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Uncle, you say, the queen is at your house;
YORK. A gentleman of mine I have despatch'd
away; To fight with Glendower and his complices; Awhile to work, and, after, holiday. (Exeunt, 4 Thanks, gentle uncle.-Come, lords, away;
To fight with Glendower and his complices;
Awhile to work, and, after, holiday.] Though the intermediate line has taken possession of all the old copies, I have great fufpicion of its being an interpolation; and have therefore ventured to throw it out. The first and third lines rhyme to each other; nor do I imagine this was casual, but intended by the poet. Were we to acknowledge the line genuine, it must argue the poet of forgetful. ness and inattention to history. Bolingbroke is, as it were, but just arrived; he is now at Bristol, weak in his numbers; has had no meeting with a parliament; nor is so far assured of the succession, as to think of going to suppress insurrections before he is planted in the throne. Besides, we find the opposition of Glendower begins The First Part of K. Henry IV. and Mortimer's defeat by that hardy Welchman is the tidings of the first scene of that play. Again, though Glendower, in the very first year of K. Henry IV. began to be troublesome, put in for the supremacy of Wales, and imprisoned Mortimer; yet it was not till the succeeding year that the King employed any force against him. THEOBALD.
This emendation, which I think is just, has been followed by Sir T. Hanmer, but is neglected by Dr. Warburton. JOHNSON.
It is evident from the preceding scene, that there was a force in Wales, which Bolingbroke might think it neceisary to suppress; and why might not Shakspeare call it Glendower's? When we next fee Bolingbroke, he is in Wales, and mentions his having received intelligence that the Welchmen are dispersed. REED.
Mr. Heath observes, that Bolingbroke marched to Chester, probably with a view to attack the Welsh army headed by Lord Sa. lisbury. He thinks therefore the line is genuine. See sc. iii. p. 283. Stowe expressly says that “ Owen Glendower served King Richard at Flint-Castle," MALONE,
SCENE II. The coast of Wales. A castle in view. Flourish: drums and trumpets. Enter King RICHARD,
Bishop of Carlisle, AUMERLE, and Soldiers.
R. Rich. Barkloughly castle call you this at hand? Aum. Yea, my lord: How brooks your grace the
air, After late tossing on the breaking feas? K. Rich. Needs must I like it well; I weep for
joy, : To stand upon my kingdom once again.Dear earth, I do falute thee with my hand, Though rebels wound thee with their horses' hoofs: As a long parted mother with her child Plays fondly with her tears, and smiles in meeting; So, weeping, smiling, greet I thee, my earth,
• Here may be properly inserted the last scene of the second act.
JOHNSON, s After late tossing, &c.] The old copies redundantly read:
After your late tofing, &c. STEBVENS. 6 miles in meeting;] It has been propofed to read in weeping; and this change the repetition in the next line seems plainly to point out. STEVENS.
As a long parted mother with her child
« Ως ειπων, αλοχοιο φιλης εν κιρσιν εθηκε
- AAKPYOEN TEAAEAEA." Hom, Il. Z. Perhaps smiles is here used as a substantive. As a mother plays fondly with her child from whom she has been a long time parted, crying, and at the same time smiling, at meeting him.
It has been proposed to read-smiles in weeping; and I once thought the emendation very plausible. But I am now persuaded the text is right. If we read weeping, the long parted mother and
And do thee favour with my royal hands.
made you king,
her child do not meet, and there is no particular cause assigned for cither her smiles or her tears. MALONE.
From the actual smiles and tears of the long parted mother, &c. we may, I think, fufficiently infer that she had met with her child,
STEEVENS. 7 Guard it, I pray thee,] Guard it, fignifies here, as in many other places, border it. MALONE.
8 This earth shall have a feeling,] Perhaps Milton had not forgot this passage, when he wrote, in his Comus
“ dumb things shall be mov'd to sympathize,
STEEVENS. 9 Fear, not, my lord; &c.] Of this speech, the four last lines were restored from the first edition by Mr. Pope. They were, I fappose, omitted by the players only to shorten the scene, for they are worthy of the author and suitable to the personage.
And we will not, heaven's offer we refuse;'
Aum. He means, my lord, that we are too remiss;
K. Rich. Discomfortablecousin! know'st thou not, That, when the searching eye of heaven is hid Behind the globe, and lights the lower world, Then thieves and robbers range abroad unseen, In murders, and in outrage, bloody here; But when, from under this terrestrial ball, He fires the proud tops of the eastern pines, And darts his light through every guilty hole, Then murders, treasons, and detested sins, Thecloak of night being pluck'd from offtheir backs,
1- elje, if heaven would,
And we will not, heaven's offer we refuse;] Thus the quarto 1597, except that the word if is wanting. The quarto 1608, and the late editions, read And we would not. The word if wag supplied by Mr. Pope. Both the metre and the sense show that it was accidentally omitted in the first copy. Malone.
2 — and lights the lower world,] The old copies read that lights. The emendation was made by Dr. Johnson. Sense might be obtained by a Night transposition, without changing the words of the original text:
That when the searching eye of heaven, that lights
The lower world, is hid behind the globe; By the lower world, as the passage is amended by Dr. Johnson, we must understand, a world lower than this of ours; I suppose, our Antipodes. Malone.
That this is the sense of the passage, is obvious from the King's application of the fimile:
" So, when this thief, this traitor Bolingbroke,
“ Shall see us rising in our throne the east,” &c. HENLEY. The lower world may fignify our world. Malone.
3 He fires the proud tops of the eastern pines,] It is not easy to point out an image more striking and beautiful than this, in any poet, whether ancient or modern, STREVEN8.
Stand bare and naked, trembling at themselves ?
3 The breath of worldly men, &c.] Here is the doctrine of indefeasible right expressed in the strongest terms; but our poet did not learn it in the reign of K. James, to which it is now the practice of all writers, whose opinions are regulated by fashion or interest, to impute the original of every tenet which they have been taught to think false or foolish. JOHNSON.
Far be it from me to palliate the conduct of the wretched James ; but the truth is that the inherent rights of the people had been ill understood, or rather were not acknowledged, by his predecessors. The doctrine of the divine right of kings, and of the passive obedience of subjects, have never been carried further in any country than in this island, while the house of Tudor sate on the throne. Of this fact, the Homilies, composed during the reign of young Edward, and appointed in the Thirty-nine Articles to be read in churches, furnish striking and abundant proof. Take, as an instance, the following extract from the Homily against Disobedience and wilful Rebellion : « As the name of the king is very often attri. buted and given unto God in holy scriptures, so doth God himself in the same scriptures sometime vouchsafe to communicate his name with earthly princes, terming them Gods." ift part. And in the 4th part, we are directed to “ call to remembrance the heavy wrath and dreadful indignation of Almighty God against subjects as do only but inwardly grudge, mutter, and murmur against their governors, though their inward treason, fo privily hatched in their breasts come not to an open declaration of their doings.” Holt WHITE.