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3. Show generally how he has violated his own postulates concerning the association of ideas, in accounting for the external world.

4. Mr. Mill seems disposed to accept Berkeley and Mansel's theory as to our belief in Mind. What is this theory? Show its untenability. 5. How does he define Time and Simultaneity?

6. How does Professor Bain account for the origin of the idea of velocity?

7. What experiments would you make on a blind man who had just recovered his sight?

8. If the axis of the eye were immoveable, what notions of extension would we receive from sight?

9. Mention the principal faults in Professor Bain's argument on the origin of our idea of Space.

10. What inferences may we draw from the observations made on the arithmetic of savages?

II. Why cannot the Association School consistently hold that geometrical proofs are proofs by approximation ?



12. Had but experience afforded a case of persistent illusion might have been enough to defeat the supposed necessity of thought.” Criticise this statement.

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the temperature measured from the absolute zero on the Centigrade scale, the other units being the litre and metre.


2. Let be the absolute coefficient of expansion of mercury, a its apparent coefficient in glass, and g the coefficient of expansion of glass: prove

(I + μ) = (I + a) (1 + g).

3. Describe Borda's measuring rod, and explain how it indicates the temperature.

4. How would you calculate the ratio of the capacity of the bulb of a thermometer to that of a single division?

5. Describe Hällström's method of determining the point of maximum density of water.

6. Why does Jamin say that Laplace and Lavoisier's method of determining the dilatation of solids is "more illusory than profitable."

7. What is "The Dew Point"? Mention the various ways of determining it.

8. Give the empirical formula of the French Commissioners for the pressure of steam at any temperature, and show how to convert it into English measures.

9. Deduce the formula for determining heights by the barometer, and mention the corrections necessary.

(a). What would be the effect on the barometer of a diminution of the force of gravity?

10. Describe Mayer's method of determining the mechanical equivalent of heat, and show how the calculation is made.

II. Into a mass of water at o°C., 100 grammes of ice at 12° are introduced; a weight of 7.2 grammes of the water freezes about the lump immersed, while its temperature rises to zero. What is the specific heat of the ice ?

Natural Science.



1. What circumstances in the development of Radiolaria lead us to regard them as related to the Heliozoa

2. What are the skeleton-building materials found among the Protozoa?

3. What is the peculiarity in the construction of the protoplasm of Trachelius' ovum ?

4. What are the points wherein the thread-cells of Protozoa differ from those of Cœlenterata?

5. Describe the canal-system of Medusa Aurita, or of any other common Disk-bearer.

6. Describe one of the special sense organs of Medusa.

7. What recent observations have been made on the function of contractility among Medusæ ?

8. How does reproduction take place among Foraminifera ?

9. Describe the accompanying specimen. 10. Describe the accompanying specimen.



1. What form of reproduction is met with among the Protophyta ?

2. Give a description of Volvox globator, and state what you know of its life-history.

3. Mention the chief Natural Families now placed among the Zygosporeæ.

4. Remembering Brefeld's researches, where would you place Penicillium glaucum ?

5. Fungi appear to be dependent on organic bodies for what?

6. Describe the reproduction in Vaucheria or Fucus.

7. What are the characteristics of the Carposporeæ ?

8. What are the reasons given by Sachs for placing the Characea among the Carposporeæ ?

9. What are Schwendener's views as to the position of the Lichens ? 10. Describe any Hymeno-mycetous Fungus.

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I. "The system of feudal policy, though derived to England from a French source, bore a very different appearance in the two countries." What causes conspired to produce this radical difference?

2. Give some account of the proceedings of the l'arliament of 50 Ed. III., commonly called the Good Parliament.


3. The spirit of Richard (II.) might have rejoiced to see that his mortal enemy (Henry IV.) suffered as hard usage at the hands of Parliament as himself." What instances of this are given by Hallam?

4. Hallam says of the Emperor Frederick II. that "if he had been a model of virtues, such men as the Popes with whom he had successively to contend, would not have given him respite." Why not?

5. The name of Michel di Lando is memorable in Italian history. For what reasons?

6. Give some account of Joanna I. of Naples.

7. Explain the important measures established by the Diet of Worms (A. D. 1495).

8. Give an account of the quarrel between Albert I. and the Swiss. 9. What were the most important events in the history of France in the reign of Philip the Fair?

10. "Between three and four thousand persons were murdered on this day, which has no parallel but what our own age has witnessed in the massacre perpetrated by the same ferocious populace of Paris, under circumstances nearly similar." Give an account of the transaction re

ferred to.


1. Explain the expression "view of frank-pledge."

2. Who was the first Speaker of the House of Commons ? Date? 3. Earliest instance in which the House of Commons adopted the English language?

4. Who were the "lords appellants" in the reign of Richard II.?

5. Hallam speaks of a statute of Henry V. as " almost a solitary instance in the law of England wherein the principle of desuetude has been avowedly set up against an unrepealed enactment." What is this statute?

6. What is the meaning of a "Balia," in Florentine history?


Who first took the title of King of the Two Sicilies?

8. "About the end of the twelfth century a new and singular magistracy was introduced into the Lombard cities." What was this?

9. Hallam divides the little States of Italy, in the thirteenth century, into "four clusters or constellations"?

10. "The period between Conrad of Franconia and Frederick I. is marked by three great events in Italian history"?

11. Meaning of the term "prætaxation," in the history of the Holy Roman Empire ?

12. "A man like Didius at Rome, rich and foolish enough to purchase the first place on earth." Of whom is Hallam speaking?

13. Who was Henry the Proud?

14. Who was the father of Frederick Barbarossa?

15. Who were the "Austregues"?

16. Date of death of John Sanspeur ?

17. Date of imperial coronation of Charlemagne ?

18. From the reign of what French King does Hallam date the systematic rivalry of the French and English monarchies ?

19. Besides his claim to the French Crown, what other causes of dispute had Edward III. with Philip?

20. What French town did the Norman pirates of the ninth century venture to keep possession of? Date?


1. Discuss the meaning of the “Judicium Parium” in the 39th clause of Magna Carta.

2. Write out the clauses 12-14 of Magna Carta having reference to (a) imposition of scutage or aid, (b) liberties of cities, (c) holding the general council of the kingdom.

3. (a). How was the aula regia composed under the Norman kings?

(6). Explain the words vicecomes and constabularius in Magna Carta.

(c). What provisions with reference to attainder were made by the Statutes 54 Geo. 3, c. 145, and 3 & 4 Will. 4, c. 106 ?

(d). What is meant by the writ called præcipe? What by the writ of tradas in ballium?

(e). Lord Coke's comment upon the manner of recital, Magna Carta, cap. 39, of the evils from which the laws are to afford protection ?

(f). Lord Coke's opinion as to the origin of Courts leet? Creasy's? (g). What are the material portions of the Confirmatio Cartarum, 25 Edw. I?

4. Write a sketch of the history of England from A. D. 900 to A. D. 950. 5. (a). How did King Alfred apportion his finances?

(b). What was the Thingmanna?

(c). When did the title ealdorman give place to earl?

(d). How did Haco and Wulfnoth come into the power of William of Normandy?

(e). How do the English writers differ from the Normans and the Bayeux tapestry with reference to the coronation of Harold?

(f). Who was Tostig's wife? She married again after Tostig's


(g). A deed of Eadburga, wife of Brihtric, led to an important enactment of the Witanagemot of Wessex?

(h). Who were the Five-Burghers? The Seven-Burghers?
(i). Who was Tewdric of Wales?

(j). The oldest treaty now extant between any of our kings and a foreign power?

6. Write a notice of Canute, his reign, and his laws.

7. (a). What was the manner of Saint Louis' becoming a Crusader?

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(b). Describe the landing at Damietta.

(c). What has Joinville to say concerning the source of the Nile ?

8. "It is necessary now to inform you of the manner in which the Sultan supported his men-at-arms, and how his armies were supplied." What information does Joinville give?

9. Give some account of Sir Gautier de Brienne, the good Count of Jaffa.

10. Through the murder of the Sultan the Christian captives fall into new danger. Relate these circumstances, and what followed until Joinville was set free.

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