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4. At what period of gestation would you be most certain to diagnose the existence of pregnancy with certainty, and why?

5. What objections have been recently urged against the induction of premature labour by means of the douche ? and give your ideas for or against them.



1. From what appearances in the recent dead body of an adult, will you be induced to regard starvation as the cause of death?

2. In the examination of human remains extricated from the ruins of a house that has been burned, by what circumstances may you be baffled when attempting to determine whether lesions by fire had been inflicted on the body while yet living, or after death from some other cause?

3. By what causes not involving criminal responsibility may the life of the mature fœtus be terminated during parturition, or immediately afterwards, the mother having no assistance?

4. Compare the symptoms, and indicate the appropriate treatment, in the following instances of poisoning, in the acute form :

(a). Tartar emetic.

(b). Corrosive sublimate.

(c). White arsenic of commerce.

5. After a railway collision by which several passengers were injured, a commercial traveller, aged 40, intelligent and active, is found, when disengaged from the broken carriages, as yet living but comatose, having, besides several contusions and abrasions, an extensive lacerated scalp wound, and a depressed fracture of the subjacent parietal bone. Under appropriate treatment he survives more than a year, but without resuming his previous employment, and having suffered otorrhoea, often sanguineous for several months, and up nearly to the time of death, dies in the sixteenth month from the date of the accident. In such state of matters, by what will yon be influenced in concluding either

(a). That the death should be deemed a consequence of the accidental injuries?


(6). That the accident and the death had not the relation of cause and effect?

Give reasons for the alternative you prefer.


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1. Give a description of the os innominatum; contrast the typical male and female forms; and give a full account of its development. 2. Describe fully the articulation of (say) the sixth rib with the vertebral column.

3. Give accurately the origin and insertion of the tibialis posticus muscle, and mention its uses.

4. Describe fully the anastomosis of the facial artery.

5. Describe the tentorium cerebelli; give accurately its attachments, and its relations to venous sinuses.

6. Enumerate the nerves termed "thoracic": give their immediate and remote origins; indicate generally their course, and give their distribution.

7. Describe the corpora quadrigemina, and give their relations.

8. Enumerate, and describe briefly, the various structures met with in the broad ligament of the uterus.

9. A horizontal section, through a fully extended vertical arm, passes through the capitellum: enumerate the structures divided, and give the exact position of the various nerves and blood-vessels.

10. Contrast the right and left cardiac ventricles, and their orifices.



1. Describe the natural order Ranunculaceæ, and mention some of the more important medicinal plants derived therefrom.

2. Mention the leading features of the natural order Leguminosæ. How is the order subdivided?

3. What features would induce you to refer a plant to the natural order Solaneæ ?

4. Describe in general terms the structure of a leaf.

5. What do you mean by the terms, Anthodium, Arillus, Hypogynous, Stipule, Monochlamydeous ?


1. What are the sources of Senna? Describe the several varieties met with in commerce, and contrast them with the usual impurity found

them. Mention, with their doses for an adult, the Pharmacopoeial preparation.

2. Contrast, in their physical appearances and physiological effects, Senega and Ipecacuanha roots.

3. Enumerate the more usual impurities found in the Iodine of Commerce, and mention the manner you would detect them.

4. Describe the mode of obtaining Manna. In what respects does it resemble, in what does it differ from, Cane Sugar?

5. Explain the pharmacopoeial process for obtaining Acidum Tartari





1. What is Regnault's determination of the weight of a liter of dry air? Derive from it the following formula for the weight of a gas :

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weight in grams, volume in liters, pressure in millimeters of mercury, d density referred to hydrogen as unit, and t° degrees Centigrade.

2. From this deduce the weight of 100 cubic inches of air at the English standards of 60° Fahr. and 30 inches of mercury, counting the liter as 61 cubic inches, and d = 14.47.

3. How much snow at o° C. must be added to an ounce of alcohol at 10° C. to reduce its temperature to o° C., the specific heat of alcohol being 0.67?

4. An iron ball, weighing 150 grams and heated to 100° C., was placed in a hole drilled in a block of ice, and covered over with a plate of ice; when the ball had cooled down to o° C., it was found that 22 grams of ice had been melted. Find from these figures the specific heat of iron.

5. What is meant by positive and negative electricity as developed by friction? Define the positive and negative poles of a battery.

6. If a copper wire be placed before you, how would you ascertain whether a current is passing or not, and also the direction of the current, if any?

7. How may small differences of temperature be measured by means of a delicate galvanometer ?


1. Give the definitions of an acid, a base, and a salt, and illustrate them by well-known substances.

2. Describe the soda-ash process of Leblanc, by which sodium carbonate is produced from salt-cake.

3. Describe by symbols the method of preparing methyl-hydride or marsh-gas from sodium-acetate. Calculate the weight of the acetate which must be used in order to produce 100 grams of the gas.

4. Describe the process of continuous etherification, giving the exact relation by symbols between ethyl-alcohol and diethyl-ether. How is the distillate purified from the water and alcohol which come over during the process?

5. If the elements of a volatile liquid be carbon, hydrogen, and chlorine describe the method of effecting its analysis. Deduce the composition of such a substance from the following data:- From 430 milligrams of the substance we obtain by one experiment 158 milligrams of carbon dioxide, and 32 of water. In a second experiment we obtain from 150 milligrams, 495 of chloride of silver, and 35 of metallic silver.




1. From what source do we obtain Colchicum? Describe the officinal portions. What are their physiological effects, their therapeutic uses, and alleged disadvantages?

2. Describe a Musk Sac. What are the characters of Musk, its therapeutic uses, and dose for an adult?

3. Describe and explain the Pharmacopoeial process for making Nitrate of Silver. What are its therapeutic value and disadvantages?

4. Describe and explain the Pharmacopoeial process for making the Oxide of Antimony. What are its physiological effects and pharmaceutic


5. How are Emetics classified? Give a good example of each class, with its dose as such.


1. Describe in general terms the various parts of which a flower consists, explaining in each case the terms you use.

2. Describe the anatomical structure of the bark of an Exogen.

3. Describe the leading characteristics of the natural order Umbelliferæ, mentioning its principal products.

4. Describe the leading characteristics of the natural order Convolvulaceæ, mentioning its principal products.

5. What meaning do you attach to the following terms:-Soboles, Spongiole, Cormus, Lomentum, Extrorse, Raphides?



1. If a pound of steam at 100° C. be injected into a gallon of water at 15° C., calculate the temperature to which the water will be raised.

2. Calculate the number of cubic feet of steam in the last question. 3. If a pound of mercury at 100° C. be thrown into a pound of water at o° C., calculate the temperature to which the water will be raised.

4. Describe a simple form of a hydro-electric battery. State the functions of the two metals, the direction of the current, and the positions of the positive and negative poles.

5. Describe, and illustrate by a diagram, the electrolysis of water. Which of the two elements is electro-positive, and which electro-negative? Write out a list of chemical elements under these two heads.


1. What is Clark's test for determining the number of degrees of hardness of water? Describe the method of preparing the standard solutions. How many milligrams of calc spar should be used in order to make one liter of water of standard hardness ?

2. What are the sources from which Bromine and Iodine are obtained? Describe the processes which are commonly used; and explain by an equation the reactions which take place.

3. Describe the action of waters, both pure and impure, on lead. State the method of examining a specimen of water for lead, so as to exclude the possible presence of copper.

4. How would you ascertain the percentage of absolute acid in a given solution of hydrocyanic acid?

5. Give the chemical formulæ of the yellow and red prussiates of potash. State the process usually adopted for obtaining the yellow salt. How may the red prussiate be obtained from the yellow? How are the solutions of these salts used in discriminating the protosalts and persalts of iron ?



1. Box "No. 1" contains an organic acid: identify the compound. 2. Box "No. 2" contains a portion of a calculus: identify the compound.

3. Does the organic mixture in the bottle marked "No. 3" contain any metallic poison ?

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