Page images


The answers to the following questions are generally to be found in the notes and the text, but in some instances reference to the Classical Dictionary will be necessary; and, for a few of the first, to the Life of Virgil prefixed to the notes.

Who was Virgil; and where was he born? In what year of Rome was he born; and how long before Christ?

Who were his parents; and of what rank? Where did Virgil receive his early education?

Where did he complete his studies?

How old was he when Julius Cæsar was assassinated?

By whose assistance did he gain admission to the court of Augustus?

What effect was produced by Virgil's repeating the lines in the Eneid referring to Marcellus?

How did Octavia express her admiration of

How much time was spent in writing the
first six books of the Eneid?
How much in completing the poem?
What was the personal appearance of

Of what that of Tityrus?

Who is Amaryllis supposed to have been Why does Servius think Rome is not aliuded to under this name?

Of what extravagant adulation is the poet guilty?

What prior instance of this is mentioned? How do the pronouns hic, iste, and ille differ in signification?

How was Tityrus mistaken in his idea of the resemblance of Rome to Mantua? What does Tityrus assign as the cause of his visiting Rome?

How was the agriculture of Italy carried

What does the poet mean by representing
Tityrus as a slave?

Why does he speak of him as past labour?
To what was the term peculi applied?
Vir-To what youth does Tityrus refer when
speaking of the cause of his going to

Where, and under what circumstances did he die?

[blocks in formation]

What battle decided the fate of the republican party in Rome?

In whose power was the empire placed by this battle?

In what manner did they reward their troops?

In what year of Rome was this distribution of lands made?

Where did Virgil live at this time?

How was he affected by the measures of
the Triumviri?

By whom was his property restored?
Who is represented by Tityrus?
Who is represented by Melibaus?

Of what were the instruments of music,
used by the she herds of antiquity, com-

What had been decreed by the senate?
What is to be understood by the passage,
Quamvis lapis omnia, &c.?

Where was Virgil's farm situated?
Into what river does the Mincius flow?

To what does the poet probably refer under
the term flumina?

Why is the term Hyblæan applied to bees?
Where is the Tigris?

Where is the Arar? What is its modern

What tradition existed with regard to Britain?

Why were the roofs of cottages called culmina?

Were chimneys in use in the time of Virgil?

When were they, in the modern sense, first used?

How was the smoke disposed of previous to that time?


Where is the lizard that Corydon speaks of found? How is it described?

How do the cicade differ from our grasshoppers?

Why should not vaccinia nigra be translated' black hyacinths?"

Where was Aracynthus?

From what is the epithet Acteus received
How was the fistula constructed?
Who invented this instrument?
Who was Pan?

Who were the Naiads? The Nereïds?
The Oreads?

Who were the Dryads? The Hamadryads?
Who were the Napaa? The Limoniades?
The Limniades?
What were calathi?
What is anethum?
What is casia?

What appellation had all fruit contained in shells?

When was the plant which we call laurel introduced into Europe?

Why is laurus supposed to mean the bay?"

To whom is the foundation of the Acropo-
lis of Athens ascribed? and why?
What superstition is alluded to in the line,
Semiputata tibi, &c.?

What law of Numa, with regard to the vine, does Servius cite?


What kind of dispute is contained in Eclogue third?

What are the peculiarities of this inode of writing?

Who are the parties engaged in the dialogue?

Whom do they make judge between them?
Did Damotás own the flock? Who did?
How were drinking cups commonly made?
What is said of the white ivy?
Who was Eudoxus of Gnidus?
Who was Pollio?

Who were Bavius and Mævius?
What was the riddle of Damætas?

What does Survius assert respecting this riddle?

What solution does Servius himself prefer? What solution has Ciaconi suggested and Cerda adopted?

What is understood by Menalcas' riddle?


Whence did the people of Rome expect relief from the miseries produced by the civil wars?

When were C. Asinius Pollio and Cn. Calvinus consuls?

Who was the child referred to by the poet? Why is the term Sicelides applied?

What was the prophecy of the Cumaan Sybil?

Who is meant by Virgo in the sixth line?
Who was Astræa?

What is baccar; and what its efficacy?
What is colocasia ?

Who was Thetis? Who was Tiphys? What blessings does the poet promise, when the child shall have arrived at manhood?

What is lutum? What sandyx? What peculiar honours followed an apotheosis?

[blocks in formation]

What is saliunca?

What conclusion is drawn from the word mater used by Mopsus?

How is it understood by others?
What were thiasi?

What is meant by hasta? What was the thyrsus?

What were the fontinalia? What does Heyne understand by fontibus umbras? Is any thing offered in proof of this supposition?

What does the line, Amavit nos, &c., with those which follow, serve to prove In how many lines were the death and apotheosis of Daphnis celebrated?

What distinction existed between ara and altaria?

When were the ambarvalia celebrated?
In what manner?

[blocks in formation]

What were liba? Who was Priapus? To whom were these mountains sacred? What is the sardois? What were its effects? Where is Aganippe?

What in Thyrsis' verse disproves the exist-Who is meant by Chalcidico? Who was ence of chimneys?

Who gained the victory in this contest?


How is the eighth eclogue divided? What is the subject of the first part? What of the second?

Where was Pollio probably at this time? Why does the poet say that his last subject shall be Pollio's praise?

Where is Mænalus? To whom was it sacred?
Of what gender is it?
What are griffins?

What ceremony practised at the Roman nuptials is alluded to?

Who is the mother addressed by Damon ?
Who is meant by puer, in the same verse?
In what did Pontus abound?
What were some of the magic ceremonies?
Of what use were the images?
Was the omen of the cinders becoming again
inflamed reckoned favourable or other-


What is said of the soldier to whom Virgil's
patrimony had been assigned?
What is the subject of the ninth eclogue?
Who were supposed to be represented by
Lycidas and Maris?

What points of similarity have the situations of Menalcas and Virgil?

For what purpose was the ninth eclogue prepared?

Why should bees avoid yew trees?

Why is Chaonias applied to pigeons?


From whom does the poet borrow his bow and arrow?

For what were the Parthians and Cretans remarkable?

Who were the Pierides?

What request does the poet make of them?


From what is the term Georgica derived?
What do the first four verses unfold?
Of what do the respective books treat?
What divinities does the poet invoke ?
Who is addressed as cultor nemorum?
Who as monstrator aratri?
How is Sylvanus represented?
After the special invocation of certain divin-
ities, how does the poet proceed?
How does he address Cæsar?
Why does he say maternâ myrto?
Where was Thule ?

What sign of the Zodiac was called Erigone? Why was the Scorpion represented as drawing in his claws?

How is the subject of the first book taken up? How is Bis qua sensit commonly interpreted?

What is more probably the poet's meaning? Where is Tmolus? for what remarkable? Who were the Chalybes? for what celebrated?

When, according to Columella, did Arcturus rise?

By what means would the poet preserve and increase the strength of the soil?

What crops does he advise to cultivate in succession?

What distinction is made between vates and For what kind of land is the succession of poeta? which is the higher?

Was good fortune betokened in the opinions of the Greeks by auspices on the right or left?

How in the opinion of the Romans?
Why was Julius Cæsar called Dionaus?
What is said to have appeared while the
games in honour of J. Cæsar were cele-

What is promised from the new star?
How was the memory of it perpetuated?
What is said of seeing a wolf, and of being
seen by one?

Where were the sepulchres of the ancients erected?

[blocks in formation]

beans and wheat still approved of? What does the verse, Atque levem, &c. consisting of dactyles represent?

What advantages are supposed to result from burning the stubble?

What additional benefits does Pliny reckon? For what weather does the poet direct the farmer to pray?

Under whose reign did the silver age begin? What instruments does Virgil think necessary to farmers?

Give some account of the different parts of the plough,

What science does he recommend to their attention?

What is mentioned as indicative of a fruitful season? What the reverse? When and how does he direct to sow the different kinds of grain?

What time is meant by bruma? What time by solstitium? Who was Maia?

Where is the constellation Boötes? What belief had the ancients with regard to the figure of the earth?

What method was adopted to facilitate the reducing of grain to flour before the invention of wind and water mills?

Where is Mount Pindus ? Parnassus? Hel- What opinion is given with respect to holy

ico Citharon?


What works are best suited to the night?
What to the day and warm weather?
For what were the berries of laurels and
wild myrtle used?

What employments does the poet recommend
for the winter?

Who conspired to scale the heavens and de-
throne Jupiter?

Where are the Baleares? Why were they
so called? What are they now called?
For what were the inhabitants reniarkable?
Describe the ambarvalia.

How was warning of an approaching storm
of wind said to be given?
What were the twelve prognostics of rain?
What idea had the ancients of the rainbow?
How may Asia, an adjective, be distinguish-
ed from Asia, a substantive?
What are the prognostics of fair weather?
What prognostics are drawn from the moon?
from the sun?

Of what crime was Scylla guilty?
Why was the hawk fabled constantly to
pursue the lark?

What remarkable appearance is the sun
said to have presented after the death of
Julius Cæsar?

When did Julius Cæsar die?

What other prodigies are said to have hap-
pened about this time?
What appearance does the Palatine hill now


What is the subject of the second book?
Whom does the poet invoke?

What mode of supporting vines is practised
in Italy?

What is said of the esculus?

What is meant by felices mali? What vir-
tuos are attributed to it?

What story is related by Athenæus ?
How does the poet speak of his own coun-

Where was Panchaia? for what celebrated?
What virtue were the waters of the Clitum-
nus supposed to possess?

What remarkable tree in Consentia is mentioned by Pliny and Varro?

Whence did the lake of Avernus receive its waters?

What soil is best suited to olives? vines? pasture? wheat?

How are the soils to be distinguished? What directions are given for cultivating the vine?

What does the poet probably mean by arboribus quadret?

From what has the quincunx its name? What depth is recommended for the trenches?

How should the vineyards lie?

From what part of the vine should the cut-
tings be taken?

What season is best for planting vineyards?
How should the layers be planted?
When is the pruning knife to be used?
Name some of the things hurtful to the


Why was the goat sacrificed to Bacchus?
Whence had tragedy its name?

Why was hazel employed in the sacrifices
to Bacchus ?

In the culture of vines how often should the ground be ploughed?

Why should the leaves be taken off? and how often?

What cares remain after the cold season comes on?

What modes of propagating trees does the What size is recommended for a farm? poet enumerate?

What care is necessary for the olive? Where is Mount Ismarus? for what celebra-For what was the pine used? the cedar? ted?

Where is Mount Taburnus? for what brated?

the cypress? the willow? cele-What is it supposed was called cedar? For what were the other trees mentioned used?

Of whom does the poet implore assistance? What is the nature of the trees which grow without cul ivation?

What effect is produced by engrafting and
cultivating them?

What is said of trees raised from the seed?
Why was the myrtle called Paphian?
What use was made of the fir tree?
Is it now supposed that the mode of

How did Bacchus cause the death of the

Where did the goddess of justice take up
her abode before she finally quitted the

What two conditions does the poet emphatically call happy?

graft-What were the populi fasces?

ing here recommended would succeed? What is the distinction between grafting and budding?

Are there any modes of grafting now in use
different from that here alluded to?
Why is the olive called bitter What is its
flavour when ripe?

Where is Methymna? for what celebrated?
What is said of the Aminaan wines?

Who were the Geloni? from whom descen-

What country is said alone to produce cbony? What is included under this name?

What custom had the Dacians before going
to war?

What was the ancient name of Tyre?
How were the seats arranged in the Roman

Where was Sicyon? for what was it fa


What is the subject of this book?
How does the poet unfold his design?
Why is Pales invoked?

Where is the shrub found which produces What is said of Amphrysus?

[merged small][ocr errors]

Mount Lycæus?

What o.

What did Who was Eurystheus; and why called du


[blocks in formation]

Where was Corycus?

What is shown by the Corycian's improvement of his land?

What is said of the domestic economy of

What is fabled of the tears of Narcissus?
Where do the bees begin their work?

Why does the poet mention Alphea flumina? What is said of the honey of Hymettus?

What is the story of Leander?

Where was the Cinyps?

What was the Cinyphian goat?

How did the ancients reckon the day?
What is said of the African shepherds?
How is winter in the North of Europe de-

Where is Rhodope?

What does Maupertuis assert to have taken place during his Northern journey? What is said of the wool of sheep fed on poor pasture?

Why is the care of hounds and mastiffs urged?

What is galbanum?

Of what does the poet treat from the 416

What serpent is particularly mentioned?
How is it described?

What disease of sheep is described?
What remedy is recommended?
What are the symptoms of the disease?
What is meant by spumas argenti?
Who were the Geta? and where did they

Give some account of the postilence that
raged in Bavaria.

What is the distinction between infula and

To what substances did the Greeks and Ro-
mans give the name of electrum?
What has been asserted respecting fishes
on the authority of Aristotle?
Have subsequent observations confirmed
this opinion?

GEORGICS. BOOK IV. What is the subject of this book?

How does the author regard it, as to its importance?

Why is honey called aerial?

What cares are assigned to the elder bees?
How are the younger employed?
What curious remark respecting the differ-
ent cells has been made by Delille?
Who was Dedalus ?

What has given rise to the idea that bees
carry a load as ballast?

How many eggs is the queen bee said to deposit in a year?

What is said of their zeal in making honey? To what number of years is their term of life said to be limited?

What account is given of the sovereign's authority?

Where was the Hydaspes?

What hypothesis was received by the
Greeks from Pythagoras?

Does the poet imply that he is among the
supporters of this opinion?

What measures were to be adopted in tak-
ing the honey?

What were the Pleiades called?
What is meant by Piscis aquosi?
What does the poet advise in case of the
prospect of a severe winter?

What was the object in fumigating the

What is the stellio?
Who was Arachne?

How may it be known when any disease at tacks the bees?

What measures should be pursued in this case?

What virtue does the galbanum possess ? Where is Mount Hymettus, and in what does it abound?

Why was centaury so called?

What is the amelius supposed to be?
Why were the Egyptians termed gens fortu

Where was Canopus? Why termed Pella-

What situation is the most favourable for Where has the Nile its source? bees?

What enemies are they to be guarded against?

Who was Procne?

How are the bees governed?

What mode of procedure is recommended in case the stock of bees should wholly fail?

Was the belief in the efficacy of this mode general?

« PreviousContinue »