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The answers to the following questions are generally to be found in the notes and the text, but in some instances reference to the Classical Dictionary will be necessary; and, for a few of the first, to the Life of Virgil prefixed to the notes,

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Who was Virgil; and where was he born? Of what that of Tityrus ? In what year of Rome was he born ; and Who is Amaryllis supposed to have been how long before Christ?

Why does Servius think Rome is not alludWho were his parents; and of what rank? ed to under this name? Where did Virgil receive his early educa- Of what extravagant adulation is the poet tion ?

guilty? Where did he complete his studies ? What prior instance of this is mentioned ? How old was he when Julius Cæsar was as- How do the pronouns hic, iste, and ille difgassinated?

fer in signification? By whose assistance did he gain admission How was Tityrus mistaken in his idea of to the court of Augustus?

the resemblance of Rome to Mantua ? What effect was produced by Virgil's re- What does Tityrus assign as the cause of

peating the lines in the Æneid referring his visiting Rome? io Marcellus ?

How was the agriculture of Italy carried How did Octavia express her admiration of on? them?

What does the poet mean by representing dow much time was spent in writing the Tityrus as a slave ? first six books of the Æneid?

Why does he speak of him as past labour ? How much in completing the poem? To what was the term pecult applied ? What was the personal appearance of Vir- To what youth does Tityrus refer when gil?

speaking of the cause of his going to Where, and under what circumstances did Rome? he die ?

What had been decreed by the senate? What was his age ?

What is to be understood by the passage, Where was he buried? Is his tomb yet to Quamvis lapis omnia, &c.? be seen?

Where was Virgil's farm situated ? Was Virgil rich, or poor? To whom did Into what river does the Mincius flow? he leave his wealth ?

where? What directions did he give respecting the To what does the poet probably refer under Æneid?

the term flumina ? What was the moral character of Virgil ? Why is the term Hyblæan applied to bees? What Roman writers of distinction were Where is the Tigris? cotemporary with Virgil

Where is the Arar? What is its modern


What tradition existed with regard to BritECLOGUE I.

ain? What battle decided the fate of the repub- Why were the roofs of cottages called cullican party in Rome?

mina ? In whose power was the empire placed by Were chimneys in use in the time of Vir. this battle?

gil: In what manner did they reward their When were they, in the modern sense, first troops ?

used? In what year of Rome was this distribution How was the smoke disposed of previous of lands made

to that time? Where did Virgil live at this time? How was he affected by the measures of

ECLOGUE II. the Triumviri? By whom was his property restored ? Where is the lizard that Corydon speaks of Who is represented by Tityrus ?

found? How is it described ? Who is represented by Melibæus ? How do the cicade differ from our grassof what were the instruments of music, hoppers ?

user! vy the sha sherds of antiquity, com- Why should not vaccinia nigra be translate posed?

ed black hyacinths ?'


Where was Aracynthus ?

From what is the epithet Actæus received
How was the fistula constructed ?

What is the subject of the fifth eclogue ? Who invented this instrument?

What is the subject of Mopsus ? What of Who was Pan?

Menalcas ?
Who were the Naiads? The Nereïds ? Who is represented by Daphnis ?
The Oreads?

Who is represented by Menalcas ? Who
Who were the Dryads? The Hamadryads ? by Mopsus?
Who were the Napææ? The Limonjades? How does the wild vine, labrusca, differ
The Limpiades?

from the cultivated? What were calathi?

To what persons do the names Phyllis, AlWhat is anethum ?

con, and Codrus refer? What is casia ?

What is saliunca ? What appellation had all fruit contained in What conclusion is drawn from the word shells?

mater used by Mopsus ? When was the plant which we call laurel How is it understood by others ? introduced into Europe ?

What were thiasi? Why is laurus supposed to mean the What is meant bv hasta? What was the

thyrsus ? To whom is the foundation of the Acropo-What were the fontinalia?

lis of Athens ascribed ? and why? What does Heyne understand by fontibus What superstition is alluded to in the line, umbras ? Is any thing offered in proof Semiputata tibi, &c. ?

of this supposition ? What law of Numa, with regard to the What does the line, Amavit nos, &c., with vine, does Servius cite ?

those which follow, serve to prove ?

In how many lines were the death and ECLOGUE III.

apotheosis of Daphnis celebrated ?

What distinction existed between ara and What kind of dispute is contained in Ec- altaria ? logue third ?

When were the ambarvalia celebrated ? What are the peculiarities of this inode of In what manner?

writing? Who are the parties engaged in the dia

ECLOGUE VI. logue ? Whom do they make judge between them? What is the subject of the sixth eclogue ? Did Dametas own the flock? Who did ? Who offered the model of bucolic poetry? How were drinking cups commonly made? Who was Ægle? What is said of the white ivy?

What were the subjects of Silenus' poeWho was Eudoxus of Gnidus? Who was Pollio?

Who were Chromis and Mnasylus ? Who were Bavius and Mævius?

Who was Pyrrha ? What was the riddle of Damætas?

What were the volucres mentioned in the What does Servius assert respecting this 42nd verse? riddle?

Who were the nautæ mentioned ?

Who What solution does Servius himself prefer? was Hylas ? What solution has Ciaconi suggested and Who was meant by puellam ? Cerda adopted ?

? What is understood by Menalcas' riddle ? Where is the Permessus? To whom sa


Where was the fountain Hippocrene ?

Who is meant by Ascreo seni ?
Whence did the people of Rome expect re- Where was Hesiod born?

lief from the miseries produced by the Where was Grynium? What was the Celcivil wars?

tic name of the sun ? When were C. Asinius Pollio and Cn. Cal. When is the planet Venus called Lucifer vinus consuls ?

When Hesperus ?
Who was the child referred to by the poet?
Why is the term Sicelides applied ?

What was the prophecy of the Cumæan

In what kind of verse is the seventh eclogue
Who is meant by Virgo in the sixth line ? written?
Who was Astræa?

Bet ween whom is the contest ? by whom What is baccar ; and what its efficacy? related ? What is colocasia ?

Who was chosen to decide the contest? Who was Thetis ? Who was Tiphys? Where is the scene of the dialogue laid ? What blessings does the poet promise, Why are the singers called Arcadians ?

when the child shall have arrived at Who were the Libethrides? manhood ?

To whom was the pine sacred ? What is lutum? What sandyż ? What virtue was attributed to a chaplet of What peculiar honours followed an apothe- baccar ? osis?

How long is the life of a stag?


What were liba? Who was Priapus? To whom were these mountains sacred ?
What is the sardois ? What were its effects? Where is Aganippe ?
What in Thyrsis' verse disproves the exist- Who is meant by Chalcidico ? Who was
ence of chimneys ?

Euphorion ?
Who gained the victory in this contest? From whom does the poet borrow his bow

and arrow? ECLOGUE VIII.

For what were the Parthians and Cretans

remarkable ? How is the eighth eclogue divided ? Who were the Pierides ! What is the subject of the first part? What What requesi does the poet make of them?

of the second ? Where was Pollio probably at this time?

GEORGICS. BOOK I. Why does the poet say that his last subject sliall be Pollio's praise ?

From what is the term Georgica derived ? Where is Mænalus? To whom was it sacred? What do the first four verses unfold ? Of what gender is it?

Of what do the respective books treat? What are griffins ?

What divinities does the poet invoke ? What ceremony practised at the Roman Who is addressed as cultor nemorum ? nuptials is alluded to?

Who as monstrator aratri ? Who is the mother addressed by Damon? How is Sylvanus represented ? Who is meant by puer, in the same verse ? After the special invocation of certain divinIn what did Pontus abound ?

ities, how does the poet proceed? What were some of the magic ceremonies ? How does he address Cæsar? Of what use were the images ?

Why does he say maternâ myrto ? Was the omen of the cinders becoming again Where was Thule ?

infamed reckoned favourable or other- What sign of the Zodiac was called Erigone? wise ?

Why was the Scorpion represented as draw

ing in his claws? ECLOGUE IX.

How is the subject

. of the first book taken uz?

How is Bis qua sensit commonly interpreWhat is said of the soldier to whom Virgil's ted ? patrimony had been assigned?

What is more probably the poet's meaning? What is the subject of the ninth eclogue? Where is Tmolus ? for what remarkable ? Who were supposed to be represented by Who were the Chalybes? for what celebraLycidas and Mæris?

ted? What points of similarity have the situa- When, according to Columella, did Arcturus tions of Menalcas and Virgil ?

rise? For what purpose was the ninth eclogue By what means would the poet preserve and prepared ?

increase the strength of the soil? Why should bees avoid yew trees? What crops does he advise to cultivate in Why is Chaonias applied to pigeous?

succession ? What distinction is made between rates and For what kind of land is the succession of poeta ? which is the higher?

beans and wheut still approved of? Was good fortune betokened in the opinions What does the verse, Atque levem, &c. con

of the Greeks by auspices on the right or sisting of dactyles represent ? left?

What advantages are supposed to result How in the opinion of the Romans ? from burning the stubble? Why was Julius Cæsar called Dionous ? What additional benefits does Pliny reckon? What is said to have appeared wbile the For what weather does the poet direct the

games in honour of J. Cæsar were cele- farmer to pray? brating?

Under whose reign did the silver age begin? What is promised from the new star? What instruments does Virgil think necesHow was the memory of it perpetuated ?

sary to farmers ? What is said of seeing a wolf, and of being Give some account of the different parts of seen by one?

the plough, Where were the sepulchres of the ancients What science does he recommend to their erected ?

attention? Who was Bianor ?

What is mentioned as indicative of a fruit

ful season? What the reverse ? ECLOGUE X.

When and how does he direct to sow the

different kinds of grain ? To whom is the tenth eclogue addressed, What time is meant by brume? What timo and what is its subject?

by solstitium? Who was Gallus ? Where has he been be- Who was Maia ? fore mentioned?

Where is the constellation Bootes? Who is invoked in the tenth eclogue ? Who What bulief had the ancients with regard was Arethusa ?

to the figure of the earth? Where are the waters of Arethusa said to What method was adopted to facilitate the pass?

reducing of grain to four before the in. Who was Doris?

vention of wind and water mills ? Wher is Mount Pindus ? Parnassus? llel- What opinion is given with respect to holy ico ? Cithæron ?



es ?

What works are best suitod to the night? What is meant by felices mali? What vir-
What to the day and warm weather ? tuos are attributed to it?
For what were the berries of laurels and What story is related by Athenæus ?
wild myrtle used ?

How does the puet speak of his own counWhat employments does the poet recommend for the winter ?

Where was Panchaia? for what celebrated ? Who conspired to scale the heavens and de- What virtue were the waters of the Clitumthrone Jupiter ?

nus supposed to possess ? Where are the Baleares? Why were they What remarkable iree in Consentia is men

so called ? What are they now called? tioned by Pliny and Varro? For what were the inhabitants reniarkable? Whence did the lake of Averous receive its Describe the ambarvalia.

waters? How was warning of an approaching storm What soil is best suited to olives? vines ? of wind said to be given ?

pasture? wheat ? What were the twelve prognostics of rain ? How are the soils to be distinguished ? What idea had the ancients of the rainbow? What directions are given for cultivating How may Asin, an adjectire, be distinguish- the vine? ed from Asia, a substantive?

What does the poet probably mean by arbo What are the prognostics of fair weather ? ribus quadret? What prognostics are drawn from the moon! From what has the quincunx its name? from the sun ?

What depth is recommended for the trenchOf what crime was Scylla guilty ? Why was the hawk fabled constantly to How should the vineyards lie? pursue the lark?

From what part of the vine should the cutWhat remarkable appearance is the sun tings be taken?

said to have presented after the death of What season is best for planting vineyards ? Julius Cæsar?

How should the layers be planted ? When did Julius Cæsar die ?

When is the pruning knife to be used ? What other prodigies are said to have hap- Name some of the things hurtful to the pened about this time?

vine. What appearance does the Palutine hill now Why was the goat sacrificed to Bacchus ? present?

Whence had tragedy its name?
Why was hazel employed in the sacrifices

to Bacchus!

In the culture of vines how often should the What is the subject of the second book? ground be ploughed? Whom does the poet invoke?

Why should the leaves be taken off? and What mode of supporting vines is practised how often? in Italy?

What cares remain after the cold season What is said of the esculus ?

comes on? What modes of propagating trees does the What size is recommended for a farm? poet enumerate?

What care is necessary for the olive? Where is Mount Ismarus ? for what celebra- For what was the pine used ? the cedar? ted?

the cypress ? the willow? Where is Mount Taburnus ? for what cele- What is it supposed was called cedar? brated ?

For what were tho other trees mentioned of whom does the poet implore assistance ? used ? What is the nature of the trees which grow How did Bacchus cause the death of the without cul ivation ?

Centaurs? What effect is produced by engrafting and Where did the goddess of justice take up cultivating them ?

her abode before she finally quitted the What is said of trees raised from the seed ? carth? Why was the myrtle called Paphian? What two conditions does the poet emphatWhat use was made of the fir tree?

ically call happy? Is it now supposed that the mode of graft- What were the populi fasces ?

ing here recommended would succeed? What custom had the Dacians before going What is the distinction between grafting

to war? and budding?

What was the ancient name of Tyre? Are there any modes of grafting now in use How were the seats arranged in the Romai different from that here allu led to?

theatre? Why is the olive called bilcor What is its Where was Sicyon? for what was it sa flavour when ripe?

Where is Methymna ? for what celebrated ?
What is said of the Aminaan wines ?
Who were the Geloni? from whom descen-


What is the subject of this book ? What country is said alone to produce obn- How does the pot unfold his design? ny?

What is included under this name? Why is Pales invoked?
Where is the shrub found which produces What is said of Amphrysus ?

What o. fran incense ?

Mullit Lycaus? Whence had the ancients silk" What did who was Eurystheus ; and why called duo they suppose it to be

rus ?

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What is said of Busiris ?

| When do thoy swarm in Italy? What is the story of Hippodame? and What should be provided for their use? what of Pelops ?

How should the hives be constructed ? Where was Helicon ?

What was the fucus ? Where did the palm flourish?

What is said of the bees living in caves ? For what was it used ?

What method of recalling bees after they What does the poet mean by templum po desert their bives is recommended ? nam?


may peace be restored when there is Why does he say conspectus in ostro? and any commotion in the bive? of whom?

How may bees be prevented from flying? What does he mean by driving a hundred What is said of the roses which grew near chariots ?'

Pæstum? Who was Molorchus? What was the origin What does the poet mean by the towers of of the Nemæan games ?

the (Ebalian citadel? What is the meaning of intezti Britanni? For what was the Tarentine territory reWho were the Gangarides ?

markable ? From whom does the poet intimate that Cæ- Where was Corycus ? sar descended?

What is shown by the Corycian's improve Who was Tithonus ?

ment of his land ? What is said of the application of our names What is said of the domestic economy of

of colours to those used by the ancients ? bees? Where is Silarus? Where is Alburnus? What is fabled of the tears of Narcissus ? What is the asilus ?

Where do the bees begin their work? Why does the poet mention Alphea flumina ? What is said of the honey of Hymettus ? What is the story of Leander ?

What cares are agsigned to the elder bees? Where was the Cinyps ?

How are the younger employed ? What was the Cinyphian goat ?

What curious remark respecting the differHow did the ancients reckon the day? ent cells has been made by Delille ? What is said of the African shepherds? Who was Dedalus ? How is winter in the North of Lurope de- What has given rise to the idea that bees scribed ?

carry a load as ballast? Where is Rhodope ?

How many eggs is the queen bee said to deWhai does Maupertuis assert to have taken posit in a year?

place during his Northern journey? What is said of their zeal in making honey What is said of the wool of sheep fed on To what number of years is thuir term of poor pasture?

life said to be limited ? Why is the care of hounds and mastiffs What account is given of the sovereign's urged ?

authority? What is galbanum?

Where was the Hydaspes ? of what does the poet treat from the 416 What hypothesis was received by the verse ?

Greeks from Pythagoras ? What serpent is particularly mentioned ? Does the poet imply that he is among the How is it described ?

supporters of this opinion? What disease of sheep is described? What measures were to be adopted in takWhat remedy is recommended ?

ing the honey? What are the symptoms of the disease ? What were the Pleiades called ? What is meant by spumas argenti? What is meant by Piscis aquosi? Who were the Getæ? and where did they What does the poet advise in case of the dwell?

prospect of a severe winter? Give some account of the postilence that What was the object in fumigating the raged in Bavaria.

hives? What is the distinction between infula and What is the stellio? vitta ?

Who was Arachne ? To what substances did the Greeks and Ro- How may it be known when any disease at mans give the name of electrum?

tacks the bees? What has been asserted respecting fishes What measures should be pursued in this on the authority of Aristotle ?

caso? Have subsequent observations confirmed What virtuo does the galbanum possess

? this opinion ?

Where is Mount Hymettus, and in whal

does it abound? GEORGICS. BOOK IV.

Why was centaury so called?

What is the amelius supposed to be ? What is the subject of this book ?

Why were the Egyptians termed gens forti How does the author regard it, as to its im

nata? portance ?

Where was Canopus? Why termed Pellæ Why is honey called aerial ?

an? What situation is the most favourable for Where bas the Nile its source ? beez ?

What mode of procedure is recommended in What enemies are they to be guarded case the stock of bees should wholly against ?

fail? Who was Procne?

Was the belief in the efficacy of this mode Ilow are the bees governed ?

general ?

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