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4. Primo ...
had yielded to the impulse of nature, and sought repose during the night.
But, with the first dawn of the morning, their leader called them to the solemn duties before them. And, although their dead were still on the field of battle, yet, as it was the custom of the Romans never to offer sacrifice when defiled by the rites of burial, the first step was to offer vows and thanksgivings to the gods.
Eno: i. e. Lucifero ; at early dawn.' Lucifer, the morning star,' is also called Eõus, from us, ' morning.'
7. Tropuum : ' a trophy. This was the name given to a post or trunk of a tree dressed in the spoils of a slaughtered enemy.
16. Hic est : “this is Mezentius ;' pointing to the trophy.
19. Ubi primum , annuerint superi : before raising their stand ards to march, the Romans consulted the gods by auguries.
21. Metu sententia : deliberations proceeding from timidity.'
22. Socios inhumataque corpora : the unburied bodies of our friends. By hendiadys.
35. Crinem . .. . solutæ : sc. secundum ; weeping females are con stantly described as attending the funeral obsequies of the ancients. Whence came these Trojan damnes does not, however, clearly appear. Nisus had said, Æn. ix. 216, seqq. that the mother of Euryalus was the only matron who had accompanied them from Sicily.
42. Tene .. quum læta veniret, invidit fortuna inihi : ' did fortune, when she came propitious, envy me the possession of thee?' 47. Imperium : i.e. to the command of the Tuscans. Æn. viii. 475.
51. Cælestibus . debentem : the living are subject to the gods above; the dead, to the gods beneath. Æn. xii. 646-7.
55. Fides : in those promises of the safe return of Pallas.
56. Nec sospite .. · pater : 'nor will you, a father, imprecate an accursed death on your son saved by dishonourable means.
59. Hæc ubi defledit : after having, with tears, thus spoken.'
67. Agresti ....stramine : i. e. on a bed of leaves, or branches, and flowers.
82. Cæso : poetically, for cæsorum. 89. Positis insignibus : carrying no trappings.' 101. Veniam : the favour.' 112. Veni : for denissem. Serv. 118. Vixet : syncopated for vixisset. 122. Crimine: by accusations ;' criminibus terrere novis, Æn. ii. 98. 126. Justitiæ : according to the Greek idiom, a verb expressing admiration here governs a genitive.
133. Pace sequestrâ: by a truce.' In a litigation, the term sequester. was applied to a person in whose hands the subject in controversy was by mutual consent deposited : hence, to any thing intermediate, as to the cessation of arms; during which the contending parties are in a state of security. Serv.
160. Vivendo vici .... fata : I seem, by my longevity, to have survived my own fate ;' i. e. to have exceeded the natural bounds of life
161. Secutum : sc. me.
169. Quin ego: omnis : 'but I could not bestow on thee, O Pal las, any greater funeral honours than the affectionate Æneas, and the brave Trojans, and the Tuscan generals, and the whole Tuscan army have paid thee.'
172. Magna .... leto : i. e. magna tropea ferunt, sc. Troes et Tyrrheni, eorum quos dat (dedit] tua dextera leto. H. Evander says that no greatu: funeral honours could be paid to his son than the bearing
with his body in solemn pomp the spoils of those whom he had slain in battle ; and that the spoils of Turnus would have been added to these, had Pallas been equal to him in years and bodily strength.
175. Armis : i. e. ab armis. H.
177. Quòd vitam . .... tua est : my motive for enduring life is my confidence in your avenging arm.'
179. Meritis. locus : i. e. ad meritum ; 'this is the only way that now lies open to you and to fortune for rendering me a favour.'
181. Perferre : i. e. to be the messenger to my son of the vengeance inflicted on Turnus.
192. It cælo : for ad cælum. Lat. Gram. Rule xvii. Obs. 5. 195. Munera nota : i. e. offerings of the arms which had been theirs. 196. Non felicia : 'not successful' in the hands of their possessors. 211. Ruebant : an active verb; for eruebant. 222. Multa ....
Turno : 'and, on the other side, the sentiments of many were expressed in different language in favour of Turnus.'
223. Regine: of Amata, his aunt. — Obumbrat : protects.'
226. Supèr : for insuper ; .moreover.'— Diomedis : it will be recol. lected, that at the commencement of hostilities Turnus sent an embassy to Diomedes to ask assistance. See Æn. viii. 9.
243. Diomede : the Greek accusative, contracted from Diomedea.Argivaque castra : pro urbe ; Diomedes was king of Ætolia, and one of the bravest of the chiefs at the siege of Troy. He abandoned his native country, and settled in Italy, where he built the city Agyripa, afterwards called Arpi.
254. Ignota : "doubtful in their consequences.' 259. Del Priamo: “even by Priam.'
260. Sidus : i. e. the storm raised by the wrath of Minerva.-Caphereus : the promontory on the eastern shore of Eubæa, on which Ajax Orleus was shipwrecked.
262. Protei .... columnas : i. e. to the island of Pharos, on the coast of Egypt, where Proteus reigned.
265. Idomenei : Æn. ii. 717.-Locros : a part of this nation is said to have settled on the African coast, in the town called Pentapolis. Serv.
266. Ductor Achidûm: Agamemnon; who was murdered by his wife Clytemnestra and her paramour Ægysthus.
268. Devictam .... adulter : ' and the adulterous assassin possessed himself of conquered Asia.'
269. Invidisse : referamne, or some similar verb, is understood.
272. Et socii : on the coast of Apulia are five islands frequented by sea-birds, into which the companions of Diomedes were said to have been transformed.
275. Speranda : 'to be expected,' or 'feared.' Æn. iv. 419.
276. Cælestia corpora: Diomedes had wounded Venus. Il. o. 335; and Mars, c. 857.
286. Ultro : i. e. in offensive war ; in the first place. 290. Vestigia retulit : was repulsed.' 293. Quâ datur : ' by any means that are practicable.' 298. Clauso gurgite : when the stream is dammed back.' 305. Gente deorum : ' a nation deriving its origin from the gods.' 310. Cætera : alluding to the army and resources of the state. Serv. 316. Antiquus ager : a tract of land long in cultivation.' 324. Aliami... gentem : "another country.' H. 327. Plures : i. e. si calent complere eas. 329. Navalia : other necessaries for their equipment.'
333. Aurique .... nostri : this passage is much involved. It may be construed thus ; aurique talenta, et eboris sellam, trabeamque, insignia nostri regni.,
335. In medium : "for the common good. Geo. i. 127. 338. Et linguâ melior : and still more prodigal of words.' 346. Flatus : arrogance.' 347. Auspicium infaustum : "unfortunate conduct of the war." 350. Consedisse .... luctu : 'immersed in grief.' Æn. ii. 624 ; ix. 145. 363. Pignus : i. e. the marriage of Lavinia to Æneas. 376. Violentia Turni : used for Turnus himself; as, sapientia Læli. 385. Passimque .
agros: and since you grace the fields on all sides with trophies.'
386. Insignis : a verb.
400. Rebusque tuis : "and to the cause which you favour;' insinuating that Drances was a traitor.
407. Artificis scelus : for artifex sceleris.
416. Ille : sc. videtur.–Fortunatus laborum : ' in his misfortunes still comparatively happy.'
443. Nec Drances . tollat : nor may Drances, rather than I, lose his life in this encounter, if it be a judgment from the gods; or win the prize of valor and glory if otherwise.' This seems to be said ironically. Turnus knows that Drances is not famed for personal prowess, and that there is little probability of a single combat between Æneas and him; yet such a combat is sneeringly alluded to as possible, in order to express how great the calamity which the fall of Drances would produce, and how groat his glory, if victorious.
467. Jusso : contracted from jussero. Thus præcepsis is found for præceperis : rupsis for ruperis : rapsis for rapueris. D.
472. Urbi : i. e. propter urbem; for the sake of the state.'
513. Quaterent campos : “to scour the plains.' An expression of Lucretius for the movement of cavalry; ii. 330.
515. Furta . . . . belli : stratagems,' or ' ambushes.' 526. In speculis : 'on the summit of the hill.' 527. Ignota : i. e. unknown to the Trojans. 534. Latonia : Diana ; who was the daughter of Latona and Jupiter.
536. Nostris : Camilla was armed in the same manner as Diana and the Nymphs.
540. Priverno: Privernum was a town of the Volsci in Italy.
566. Donum Trivia : sc. quæ erat : who was consecrated to the service of the goddess.'
5€8. Neque feritate dedisset : 'nor would he, on account of his savage manners, have yielded to them.' 563. Pastorum .... @dum : ' he led the life of a shepherd.' 573. Primis : for prima vestigia.
607. Adventus equorum : poetically, as the troops approached, their ardour increased, and the neighing of their steeds became louder
613. Ruinam dant: "give the first shock against each other.'
617. Præcipitat: for præcipitatur.
619. Rejiciunt: i. e. place their shields on their backs, as a defonce in their retreat against missiles.
622. Mollia colla : 'the flexible necks of their horses.'
632. Legitque virum vir : ' and each combatant singles out an adversary.'
636. Orsilochus : a Trojan; verse 690.
645. Duplicatque virum : and bends down the man ;' convulsively, froin' the pain ; so, duplicato polite, Æn. xii. 927.
650. Spargens .... denset : this verb is hore of the second conjugation; poetically, for dense spargit.
654. Spicula .... fugientia : - whilst flying she directs her arrows backwards.'
655. Comites : sc. sunt.
657. Dia : an adjective formed from the Greek dios, 'noble ; generous.' Serv. Sententia dia Catonis, Hor. Sat. i. 2. 32.
660. Bellantur : this verb, which has also an active form, is here used as deponent.
661. Sę :... refert: "returns.'
680 Čaput ingens. albis: "whose head the huge yawning mouth and jaws of a wolf, with white teeth exposed, covered.'
686. Silvis : i. e. in silvis.
695. Interior : i. e. whilst he was galloping in a circle round her, she described an interior circle.
701. Sinebant : sc. eum : ' suffered him to practise fraud.'
732: Ő nunquam dolituri : i. e. spiritless, stupid people ; submitting to any wrong withou' an effort to defend yourselves. The tyranny or Mezentius they had borne, without avenging themselves; and now they turn their backs on a woman. Serv.
739. Secundus harusper : when the diviner announced favourable auspices, the feast immediately followed. Secundus, qui secunda nun ciat ex extis. H.
741. Moriturus : sc. animo suo ; ' devoting himself to death.' 748. Partes ....
apertas : "the part of his throat not protected ba armour.'
750. Exit : " he averts.' Æn. v. 438. 761. Quæ sit ...,
facillima : 'where the chance of nitting seems most favourable.'-Tentat : ' he reconnoitres.' 770. Pellis ..
.... auro conserta: 'ornamented with golden knobs.'Ahenis in plumam squamis : ' and covered with small plates of bra; chaped like feathers ;' serving in some measure for defensive armož for the horse. 773. Spicula ..
• Cretan arrows, with a Lycian (or a Par bian) bow. Though these epithets are merely ornamental, yet the periority of Cretan arrows is noticed by Pliny, and the cause as. jned: they were of a heavy make, and therefore capable of fiying ainst the wind. 775 Cassia : Propertius also gives the word in this form
777. Pictus .... tunicas . tegmina : sc. secundum. Servius observes that the poet gives this minute description of the ornaments of the hurse, and of its rider, in order to account for Camilia's eagerness to possess them.
786. Primi : principally ; in the first place.—Pineus ardor acervo : the fire kept up from heaped pine.'
788. Multâ . . . . pruna : it was said that the priests of Apollo could walk over burning coals without injury. In addition to their piety, they used the precaution, Varro observes, of applying to the soles of their feet some kind of ointment; but Servius observes that Varro is a constant enemy to religion.
798. Notos : for the winds in general.
809. Ille ... lupus : this pronoun is joined in the same manner to aper, Æn. x. 707.
812. Remulcens : ' as if hugging his tail.' 822. Partiri curas : sc. consueverat. 823. Hactenus . potui : "so far have my powers availed me.' 845. Regina : i. e. Diana. 847. Famam. inultæ : 'the ignominy of dying, unrevenged.' 857. Præmia : 6a fit reward for the death of Camilla.' 861. Manibus . æquis : with her hands on a level.'
866. Obliti : neglecting.'. This particle is here used in an antiquated sense. Oblitus decorisque sui, Æn. v. 174. Serv.
877. E speculis : ‘from the elevations on the wall.'
ruentům : of those who by arms oppose the entrance of the flying soldiery, and of those who seek to force admission.'
888. Urgente ruinâ : from the crowd pressing on. D. Or, from the falling in of the sides of the ditch. H.
889. Cæca: 'blinded by terror.'—Concita frænis : 'forcing on their horses.'
904. Apertos : 'no longer occupied by an enemy.' 911. Flatus : 'the neighing.'
913. Gurgite .... Ibero: as the sea on the coast of Spain lay westward of Italy, it was imagined that the sun sets in that sea. Audict Herculeo stridentem gurgite solem, Juv. xiv. 280.
ÆNEID. BOOK XII. TURNUS, having taken possession of the narrow passes of the mountain, over which Æneas with a detachment of soldiers intended to come upon the city, was there waiting in ambush for his appearance during the engagement before the city. He was summoned from his concealment by a message from the dying Camilla, that his presence was required at the city. Æneas passed the defile soon after Turnus left it; and they both arrived on the field of battle nearly at the same time. But, as night was approaching, a second engagement was postponed till the following day. We now learn what passed in the mean while within the city between Latinus and Turnus.
2. Promissa : i. e. bis promise that he would meet Æneas in single combat. Æn. xi. 438.