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THE SETTING-OUT OF WORKS FOR CONSTRUCTION AND
SURVEYS ABROAD, WITH EXAMPLES TAKEN

FROM ACTUAL PRACTICE

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INTENDED AS A HANDBOOK FOR FIELD AND OFFICE USE

ALSO AS A TEXT BOOK FOR STUDENTS

BY

JOHN WHITELAW, JUN.

ASSOCIATE MEMBER OF THE INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS

AUTHOR OF "POINTS AND CROSSINGS

WMitb about two hundred and Sirty 3llustrations

epis Lumen

LONDON
CROSBY LOCKWOOD AND SON
7, STATIONERS' HALL COURT, LUDGATE HILL

1902

D. VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY,

NEW YORK.

PREFACE.

It has appeared to the Author that many of the works on Surveying hitherto published are too much devoted to the elementary part of the subject, and leave the reader almost entirely in ignorance of much of the actual practice of Civil Engineers and Surveyors in the various branches of surveying and setting out of works. In others, again, the elementary part of the subject is omitted, while they deal with special branches or the higher class of Surveying.

It is hoped that the present treatise will be found to give the student of Engineering sufficiently full details of the work which he may be called upon to carry out in actual practice, while in the earlier chapters it will be seen that simpler classes of Surveying and Levelling are also fully treated.

The aim of the Author has been to make the treatment of the subject as complete and comprehensive as possible, the object kept constantly in view being to make the work a useful text-book of principles and methods for students, as well as a guide to the actual practice of Surveyors and Civil Engineers in the various branches of Surveying. 1

Tacheometry or Stadia Surveying, which is now coming into general use, has been fully treated in Chapter VI., and full Tables for the reduction of inclined sights have been given.

A chapter has been devoted to Surveys Abroad in Undeveloped Country, and as these are conducted under very different conditions from home work, the information thus afforded should prove eminently useful to those who may be called upon to carry out surveys in new countries or undeveloped regions.

A chapter has also been devoted to Astronomical Observations Used in Surveying. These are generally necessary in surveys in new countries, and hitherto when such information has been required search has been necessary in various different works. Being here collected and treated in one chapter, the information will be readily available for reference.

Many examples of surveys, taken from actual practice, have been given throughout the volume.

EDINBURGH,

July 1902.

CONTENTS.

PAGES

Instruments : Chain-Reading the Chain-Laying out Chain on Ground

-Arrows-Ranging Rods and Flags—Laths-Whites --Steel Tapes

-Linen Tapes --Steel Band-Adjusting the Chain-Cross Staff--

Opticai Square--Line Ranger - Use of the Chain - Chaining on

Slopes—Accuracy of Ordinary Chaining-Obstacles to Measuring

-Setting out a Right Angle with the Chain-Chaining across a

River or other Obstacle-Surveying with the Chain only-Recon-

naissance—Sketching--Field Book — Testing the Chain-Chainmen

– Examples of Surveying with the Chain only— Tie Lines - Offsets-

Field Book Sketch and Fixing Stations-Long Offsets-Best Form

of Triangles-General Principles to be observed in laying out the

Chain Lines-Surveying a Pond or Plantation with the Chain

only-Fully detailed Example of Chain Survey-Fixing Positions

of Buildings--Ranging Line across Elevations or Depressions-

Marking Stations with Pegs-Ranging Intermediate Points in Long

Lines--Cutting Down Hedges and Fences-Clearing-up Ground

after Survey--Plotting the Survey : Scales– Drawing Instruments

-Drawing Paper-Plotting — l’lotting Offsets — Colouring-Con-

ventional Signs for delineating various objects on Plans--North

Point-Margin-Printing-Survey executed with Incorrect Chain-

Measures of Length-Measures of Area-Computation of Areas-

Give and Take Lines-Area of Triangles : Ordinary Method-Cal-

culation of Area froin Figures in Field Book-Area of Irregular

Strip of Ground-Simpson's Rule for Calculation of Areas - Instru-

ments for Measuring Areas : Amsler's Planimeter—The Hatchet

Planimeter-Stanley's Computing Scale - Area of Survey executed

with Incorrect Chain-Copying Plans-Enlarging and Reducing

Plans—The Pantagraph—The Eidograph-Lithographing Plans-

Reducing Plans by Photography -

1-59

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