If thou vouchfafe them: but, if not, then know,
The peril of our curses light on thee;
So heavy, as thou shalt not shake them off,
But, in despair, die under their black weight.

Aust. Rebellion, Alat rebellion!
BAST.

Will't not be? Will not a calf's-skin stop that mouth of thine ?

Lew. Father, to arms!
Blanch.

Upon thy wedding day?
Against the blood that thou hast married ?
What, shall our feast be kept with slaughter'd men?
Shall braying trumpets,' and loud churlish drums,-

been loft, it is now in vain to seek; I have therefore adopted the emendation made by Mr. Pope, which makes some kind of sense.

MALONE. 3 - braying trumpets,] Bray appears to have been particularly applied to express the harsh grating sound of the trumpet. So, in Spenser's Faery Queen, B. IV. c. xii. ft. 6:

. " And when it ceaft shrill trompets loud did bray." Again, B. IV. c. iv. ft. 48:

“ Then Thrilling trompets loudly 'gan to bray." And elsewhere in the play before us:

“ - Hard-resounding trumpets' dreadful bray." Again, in Hamlet:

" The trumpet shall bray outGawin Douglas, in his Translation of the Æneid, renders “ sub axe fonanti " (Lib. V. v. 820:)

“ Under the brayand quhelis and affiltre." Blackmore is ridiculed in the Dunciad, (B. II.) for endeavouring

Clamours of hell, be measures * to our pomp?
O husband, hear me !-ah, alack, how new
Is husband in my mouth!even for that name,
Which till this time my tongue did ne'er pro-

nounce,
Upon my knee I beg, go not to arms
Against mine uncle.
Const.

O, upon my knee,
Made hard with kneeling, I do pray to thee,
Thou virtuous Dauphin, alter not the doom
Fore-thought by heaven.
Blanch. Now shall I see thy love; What motive

may Be stronger with thee than the name of wife? Const. That which upholdeth him that thee

upholds, His honour: O, thine honour, Lewis, thine honour!

Lew. I muse, your majesty doth seem so cold, When such profound respects do pull you on.

30 ennoble this word by applying it to the sound of armour, war, &c, He might have pleaded these authorities, and that of Milton:

Arms on armour clashing bray'd

“ Horrible discord.” Paradise Loft, B. VI. v. 209. Nor did Gray, scrupulous as he was in language, reject it in The Bard:

“ Heard ye the din of battle bray?” Holt White. . A b e measures --] The measures, it has already been more than once observed, were a species of folemn dance in our author's time. This speech is formed on the following lines in the old play :

« Blanch. And will your grace upon your wedding-day
“ Forsake your bride, and follow dreadful drums?
Phil. Drums shall be musick to this wedding day.”

MALONE. s I muse,] i. e. I wonder. Reed. So, in Middleton's “ Tragi-Coomodie, called The Witch:"

“ And why thou staist so long, I muse,
“ Since the air's so sweet and good.” STEEVENS.

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