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SURVEYING

AS PRACTISED BY CIVIL ENGINEERS
AND SURVEYORS

INCLUDING

THE SETTING-OUT OF WORKS FOR CONSTRUCTION AND
SURVEYS ABROAD, WITH EXAMPLES TAKEN
FROM ACTUAL PRACTICE

The D. Van Nostrand Company

intend this book to be sold to the Public at the advertised price, and supply it to the Trade on terms which will not allow of discount.

Capio Lumen

LONDON

CROSBY LOCKWOOD AND SON 7, STATIONERS' HALL COURT, LUDGATE HILL

1902

D. VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY,

NEW YORK.

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Price $4.00 Nck

SURVEYING

AS PRACTISED BY CIVIL ENGINEERS
AND SURVEYORS

INCLUDING

THE SETTING-OUT OF WORKS FOR CONSTRUCTION AND
SURVEYS ABROAD, WITH EXAMPLES TAKEN
FROM ACTUAL PRACTICE

INTENDED AS A HANDBOOK FOR FIELD AND OFFICE USE
ALSO AS A TEXT-BOOK FOR STUDENTS

BY

JOHN WHITELAW, JUN.

ASSOCIATE MEMBER OF THE INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS
66
AUTHOR OF POINTS AND CROSSINGS

With about Two Hundred and Sixty Illustrations

Captoo Yumer

LONDON

CROSBY LOCKWOOD AND SON
7, STATIONERS' HALL COURT, LUDGATE HILL

1902

D. VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY,

NEW YORK.

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PREFACE.

IT has appeared to the Author that many of the works on Surveying hitherto published are too much devoted to the elementary part of the subject, and leave the reader almost entirely in ignorance of much of the actual practice of Civil Engineers and Surveyors in the various branches of surveying and setting-out of works. In others, again, the elementary part of the subject is omitted, while they deal with special branches or the higher class of Surveying.

It is hoped that the present treatise will be found to give the student of Engineering sufficiently full details of the work which he may be called upon to carry out in actual practice, while in the earlier chapters it will be seen that simpler classes of Surveying and Levelling are also fully treated.

The aim of the Author has been to make the treatment of the subject as complete and comprehensive as possible, the object kept constantly in view being to make the work a useful text-book of principles and methods for students, as well as a guide to the actual practice of Surveyors and Civil Engineers in the various branches of Surveying. ¡

Tacheometry or Stadia Surveying, which is now coming into general use, has been fully treated in Chapter VI., and full Tables for the reduction of inclined sights have been given.

A chapter has been devoted to Surveys Abroad in

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