Greek and Macedonian Land Battles of the 4th Century B.C.: A History and Analysis of 187 Engagements
With its mixture of famous battles and storied commanders, warfare in 4th century B.C. Greece has long held a fascination for military enthusiasts and the general public alike. Histories, biographies, and popular culture have turned the exploits of noted generals like Xenophon and Iphicrates of Athens, Epaminondas of Thebes, and the father-son team of Philip II and Alexander the Great of Macedonia into the stuff of legend. Drawing from ancient accounts along with suitable analogs, this detailed work offers meticulous reconstructions of 187 of the 4th century’s most significant land engagements, considering tactical patterns, evolving trends, and the lasting impact of the era’s most influential military minds. By separating myth from reality, these recreations provide incredible insight into past ways of war that continue to influence the course of combat today.
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4th century B.C. action Agathocles Agesilaos Alexander Alexander’s allies Antigonus Antipater Arcadians archers army array Arrian Athenians Athens attack barbarians battle Boeotians campaign Carthaginians Cassander casualties cavalry Chalcidian combat command conﬂict contingent Corinth Cyrene defeat Demetrius Diodorus Dionysius enemy enemy’s engagement envelopment Epaminondas Eumenes exiles ﬁeld ﬁght ﬁghters ﬁgure ﬁles ﬁnally ﬁrst ﬂank ﬂed ﬂeeing ﬂeet ﬂight foes foot skirmishers foot soldiers force formation front ﬁghting garrison GD MAC Greece Greek heavy footmen heavy infantry hetairoi hoplites horsemen hypaspists Iphicrates javelins kardakes killed king left wing Leuctra light footmen light infantry light-armed Macedonian manpower Mantinea marched mercenaries mercenary hoplites mounted Olynthus Onomarchos othismos Pelopidas Peloponnese peltasts percent perhaps Persian phalangites phalanx Pherae Philip Phocian Phocis pikemen Plutarch Plutarch Vol Polyaenus probably rear riders River satrap shields deep side signiﬁcant Spartan spearmen spears tactical Thebans Thebes Thespiae Thessalian Thessaly Thracian took troops victory Xenophon