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THE SETTING-OUT OF WORKS FOR CONSTRUCTION AND
FROM ACTUAL PRACTICE
INTENDED AS A HANDBOOK FOR FIELD AND OFFICE USE
ALSO AS A TEXT BOOK FOR STUDENTS
JOHN WHITELAW, JUN.
ASSOCIATE MEMBER OF THE INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS
AUTHOR OF "POINTS AND CROSSINGS
WMitb about two hundred and Sirty 3llustrations
D. VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY,
It has appeared to the Author that many of the works on Surveying hitherto published are too much devoted to the elementary part of the subject, and leave the reader almost entirely in ignorance of much of the actual practice of Civil Engineers and Surveyors in the various branches of surveying and setting out of works. In others, again, the elementary part of the subject is omitted, while they deal with special branches or the higher class of Surveying.
It is hoped that the present treatise will be found to give the student of Engineering sufficiently full details of the work which he may be called upon to carry out in actual practice, while in the earlier chapters it will be seen that simpler classes of Surveying and Levelling are also fully treated.
The aim of the Author has been to make the treatment of the subject as complete and comprehensive as possible, the object kept constantly in view being to make the work a useful text-book of principles and methods for students, as well as a guide to the actual practice of Surveyors and Civil Engineers in the various branches of Surveying. 1
Tacheometry or Stadia Surveying, which is now coming into general use, has been fully treated in Chapter VI., and full Tables for the reduction of inclined sights have been given.
A chapter has been devoted to Surveys Abroad in Undeveloped Country, and as these are conducted under very different conditions from home work, the information thus afforded should prove eminently useful to those who may be called upon to carry out surveys in new countries or undeveloped regions.
A chapter has also been devoted to Astronomical Observations Used in Surveying. These are generally necessary in surveys in new countries, and hitherto when such information has been required search has been necessary in various different works. Being here collected and treated in one chapter, the information will be readily available for reference.
Many examples of surveys, taken from actual practice, have been given throughout the volume.