k 34. 1. For the same reason, each of the angles CEB, EBC is half Book 11. a right angle; therefore AEB is a right angle: And because EBC is half a right angle, DBG is alsog half a right g 15. 1. angle, for they are vertically opposite; but BDG is a right angle, because it is equalh to the alternate angle DCE ; 29. 1. therefore the remaining angle DGB is half a right angle, and is therefore equal to the angle DBG; wherefore also the side BD is equali to i 6.1. the side DG. Again, E because EGF is half a rightangle, and thatthe angle at F is a riglit angle, because it is equalk to the opposite angle A C B. ID ECD, the remaining angle FEG is half a right angle, and equal to the angle EGF; wherefore also the side GF is equals to the side FE. And because EC is equal to CA, the square of EC is equal to the square of CÂ; therefore the squares of EC, CA are double of the square of CA: But the square of EA is equall to the squares of EC, CA; there- 1 47. 1, fore the square of EA is double of the square of AC: Again, because GF is equal to FE, the square of GF is equal to the square of FE; and therefore the squares of GF, FE are double of the square of EF: But the square of EG is equali to the squares of GF, FE; therefore the square of EG is double of the square of EF: And EF is equal to CD; wherefore the square of EG is double of the square of CD. But it was demonstrated, that the square of EA is double of the square of AC: therefore the squares of AE, EG, are double of the squares of AC, CD: And the square of AG is equali to the squares of AE, EG; therefore the square of AG is double of the squares of AC, CD: But the squares of AD, GD are equali to the square of AG; therefore the squares of AD, DG are double of the squares of AC, CD: But DG is equal to DB; therefore the squares of AD, DB are double of the squares of AC, CD. Wherefore, if a straight line, &c. Q.E.D. Book II. PROP. XI. PROB. * 46. 1. 3. 1. To divide a given straight line into two parts, so that the rectangle contained by the whole, and one of the parts, shall be equal to the square of the other part. Let AB be the given straight line; it is required to die vide it into two parts, so that the rectangle contained by the whole, and one of the parts, shall be equal to the square of the other part. Upon AB describe a the square ABDC; bisectb AC in 10. 7. E, and join BE; produce CA to F, and make EF equal to EB, and upon AF describe the square of FGHA; AB is divided in H, so that the rectangle AB, BH, is equal to the square of AH. Produce GH to K; because the straight line AC is bi sected in E, and produced to the point F, the rectangle * 6. 2. CF, FA, together with the square of AE, is equald to the squa e of EF : But EF is equal to EB; therefore the rectangle CF, FA, together with the square of AE, is equal to the square of EB: And the squares of $ 47. 1. BA, AE, are equale to the square of G A Н B away the square of AE, which is common to both, therefore the remaining rectangle CF, FA, is equal to the square of AB; and the figure FK is E the rectangle contained by CF, FA, for AF is equal to FG; and AD is the square of AB; therefore FK is equal to AD: Take away the common D part AK, and the remainder FH is equal to the remainder HD: And HD is the rectangle contained by AB, BH, for AB is equal to BD; and FH is the square of AH. Therefore the rectangle AB, BH is equal to the square of AH: Wherefore the straight line AB is divided in H, so that the rectangle AB, BH, is equal to the square of AH. Which was to be done. Book II. PROP. XII. THEOR. 1 In obtuse angled triangles, if a perpendicular be drawn from any of the acute angles to the opposite side produced, the square of the side subtending the obtụse angle is greater than the squares of the sides .containing the obtuse angle, by twice the rectangle contained by the side upon which, when produced, the perpendicular falls, and the straight line intercepted without the triangle between the perpendicular and the obtuse angle. Let ABC be an obtuse angled triangle, having the obtuse angle ACB, and from the point A lét AD be drawna : 12. 1. perpendicular to BC produced: The square of AB is greater than the squares of AC, CB, by twice the rectangle BC, CD. Because the straight line BD is divided into two parts in the point C, the square of BD is equal to the squares of BC, CD, and twice the rectangle BC, CD: To each of these equals add the square of DA; and the squares of BD, DA, are equal to the squares of BC, CD, DA, and twice the rectangle BC, CD: But the square of BA is equal B С D - 47. 1. to the squares of BD, DA, because the angle at D is a right angle; and the square of CA is equal to the squares of CD, DA: Therefore the square of BA is equal to the squares of BC, CA, and twice the rectangle BC, CD; that is, the square of BA is greater than the squares of BC, CA, by twice the rectangle BC, CD. Therefore, in obtuse angled triangles, &c. Q.E.D. A b 4. %. с : Book II. PROP. XIII. THEOR. See n. In every triangle, the square of the side subtend ing any of the acute angles, is less than the squares of the sides containing that angle, by twice the rectangle contained by either of these sides, and the straight line intercepted between the perpendicular let fall ' upon it from the opposite angle, and the acute angle. Let ABC be any triangle, and the angle at B one of its acute angles, and upon BC, one of the sides containing it, let fall the perpendiculara AD from the opposite angle : The square of AC, opposite to the angle B, is less than the squares of CB, BA, by twice the rectangle CB, BD. First, Let AD fall within the triangle ABC; and because the straight line CB is divided into two parts in the point D, 67. 2. the squares of CB, BD are equalb to twice the rectangle contained B But the square of AB is equale to the squares of BD, DA, $ 47. 1. because the angle BDA is a right angle; and the square of AC is equal to the squares of AD, DC: Therefore the А the triangle ABC:Then, because the angle at D is a right angle, • 16. 1. the angle ACB is greaterd than a right angle; and therefore the * 12. 2. square of AB is equale to the squares of AC,CB, and twice the f 3. 2. squares of AB, BC are equal to the square of AC, and twice Door II. the square of BC, and twice the rectangle BC, CD: But because BD is divided into two parts in C, the rectangle DB, BC is 'equalf to the rectangle BC, CD and the square of BC: And the doubles of these are equal: Therefore the squares of AB, BC are equal to the square of AC, and twice the rectangle DB, BC: Therefore the square of AC alone is less than the squares of AB, BC, by twice the rectangle DB, BC. Lastly, let the side AC be perpendicular to А BC; then is BC the straight line between the perpendicular and the acute angle at B; and it is manifest, that the squares of AB, BC, are equals to the square of AC and twice the square of BC: Therefore, in every triangle, &c. Q.E.D. 8 47.1. a PROP. XIV. PROB. To describe a square that shall be equal to a given See N. rectilineal figure. Let A be the given rectilineal figure; it is required to describe a square that shall be equal to A. Describe a the rectangular parallelogram BCDE equal - 45. 1. to the rectilineal figure A. If then the sides of it, BE, ED, are equal to one another, it is a H square,andwhat was required is now done: But A if they are not B equal, produce G E one of them BE to F, and make EF equal to ED, and bisect BF in G; and from the centre G, at the distance GB, or GF, describe the semicircle BHF, and produce DE to H, and join GH: Therefore because the straight line BF is divided into two equal parts in the point G, and into two unequal at E, the rectangle BE, EF, together with the square of EG, is equalb to the 5. 2. square of GF: But GF is equal to GH: Therefore the rectangle BE, EF, together with the square of EG, is equal 1 |