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INDEX.

Absolute length of steel tape, 447
Abutments, setting out bridge, 252
Adjustment of chain, 4, 202; of theo-

dolite, 202 to 211; of sextant, 332,
333; of box sextant, 211; of com-
pass, 211, 212, 213; of dumpy
level, 213 to 216; of Y level, 216,
217, 191 to 197; of closing error
of traverse, 98 to 102

Alignment of tunnels, 285 to 310
Angles, setting out right, 4, 5, 12;
measuring with theodolite, 82, 83,
85 to 92, 96, 97, 459 to 462, 471,
473; with box sextant, 74, 106;
with sextant and artificial horizon,
335; oblique with sextant, 337;
reduction of oblique to horizontal,
337; with plane table, 109; by
photographic surveying, 112; pro-
tracting and plotting, 122, 92; of
curves, 236; for tunnels, 295;
measurement of small vertical with
bubble tube, 129; accurate methods
of observing for trigonometrical
surveys, 459 to 462, 471, 473;
time for observing, 461; accuracy
of observations of, 462; night ob-
servations of, 462, 443; reduction
of, to centre of station, 462; cor-
rection of errors of, 97, 101, 464 to
467; calculation of spherical excess,
464; calculation of, in spherical
triangles, 467; formula for spheri-
cal, 384; weights of observations
of, 466

Aneroid barometer, 171, 172; levelling
with, 165 to 170; tables, 170, 486,
493
Approximate measurement of distances,
107, 108, 78, 79

Aqueduct, survey of, 315
Areas, measures of, 50, 51; computa.
tion of, 51, 52, 53, 124, 125, 126,
419, 416; instruments for measur-
ing, 53, 54, 55, 56
Arlberg Tunnel, 308
Arrows, chaining, 3

Artificial horizon, 335; small altitudes
and depressions with, 335; use of,
336

Astronomical observations used in sur-
veying, 331 to 392; necessity for,
338; for meridian, 341 to 367;
example of meridian by equal alti-
tudes of circumpolar star, 346; ex-
ample of meridian by circumpolar
star at elongation, 352; example
of meridian by extra meridian ob-
servation of sun, 361; errors in
calculated meridian, 360, 361, 364;
for latitude, 367 to 373; example
of latitude by meridian observation
of sun, 371; accuracy of latitude
observations, 371; for time, 374 to
377; for longitude, 377 to 384;
example of difference of longitude
by watch, 379; latitude and longi-
tude by account, 347 to 350; time
of star's culmination or elongation,
353; example of calculation of,
353; star's altitude at elongation,
354; convergence of meridians,
366; explanation of astronomical
terms, 388 to 392; co-ordinates of
trigonometrical stations, 468
Astronomical terms, explanation of,
388 to 392

Attraction of compass needle, 104,

105
Australian regulations for surveys,

420

BA

ANKS and cuttings, 230 to 249;
centre lines and levels in, 252;
shrinkage and settlement of, 253;
levelling in slopes of, 249
Barometer, levelling with, 165 to 174;
aneroid, 171, 172; mountain, 172,
173, 174; tables for, 482 to 493
Base lines, 423 to 431, 435, 436, 471;
measurement of, 443 to 454, 427;
apparatus for measuring, 427, 430,
445, 446, 447; reduction of, to
sea level, 454, 425; reduction of,
to horizontal, 454; broken, 454;
extension of, 455

Bate range finder, 79
Beacons, 329
Bearings, 90, 91, 92,
106, 393 to 422,
ting, 123, 92
Bell-Elliott tangent reading tacheo-

96, 97, 102, 103,
317 to 330; plot-

meter, 257, 259

Bench marks, 139, 253; in tunnels,
304; for marine work, 326; abroad,
407

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ANT of rails, 246

CANT
Care of instruments, So

Chain, 66 ft., 1, 2; 100 ft., I, 2; 20
metre, 2; reading, 2; laying out
on ground, 2; adjusting, 4, 202;
use of, 8; testing, 16; survey, 16,
20 to 41; incorrect, 49, 56; Ord-
nance Survey, 427
Chaining, 8; on slopes, 9, 10; accuracy
of, 10, II; across a river or past
an obstacle, 11, 12, 13, 14, 87, 88

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cross sectioning with, 149, 150
Closing error, example of graphic ad-
justment of, 98, 99; example of
adjustment by calculation, 99, 100;
other methods of adjustment of,
IOI, 102; amount of, allowed in
practice, 102, 420; examples of,
108, 419, 98, 99
Coast line, survey of, 317, 318, 319,
324, 326

Coefficient of expansion of steel tapes,
447

Colby's base-measuring apparatus, 427
Collimation line, 60; adjustment of,
205 to 208, 213, 184, 192, 196,
197
Colouring plans, 47
Compass, 70, 71; Whitelaw's, 71, 72,
73, 397; prismatic, 75, 76, 408,
106, 108; pocket, 76, 77; traverse
surveys, 102, 103, 106, 108, 397 to
401; variations of, 103, 104; dip
of needle, 104; attractions of
needle, 104, 105; surveying with
pocket, 109; adjustment of, 211
to 213

Computing scale, 55
Conduit, survey of, 315
Contours, 151, 152; vertical distance
between, 152; determination of,
153; interpolation of, 153, 154,
155; sketching and inking in, 156;
contents from, 156; for road and
railway surveys, 225, 226, 227; by
tacheometry or stadia surveying,
255 to 284; example of, for rail-
way survey, 284; for road and
railway surveys abroad, 393 to 416
Conventional signs for delineating ob-

jects on plans, 48
Convergence of meridians, 366
Co-ordinates of traverse surveys, 90 to

102, 419, 420; rectangular spheri-
cal, 469; polar spherical, 469;
astronomical, of trigonometrical
stations, 468, 469

Copying plans, 56, 57
Cost of photographic surveying, 122;
of trigonometrical surveys, 470; of
precise spirit levelling, 188; of
railways, 233; of Alpine tunnels,
307

Cross hairs, 60, 64; to replace, 210;
adjustment of, 205 to 208, 210,
213; illuminating, 300, 346
Crossheads, 253
Cross sections, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149;
with theodolite, 150, 151; road
and railway, 223, 225, 226, 228,
393 to 416; by tacheometer or
stadia, 255 to 284; of reservoir,
311, 313; of reservoir embank-
ment, 313; of roads and railways
abroad, 393 to 416; American
system of taking, 414

Cross staff, 4, 5

Crown of tunnel, taking level of, 306
Culmination, time of star's, 353
Culverts, setting out, 252
Currents, 328

Current meter, 329

Curvature, 158, 159, 176 to 181, 434
Curves, setting out, 236; minimum
radius of, for railways, 232; com-
pensating gradients on, 232; transi-
tion, 243; setting out transition,
245; vertical, at changes of gradient,
247; in tunnels, 293; classifica-
tion of, by degree, 414
Cuttings and banks, 230, 249; centre
lines and levels for, 252; shrinkage
and settlement of, 253; levelling
in tops and bottoms of slopes of,
249

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Diaphragm, 60, 64; adjustment of, 205
to 208, 213, 210

Dip of horizon, 335, 371, 372; of com-
pass needle, 104
Docks and harbours, surveys for, 317
to 330

Drawing instruments, 44, 45, 46, 278
Drawing paper, 46

Dumpy level, 130, 131; adjustment of,
213 to 216

Dunmail Rise Tunnel alignment, 302

CCENTRICITY, theodolite errors

E of, 84, 460, 461, 471

Eidograph, 58

Elasticity, modulus of steel tapes, 447
Elevation, chaining across, 42; measure-
ment of small angles of, 335, 129
Elongation, time of, 353
Embankment, road and railway, 218
to 254; plan of reservoir, 313;
sections of reservoir, 313
Enlarging plans, 57, 58
Equation of time, 377, 389
Errors in chaining, 10, 11; in measur-

ing angles, 88, 457, 459 to 462, 464
to 467, 471; in unclosed traverse,
96, 403, 404, 411, 412, 413; clos-
ing of traverse, 97 to 102, 108, 419,
420; of ordinary spirit levelling,
147; of precise spirit levelling,
184, 185, 187, 188, 189, 199; of
barometric levelling, 170; due to
curvature, 159; due to refraction,
159, 185, 370; of eccentricity of
theodolite, 84, 460, 461, 471; of
graduation of theodolite, 460, 461,
471; of tunnel alignment, 292,
301, 302, 303, 307; of observa-
tions for meridian, 360, 361, 364;
from convergence of meridians,
367; of observations for latitude,
371; of observations for time, 360,
364, 377; of observations for longi-
tude, 378, 381, 383; due to phase
of signal, 443; in measuring base
lines, 425, 426, 427, 430, 431, 436,
443, 444, 445, 447 to 453, 472;
correction of errors of angles, 464
to 467; "station errors," 469; of
astronomical observations in trigo-
nometrical surveys, 469; closing,
of secondary triangulation, 471;
closing, of tertiary triangulation,
473; of map projections, 475 to
480; formule for calculation of
probable, 188

Estimates, Parliamentary, 224
Everest theodolite, 65, 66; adjustment
of, 202

Example of survey of field, 16; of fully
detailed chain survey, Plate I., 20
to 41; of field book, 21 to 39; of
theodolite survey, 85, 86, Plate II.,
88, 89; of unclosed traverse survey,
Plate III., 90 to 97; of closed tra-
verse survey, Plates IV. and V.,
97 to 102, 419; of adjustment of
closing error of traverse survey, 98
to 101; of town survey, Plate VI.,
105, 106; of prismatic compass and
passometer survey, 108, 109; of
longitudinal section, 136, Plate
VII., 143, 144; of level book,
144, 145; of heights by mercurial
barometer, 168; of heights by
aneroid barometer, 170; of heights
by boiling point thermometer, 171;
of railway Parliamentary plan and
section, Plate VIII., 224; of rail-
way working plan, Plate IX.,
230; of railway working section,
Plate X., 230; of tacheometer or
stadia survey, Plate XI., 284; of
tunnel alignment, Plate XII., 286,
301, 302, 303; of Parliamentary
survey of reservoir, Plate XIII.,
316; of meridian by equal altitudes
of circumpolar star, 346;
of
meridian by circumpolar star at
elongation, 352; of meridian by
extra meridian observation of sun,
361; of latitude by meridian ob-
servation of sun, 371; of difference
of longitude by watch, 379; of
time of star's culmination, 353; of
correction and adjustment of errors
of triangles, 466; of base-measuring
apparatus, Plate XIV., 427, 445,
446

Expansion of steel tapes, 447 et seq.,

417
Eyepiece, 60; centring of, 209

FA

ACES, using both of theodolite,
83, 84, 207

Fence, surveying, 16 to 43, 85 to 97,
218 to 235; fence widths, 249;
levelling over, 163.

Field book: surveying, 15, 16, 17, 21
to 39, 86, 87; levelling, 137, 141,
142, 144, 145, 201; tacheometer
or stadia, 275

Filters, 315

Focussing, object glass and eyepiece,
203

Footplates for levelling, 162, 163; for
precise spirit levelling, 184
Foundations, setting out bridge, 250;
setting out culvert, 252

GA

AUGES, tide, 326
Gauss' heliotrope, 440
Geodetic surveys, 423 to 481
Give and take lines, 51, 52
Gradients, laying down road or railway,
on 6 in. Ordnance maps, 219;
fixing road or railway, 219; locat-
ing road or railway, 219, 220, 225;
on railway Parliamentary section,
223, Plate VIII., 224; on railway
working section, 225, 229, Plate
X., 230; ruling, 230; maximum,
232; "pusher," 232
Graduation, errors of, in theodolite, 460,

461, 471

Great St Bernard Tunnel, 309

AND level, 147, 148

Harbours and docks, surveys
for, 317 to 330

Hatchings for delineation of ground,

H

156, 157, 158

Heliograph, 440
Heliostats, 440 to 442
Heliotrope, Gauss', 440
High and low water mark, survey of,
317, 318, 319, 324, 326
Hints on use of theodolite, 87, 202; on
levelling, 162; on use of sextant,
333
Horizon, dip of, 335, 371, 372; arti-
ficial, 335; small altitudes and
depressions with artificial, 335; use
of artificial, 336
Horizontal axis of theodolite, 61, 63;
adjustment of, 204

House, fixing position of, on survey, 41,
42; levelling over, 164
Hydrographical or marine surveying,

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L

ABBEZ telemeter, 78
Lamps for sighting lines in tun-
nels, 292, 299; for illuminating
cross hairs of telescope, 300, 346
Laths, 3

Latitude, observations for, 367 to 373;
by account, 347; from distance
and bearing, 409 to 411
Latitudes and departures, 93, 99 to 102,
419, 420; examples of calculation
of, 93, 94, 99, 100, 419, 420;
plotting by, 95, 96; conversion of,
into difference of latitude and longi-
tude, 347 to 350
Legendre's method of calculating spheri-
cal triangles, 467
Length, measures of, 49, 50; of sides
of plane triangles, 80, 81, 82; of
sides of spherical triangles, 386,
387, 467, 384, 385

Levels, water level, 127; spirit level,
127, 128; radius of curvature of
bubble tube, 128, 188; sensibility
of, 129, 182, 183, 189; angular
value of one division of bubble tube
of, 129, 191, 194, 183, 188, 189;
spherical, 130; dumpy level, 130,
131; Y level, 132, 133, 182, 183,
190 to 201; Cooke's patent rever-
sible, 132; Cushing's reversible, 133;
hand level, 147, 148; plumb line
levels, 159, 160; reflecting levels,
160, 161; for precise spirit levelling,
182, 183; Kern level, 183; adjust-
ment of, 213 to 217, and 191 to
197; to replace broken bubble tube
of, 210

Levelling staff, 133, 134; for precise
levels, 183; for tacheometry or
stadia work, 268

Levelling, detached levels, 135; con-
tinued series of levels, 136; level
book for "rise and fall" system,
137; booking levels, 137; reducing
levels, 138; check on reducing,
138; datum, 138; bench marks,
139, 253, 304, 326, 407; reduced
levels, 139: plotting levels, "longi-
tudinal section," 140; readings near
top of staff, 140; level book for

"height of instrument system,
141; intermediate sights, 142;
comparison of two systems, 143;
example of longitudinal section,
140, 143, Plate VII.; example of
level book, 144, 145; cross sec-
tions, 145, 146, 147, 223, 225, 228;
checking on to bench marks, 147;
practical hints, obstacles, and diffi-
culties, 162 to 164; change points,
162; steep slopes, 162, 163; across
a hill or hollow, 163; staff too low
or too high, 163; staff too near,
163, 164; over board fence, 164;
over wall, 164; over house, 164;
glare from sun, 164; personal
error, 164; to locate a given level,
253; reciprocal, 165; by barometer,
165 to 174; trigonometrical, or by
means of vertical angles, 174 to
182; precise spirit, 182 to 201;
for roads and railways, 218 to 254;
railway Parliamentary longitudinal
section, 220, Plate VIII.; railway
working longitudinal section, 228,
Plate X.; tops and bottoms of
slopes, 249; in tunnels, 303 to
306; tacheometry or stadia, 255 to
284, Plate XI.; for water supply
works, 310 to 316; for docks and
harbours and marine surveys, 317
to 330; for roads and railways
abroad, 393 to 416; for trigono-
metrical surveys, 470; error of
ordinary spirit levelling, 147; error
of precise spirit levelling, 184, 185,
187, 188, 189, 199

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Line, accurate method of setting theo-
dolite in, 84, 85; very long straight,

412

Line ranger, 7, 8

Lithographing plans, 58, 59
Location, Parliamentary, of road or rail-

way, 218 to 224; final, of road or
railway, 225; of roads and rail-
ways abroad, 393 to 416
Longitude, observations for, 377 to 384;

length of degree of, at different
latitudes, 349; by account, 347;
conversion of difference of, into de-
parture, 348; from distance and
bearing, 409 to 411
Longitudinal section, 140; example of,

143, 144, 145, Plate VII.; road
and railway, 218 to 230; Parlia-
mentary, of railway, 220; example
of Parliamentary, of railway, 224,

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