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3. Ultro: without being urged.

5. Suucius. . pectus sc. secundum.-Ille .... leo: En. xi. 809. 6. Movet arma: metaphorically; prepares to attack.'

7. Latronis: of the hunter;' who has attacked him by surprise. 10. Regem: sc. Latinum.

16. Crimen commune: the common disgrace of the preceding defeat and flight. Serv. Or, the imputations thrown on him as wanting courage. En. xi. 215. seqq. H.

17. Cedat let Lavinia's hand be the prize of victory.


23. Aurumque animusque: 1 have also wealth, and the disposition

to bestow.'

26. Sublatis.... dolis without reserve or deceit.'

28. Canebant: forbade in prophecies.'

37. Quò referor toties. ...mutat: why should I thus be carried backward and forward? why change my resolutions so often?'

43. Parentis longavi: 'your aged father;' i. e. Daunus. Æn. x. 616.

51. Nostro.... de vulnere: from wounds which I can inflict.'

52. Longè erit: for longè uberit: 'his goddess mother will

then be far distant.'

54. Nova.... sorte: 'alarmed by this new method of combat.' 57. Honos: respect;' si quem honorem habes Amatæ, Serv. Æn. vii. 401.

59. Inclinata verging to ruin.'


65. Ignem subjecit rubor: by hypallage, for ignis [animi] subjecit ruborem.


74. Neque. mortis: 'I have not the power of deferring death;' i. e. if the fates have doomed me to death, it is not in my power to avert it. This sentence, Servius says, is one of the twelve obscure passages in Virgil.

87. Alboque orichalco: Bishop Watson thinks that this metal was analogous to our brass, if not identically the same; albo may refer to its splendour, or to its colour, when compared to gold.

107. Sævus: 'brave.'

108. Acuit Martem: i. e. in Martem; calls up his martial ardour.' 109. Componi.... bellum: 'that the war would be terminated.' 120. Limo: the limus was a kind of petticoat; it reached from the navel to the feet, and was bordered with purple. Serv. It was worn by the priests in sacrificing,

121. Pilata: armed with javelins.'

140. Præsidet: Juturna is called a Naiad by Ovid, Fast. ii. 585-8. A fountain issuing from the Albanian mountain, and a lake which it feeds, were sacred to her; verse 886.

144. Ingratum: for ingrati. D.

152 Quid præsentius: any thing more effectual in his behalf.' 161. Reges: this is the nominative to the verb procedunt, or vehuntur, understood.-Ingenti mole: with great pomp.'

164. Solis avi specimen: attesting his descent from Apollo.' Circe, the mother of Latinus, according to Servius, was daughter of Apollo. 168. Spes altera: Eneas was the first, Ascanius the second. 179. Jam melior: 'now more propitious.'

180. Torques: directest; rulest.' En. iv. 269. This metaphor is probably taken from driving the war chariot.

199. Vimque deûm infernam: for the infernal deities themselves; as, odora canum vis En v. 132.-Sacraria Ditis: 'the sanctuary of Pluto.' D.

204. Non, si.... miscens: in this order; non, si ulla vis miscens diluvio effundat tellurem in undas.

206. Ut sceptrum


umbras: 6 as this sceptre (for he chanced to hold a sceptre in his hand) shall never again with light foliage send forth shoots, or yield a shade.

214. In fummam jugulant: for jugulatas in flammam projiciunt. 229. Pro cunctis talibus: i. e. when all are men of valour equal to Turnus. Serv.

232. Fatalisque manus: Servius thinks that these words apply to the Trojans; but the copulative evidently connects them with the Tuscans; who were directed by fate, as stated En. viii. 502. seqq., to put themselves under a foreign leader, and on that condition only were assured of success.

233. Vix hostem

habemus: 'yet if half our force engage them, we should scarce have a man for each.'-Alterni: i. e. every other


234. Ille: Turnus.

237. Lenti consedimus: lazily repose.'

252. Convertunt clamore fugam: turn upon the eagle with loud noise.'

256. Projecit fluvio: the dative, for in fluvium: as, rivo fluenti jace, Ecl. viii. 101.

258. Expediuntque manus: ' and free their hands' for seizing arms. As they were sitting idle, their hands were probably employed with their togas wrapped about them. H.

267. Cornus: the cornel-wood;' of which the shaft of the spear was made.

269. Cunei in ancient warfare the infantry was formed, sometimes, not in lines, but in small columns of a wedge figure; as is yet practised by the Turks.

274. Laterum juncturas: the extremities of the belt.'

289. Insigne: the diadem.' Serv.

294. Trabali: like a beam.'

296. Hoc habet: sc. vulnus. This was an exclamation used by the spectators in gladiatorial combats.

320. Quo turbine adacta: by what force impelled.'


347. Antiqui noble.'-Proles. ...

Dolonis: this is probably ironical; Homer does not give a very warlike character to Dolon. II. x. 299.


354. Longum per inane: at a considerable distance.'-Secutus: for insecutus; having wounded.'

365. Edoni Borea: so called from the Edoni, a people of Thrace. 373. Citatorum: for concitatorum.

376. Degustat: 'grazes.'

394. Dabat: 6

was willing to give; offered.'

395. Ut depositi parentis: that he might prolong the life of a dying father.-Depositi: i. e. laid out, as near expiring.

399. Magno immobilis: not to be moved by the concourse of youths; or by the tears of the grieving Iulus.' Thus, munera portantes eborisque, aurique talenta et sellam, En. xi. 333.

402. Multa.... trepidat: with trepidation he makes many efforts with his healing hand and powerful herbs, but to no purpose.'

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412. Dictamnum: dittany.' It was found only on Mount Dicte of Crete.

413. Puberibus. 'woolly.'

417. Labris i. e. of the vessel in which its juice was mixed.-Amnem: 'water.

419. Panaceam: This name, formed from nav and axos, as promising a remedy against all pains, was given to three several herbs. Plin.

xxv. 4.

422. Quippe here used in the sense of utique, or scilicet. H.— Stetit ceased to flow.'

435. Verumque laborem: patience under difficulties.

444. Caco: obscuring the air.'

456. Rhæterus: Trojan.' En. iii. 108.

458. Gravem: i. e. fortem. Serv.

480. Conferre manum: 'to engage in combat ;' i. e. with Æneas. Serv.

491. Se collegit: covered himself with his buckler."

494. Insidiisque subactus: i.e. enraged by the secret attack made on him. H.

502. Inque vicem for invicem, by tmesis.


506. Loco statuit: Eneas, with his attendants, had till then been engaged in pursuing Turnus: this combat first led them to stay the pursuit, and to remain in one place.

513. Ille: Eneas.

515. Nomen Echionium: 'a Theban name.' Cadmus in building Thebes.-Genus: for filium.

516. Hic: Turnus.


Echion had assisted

518. Lernæ this lake, though in the Argive territory, was near Arcadia.

525. Suum populatus iter: 'laying waste all in its way as it pro


527. Rumpuntur


pectora: their invincible hearts are swollen

with rage, till ready to break.'

529. Hic: Eneas.

531. Turbine saxi: i. e. by a stone whirled round in throwing. 535. Ille: Turnus.

536. Aurata ad tempora: 'against his temples covered by a gilt helmet.'


539. Nec di Cupencum in the Sabine dialect, Cupencus signifies a priest. Serv.

553. Tendunt: for contendunt.


554. Mentem misit: 'inspired Æneas with the design.' Æn. i. 676.

565. Hâc stat: 'favours us; is on this side.'

575. Dant cuneum: they form into a wedge-shaped battalion.' 589. Tre da rerum: i.e. de rebus suis ; in alarm for their little state; fessi rerum, Æn. i. 178.

598. Pugna: thus, credit juvenem in certamine pugnæ.

603. Informis: disgraceful.' The pontifical books directed, that persons who hanged themselves should be deprived of sepulture. Serv.

612. Multaque

ultro. These two verses, taken, with a slight change, from En. xi. 471-2, do not appear, in this place, in several MSS.

616. Successu

equorum: 'with his horses' speed;' as Juturna had led Turnus to the extremity of the field, his horses now began to fail.

621. Diverso ab urbe: 'from the city at a distance.'


629. Mittamus funera Teucris: 'let us spread death among the Tro


630. Numero: i. e. of the slain.

646. Manes: the infernal powers.'

671. Rotis: from his chariot.'

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680. Furere ... furorem: a pleonasm frequent with Greek poets. 687. Mons: a fragment from a mountain.'-Improbus: enormous; vast; as, labor improbus, Geo. i. 146.

692. Magno ore: 'with a loud voice.' 694. Veriùs: 'it is more just.'

709. Cernere: for decernere ; 'to decide.'

712. Invadunt Martem: 6


they rush on to the combat.'-Clypeis

atque are with brazen shields.' By hendiadys.

717. Magistri: 'the herdsmen.'

725. Examine the 'beam' of a pair of scales.

727. Quem damnet labor: whom the contest shall doom.' The fates are not at Jupiter's discretion; he can but examine and inquire into futurity.



728. Impune putans: thinking he might with safety.' 733. Ni fuga subeat the sense is here incomplete; had not instant flight been his protection, [he would have lost his life ;]' or to that effect.

743. Incertos implicat orbes : · wheels round irregularly in his flight.' 746. Sagitta: i. e. the wound before received from the arrow. 750. Formidine pennæ: Geo. iii. 372. Note.

753. Umber: a dog from Umbria.'

770. Nullo discrimine: 'without reverence.'

771. Puro campo: 'in a field free from all obstruction.'

772. Stabat the spear which had been thrown at Turnus; verse



781. Lentoque probably here meaning 'tough.'-Stirpe: the gender of this noun, in Virgil, varies according to its sense. It is masculine when signifying the stock of a tree; verse 208 and 770; Geo. ii. 379; feminine, when a race or family; Geo. iv. 322; Æn. i. 626; and elsewhere.

797. Divum one destined to divinity.' 801. Et mihi curæ

recursent as in verse 825 aut is found for nec, so here the conjunction et supplies the place of nec; let not such cares as these so frequently be the subject of your conversation.'

810. Nec tu some words appear to be wanting, to complete the sense; as, unless I knew this to be your will.'

817. Una superstitio: the most strict obligation.'-Reddita: 'imposed.'

820. Tuorum: Saturn had reigned in Latium.

825. Vocem their language.'-Vestes: 'their dress.'


845. Cognomine: poetically, for nomine.

850. Apparent wait;' or attend; from the verb in this sense is derived apparitor. Serv.

854. Inque omen: as a fatal sign.'

876. Obscana: ill-omened.'.

879. Quò why?' In some MSS. cur.

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898. Litem ut decerneret: sc. de finibus; Jupiter had expressed disleasure that the sword of Turnus should be restored to him; yet, en he has it, no use is made of it, but a stone is thrown.

303. Nec cognoscit: i. e. he feels that his natural strength and speed Five departed.



911. Corpore: for corpori.

914. Sensus vertuntur varii: 'different designs are formed by him.' 920. Sortitus fortunam having seen in what part Turnus was vulnerable.-Corpore toto: with his whole force.'

941. Infelix: inauspicious; bringing misfortune.' 951. Frigore: 'the chill of death."

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