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2. What schools of philosophy does Butler refute on the question of Compassion, and how?

3. Is satisfaction at our freedom from the pain of others praiseworthy or blameable?

4. Give examples of final causes in morals?

5. In what cases does Butler argue from the "Reason of the thing"? 6. What peculiar sense does Butler attach to the word superstition? Is it always blameable?

7. What is malice, according to Butler?

8. In defining the "sum of morals," Butler seems to put it upon a narrow basis?

9. He seems to use the expression "Love of our neighbour" in two distinct senses?

10. In what points does he agree with the Epicureans?

II. From whom did he borrow the theory that virtue consists in due proportion?

12. How may it be proved that virtue is not exclusively benevolence? 13. "The question, whether we ought to love God for his sake or for our own, being a mere mistake in language; the real question-will be answered by observing," &c.

Explain this passage.

14. Why does our ignorance afford a presumption of farther order in the world, and not a presumption of farther disorder?

15. What cardinal questions in morals has Butler left unanswered?

Experimental Physics.


1. Describe the method of graduating a Hydrometer.

2. How would you find the specific gravity of gunpowder ?

3. If a volume of air at 60° F. be heated so as to become five volumes, and then be suddenly compressed into one volume, what will the temperature be?

4. What is the explanation of the apparent viscosity of glaciers?

5. What is the most received theory now of the action of a galvanic cell?

6. What is meant by electric "Quantity,' ,""Potential," and "Capacity"? 7. How is Ampere's formula

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8. Give Biot's theory of terrestrial magnetism.

9. State accurately the three methods by which the velocity of light has been calculated.

10. Give Huyghens' proof of the laws of reflexion and refraction of light.

II. Explain how the wave length corresponding to any of the colours of the spectrum can be calculated.

12. Show that the velocity of light in different media varies as the refractive index.

13. Describe the indirect methods of determining the velocity of sound.

14. Describe the phenomenon of beats, and give a general explanation.

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1. Describe the process usually employed for the manufacture of phosphorus from bones.

2. Three phosphides of hydrogen exist. Explain their constitution and the processes by which they are usually prepared.

3. 200 grammes of silver afforded 314.894 grms. of the nitrate. Assuming the formula of salt to be AgNO3, and the atomic weights of silver and oxygen to be respectively 107.93 and 16, calculate the atomic weight of nitrogen from the data given.

4. Adduce evidence in support of the statement that sulphur and oxygen differ widely in some of their chemical relations, but agree very closely in others.

5. How many litres of oxygen at o° C. and 760 mm. are required for the complete combustion of i litre of olefiant gas, measured at the same temperature and pressure? Find the corrected volumes of the products, assuming that they are retained in the gaseous state.

6. What evidence would you adduce in favour of the view that the molecule of chlorine contains two atoms?

7. How many litres of chlorine gas (at o° C. and 760 mm.) are required for the exact liberation of the iodine contained in 10 grammes of iodide of potassium ?

8. Given metallic tin, MnO2, and pure hydrochloric acid, explain the steps of the process you would follow in order to prepare a pure solution of stannic chloride.

9. What occurs when gaseous sulphur dioxide is conducted into (a) chlorine water, (b) sulphuretted hydrogen water, (c) a solution of arsenic acid, (d) a dilute solution of iodine in iodide of potassium ?

10. Define the terms "acid," "base,"

atomicity," "atomic heat."

Natural Science.



1. Give examples of the principle that fresh-water animals are more archaic in type than marine.

2. Give examples of the principle that organs are more concentrated in terrestrial than in marine animals.

3. Give an example of a generalized type.

4. Give examples of different methods of the origin of the cœloma. 5. What do you mean by mimicry, and how can it be accounted for? 6. Contrast provisional with rudimental organs.

7. What are the earliest stages of embryogenesis in the eggs of Sepia? 8. What is the nature of the primitive streak in the egg of the leech? 9. Describe the accompanying specimen.

10. Describe the accompanying specimen.



1. Give the leading distinctions between Algae and Fungi.

2. Give a sketch of the life-history of a Moss.

3. Dividing the Filices into three orders, give the characteristics of each.

4. Describe the reproduction in Isoëtes.

5. Mention some of the chief forms of Fruit met with among the Gymnosporeæ.

6. Give examples of each of the suborders of Rosacea.

7. Write a diagnosis of the Natural Family of the Umbelliferæ.

8. Mention some of the most poisonous of the Apocynaceæ.

9. Give a list of some of the more remarkable species of Labiatæ. 10. Mention any useful products of the Cycadaceæ.

Modern History and Political Science.




1. "Whatever obligation might be due to the first Crusaders from the Eastern Empire was cancelled by their descendants one hundred years later." Write a justifying note.

2. Give the history of the reign of the Emperor Maurice.

3. The marriage of Hugh of Burgundy with Marozia was indirectly productive of a revolution? (Gibbon.)

4. The following names are memorable in the early history of Mohammed :-Abu Taleb, Zeid, Hamza, Ali?

5. Give an account of his treatment of the Jews of Arabia.

6. What is the story of the "Fair of Abyla"?

7. Give the history of the Expedition of Abdalrahman (731–2).

8. What was the Amorian War?

9. What account is given by Gibbon of the expedition of Alexius for the relief of Durazzo (1081) ?

10. With respect to the projected invasion of Sicily by the Emperor Henry VI., the historian Falcandus writes "with the feelings of a patriot, and the prophetic eye of a statesman." Give the substance of his lamentation.


1. Hallam describes the excuse of Charles VII. for not sending troops to Ancona, in conformity with the agreement at the Congress of Mantua (1459), as a bold attempt upon the credulity of mankind." What was this?

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2. Where does he place the boundary line between the ancient and modern divisions of Byzantine history?

3. A parallel to the story of Candaules and Gyges may be found in the history of the Decline and Fall?

4. "If we annihilate the interval of time and space between Augustus and Charles (IV.), strong and striking will be the contrast between the two Cæsars.' How does Gibbon state it?

5. Spanheim compares the Draco of Leo with the Dracones of Louis XIV." Explain.

6. Who was the successor of the Caliph Omar?

7. Explain the expression "obsequian theme."

8. What were the ansars of Medina ?

9. What were the "Carmathians" ?

10. Who was Harun Al Raschid ?

II. "The unanimous choice of Pope Leo the Fourth was the safety of the Church and city." Explain.

12. Gibbon ascribes the loss of Sicily to "an act of superstitious rigour"?

13. What became of Robert Guiscard?

14. According to Gibbon, "his best praise is .." What? 15. Who was Melo of Bari?


1. "Such was the critical situation of affairs (1704) when Eugene arrived to command the troops on the Rhine, and Marlborough commenced his memorable expedition." Describe the situation; and sketch in brief, accurate outline the "memorable expedition."

2. Write a notice of Count Altheim, and his relations with Charles VI. 3. Relate what you know of the history of Victor Amadeus, King of Sardinia.

4. (a). What was the Family Compact?

(6). The Pragmatic Sanction?

(c). Terms of the Peace of Radstadt?
(d). Treaties of Vienna, 1725 ?

(e). Treaty of Seville, 1727 ?

5. Give some account of the relations of Frederic the Great, in boyhood and early life, with his father.

6. What were, in Hallam's opinion, the chief errors of the Whigs after the Revolution? "They amply redeemed their glory by their admirable settlement of the Revenue"?

7. What are the eight Articles of the Bill of Settlement limiting the prerogative?

8. Give a summary of the arguments, as stated by Hallam, for and against the Treaty of Utrecht.

9. What were the provisions of the Act of Settlement for Ireland after the Restoration? What was the Act of Explanation ?

10. (a). Sir W. Petty's estimate of the population of Ireland in 1672 ? Number of English in Ireland? Number of Scots ?

(b). The House of Commons passed resolutions against a book by Molyneux, published 1697 ?

(c). Number of the Commons of the Irish Parliament in 1692 ? (d). What was the first precedent of punishment of a Member of the House of Commons by the House for a printed libel derogatory to them as a part of the Legislature ?

(e). Amount of the National Debt at the close of 1714?

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