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York. Take not, good cousin, further than you

should, Left you mis-take: The heavens are o'er your

head. Boling. I know it, uncle; and oppose not Myself against their will.-But who comes here?

Enter Percy.
Well, Harry; what, will not this castle yield?

Percr. The castle royally is mann'd, my lord, Against thy entrance.

Boling. Royally!
Why, it contains no king?

Yes, my good lord,
It doth contain a king; king Richard lies
Within the limits of yon lime and stone:
And with him are lord Aumerle, lord Salisbury,
Sir Stephen Scroop; besides a clergyman
Of holy reverence, who, I cannot learn.

North. Belike, it is the bishop of Carlisle.

6 I know it, uncle; and oppose not

Myself against their will. But who comes here?] These lines should be regulated thus:

I know it, uncle; and oppose not myself

Against their will. But who comes bere?
Such is the regulation of the old copies. MALONE.

I regard the word myself, as an interpolation, and conceive Shakspeare to have written

and oppose not

Against their will.
To oppose may be here a verb neuter. So, in K. Lear:

" — a servant, thrill’d with remorse,

Oppos'd against the act.” Steevens,

Well, Harry; what, will not this castle yield?] The old copy destroys the metre by reading-Welcome, Harry; The emenda tion is Sir T. Hanmer's. STEVENS.

BOLING. Noble lord,

[To North. Go to the rude ribs of that ancient castle; Through brazen trumpet send the breath of parle Into his ruin'd ears, and thus deliver. Harry Bolingbroke On both his knees, doth kiss king Richard's hand; And sends allegiance, and true faith of heart, To his most royal person: hither come Even at his feet to lay my arms and power; Provided that, my banishment repealid, And lands restor'd again, be freely granted : If not, I'll use the advantage of my power, And lay the summer's duft with showers of blood, Rain'd from the wounds of slaughter'd Englishmen: The which, how far off from the mind of Boling

broke It is, such crimson tempest should bedrench The fresh green lap of fair king Richard's land, My stooping duty tenderly shall show. Gó, signify as much; while here we march Upon the grassy carpet of this plain.[NORTHUMBERLAND advances to the Castle, with

a Trumpet. Let's march without the noise of threat’ning drum, That from the castle's totter'd battlements Our fair appointments may be well perus’d. Methinks, king Richard and myself Thould meet With no less terror than the elements

Noble lord,

Go to the rude ribs, &c.] It is observable that our author in His addresses to persons, often begins with an hemistich. So, in Troilus and Cressida, Act II. sc. iii :

“ Agam. Princes,

“ What grief hath fet the jaundice on your cheeks?" This observation may be of use in other places, where in the old copies, by the mistake of the transcriber, the metre is destroyed by this regulation not being observed. MALONE,

Of fire and water, when their thund'ring shock
At meeting tears the cloudy cheeks of heaven.
Be he the fire, I'll be the yielding water:
The rage be his, while on the earth I rain
My waters; on the earth, and not on him.
March on, and mark king Richard how he looks.

A parle founded, and answered by another trumpet within Flourish. Enter on the walls King RiCHARD, the Bishop of Carlisle,' AUMERLE, SCROOP, and SALISBURY. York. See, fee, king Richard doth himself ap

pear, As doth the blushing discontented fun From out the fiery portal of the east; When he perceives the envious clouds are bent To dim his glory, and to ftain the track Of his bright passage to the occident. Yet looks he like a king; behold, his eye, As bright as is the eagle's, lightens forth Controlling majefty; Alack, alack, for woe, That any harm should stain so fair a show! K. Rich. We are amaz’d; and thus long have

we stood To watch the fearful bending of thy knee,

[To NORTHUMBERLAND. Because we thought ourself thy lawful king: And if we be, how dare thy joints forget

9_ the Bishop of Carlisle,] was Thomas Merkes. WALPOLE:

2 See, see, king Richard doth himself appear,] The following fix lines are absurdly given to Bolingbroke, who is made to condemn his own conduct and difculp the king's. It is plain these fix and the four following all belong to York. WARBURTON.

It should be observed that the four last of these lines are in all the copies given to York. STEEVENS.

To pay their awful duty to our presence ?
If we be not, show us the hand of God
That hath dismiss'd us from our stewardship;
For well we know, no hand of blood and bone
Can gripe the sacred handle of our scepter,
Unless he do profane, steal, or usurp.
And though you think, that all, as you have done,
Have torn their fouls, by turning them from us,
And we are barren, and bereft of friends ;-
Yet know,—my master, God omnipotent,
Is must'ring in his clouds, on our behalf,
Armies of pestilence; and they shall strike
Your children yet unborn, and unbegot,
That lift your vassal hands against my head,
And threat the glory of my precious crown.
Tell Bolingbroke, (for yond', methinks, he is,)
That every stride he makes upon my land,
Is dangerous treason : He is come to ope
The purple testament of bleeding war;3
But ere the crown he looks for live in peace,
Ten thousand bloody crowns of mothers' fons
Shall ill become the flower of England's face; +
Change the complexion of her maid-pale peace

Purpd supposition e word teftament war, that epithet

* The purple teftament of bleeding war;] I once thought that Shakspeare inight have had the sacred book (which is frequently covered with purple leather) in his thoughts; but the following note renders such a supposition extremely doubtful. MALONE.

I believe our author uses the word teftament in its legal fense. Bolingbroke is come to open the teítament of war, that he may peruse what is decreed there in his favour. Purple is an epithet referring to the future effusion of blood. STEVENS.

Mr. Steevens is certainly right in his interpretation of this paffage. See Julius Cæfar:

" Now, while your purpled hands do reek and fmoke,

" Fulfil your pleasure." Malone. * But ere the crown he looks for live in peace,

Ten thoujand bloody crowns of mothers' fons

Shall ill become the flower of England's face:] By the Aswer of England's face is meant the choicest youths of England, who shall

To scarlet indignation, and bedew
Her pastures' grass with faithful English blood.
North. The King of heaven forbid, our lord the

Should so with civil and uncivil arms
Be rush'd upon! Thy thrice-noble cousin,
Harry Bolingbroke, doth humbly kiss thy hand,
And by the honourable tomb he swears,
That stands upon thy royal grandfire's bones;
And by the royalties of both your bloods,
Currents that spring from one most gracious head;
And by the buried hand of warlike Gaunt;3

be slaughtered in this quarrel, or have bloody crowns. The flower of England's face, to design her choicest youth, is a fine and noble expression. Pericles, by a similar thought, said “ that the destruction of the Athenian youth was a fatality like cutting off the spring from the year.” WARBURTON.

Dr. Warburton reads---light in peace, but live in peace is more suitable to Richard's intention, which is to tell him, that though he should get the crown by rebellion, it will be long before it will live in peace, be so settled as to be firm. The flower of England's face, is very happily explained. Johnson.

The flower of England's face, I believe, means England's flowery face, the flowery surface of England's foil. The same kind of expression is used in Sidney's Arcadia, p. 2: “ - opening the cherry of her lips," i. e. her cherry lips. Again, p. 240, edit. 1633: « — the sweet and beautiful flower of ber face." Again, Drayton, in Mortimer's Epistle to Queen Isabell:

“ And in the field advance our plumy crest,
“ And march upon fair England's flow'ry breaft.

STEEVENS. 2 Her pastures' grass--] Old copies pastors. Corrected by Mr. Theobald. Malone.

3 And by the buried hand of warlike Gaunt;] Dr. Warburton would read

And by the warlike hand of buried Gaunt; and this, no doubt, was Shakspeare's meaning, though he has affectedly misplaced the epithets. Thus, in King John, we have

- There is no malice in this burning coal," instead of

“ There is no malice burning in this coal.”

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