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may destroy' Spatio brevi spem longam reseces, Hor. Carm. i. 11.7. Scaliger's interpretation is more in the manner of Virgil; who does not affect antitheses.
108. Fuat : apparently the ancient subjunctive present of the verb fuo, signifying existence ; from yuw: whence fui, and its cognate tenses como.
109. Fatis Italùm : fatally for the Italians.'
110. Monitisque sinistris : oracles and prophecies, leading to its destruction.'
111. Nec Rutulos solvo : nor do I absolve the Rutulians from their fate.' - Sua . exorsa : 'that which each has undertaken.'-Laborem
ferent : shall produce its consequences.' 113. Fata viam invenient : 'the fates will accomplish their end ;' intimating that they are not under his control.
117. Ad limina : attend him to the door of his private apartment.' D. 130. Hi : the besiegers ; illi, the besieged.
133. Caput .... detectus : he was without a helmet; as he had been directed to withdraw from the fight; Æn. ix. 661.
136. Terebintho : probably ebony; growing near Oricus in Epire. 151. Conciliet : i. e. by the alliance of Turnus. 153. Admonet : reminds him of the instability of fortune.'
154. Libera fati : (now freed from all restraint of the fates ;' the augurs had announced that the Tuscans were to be led to war against Mezentius by a foreigner; viii. 498. seqq.
155. Gens Lydia : the Tuscans ;' who claimed descent from the Lydians.
157. Phrygios .... leones : these animals were sacred to Cybele, the tutelary deity of Phrygia.
158. Ida : : a representation of that mountain, grateful to the Trojan feelings, as it reininded them of their native country. There, also, grew the timber of which the fleet had been built ; Æn. iii. 6; ix. 88.
161. Jam quærit sidera : he now desires Æneas to point out the stars.-Opacæ noctis iter : "by which he steers his vessels in the
173. Ilva. Little could the poet foresee that this island of Elba would one day send forth another expedition, almost as inconsiderable in point of numbers, but threatening consequences important to the civilized world.
176. Parent : "are subject to his skilful interpretation.' The idea of commanding futurity is here blended with the soothsaying art.
179. Alpheæ : Pisa was said to be built by colonists from Elis in the Peloponnesus, in which the river Alphēus flowed.
180. Etrusca solo : 'but situated in the Etruscan territory.'
184. Intempestæ : 'living in an unhealthy situation.'— Graviscæ : gravisce, dicta sunt, quod gravem aërem sustinent, Cato in Origin. Serv.
188. Crimen : the cause of the transformation of Cycnus was his friendship for Phaëthon. Serv.-Paterne: Cupavo was the son of Cycnus; this line is obscure, and is thought by Heyne to be an interpolation.
192. Canentem molli plumâ : 'covered with a white, downy plumage. 195. Ile : the figure of a Centaur, placed at the bow.
201. Non genus . .
.. unum : i. e. of a mixed lineage; partly from Tuscany, partly from Venetia, and partly from Gaul.
202. Gens illi triplex . ... vires : Ocnus led a force composed of descendants of the three nations mentioned in the preceding note ; each of which was subdivided into four tribes; the inhabitants of the Mantuan territory were the most powerful; and, among them, the Tuscans had the predominance.
204. In se Mezentius armat : the odium, in which Mezentius was held, induced them to arm.
205. Patre Benaco . Mincius : Benacus is a lake in the territory of Verona, now called Lago di Garda. The river Mincius rises out of it; and therefore the epithet patre is added to Benaco. Dav.-Velatus : a river god, as the personification of the Mincius, was placed on the prow of the vessel in which Ocnus and his troops were conveyed.
207. Gravis : brave.' Serv.-Centena .... arbore: 'with a hundred oars ;' each in size resembling a tree.
215. Concesserat: sc. nocti.- Cælo: i. e. in cælo. Serv.
220. Cybebe : the name of the mother of the gods is written either Cyběle, or Cybēbe; from Kupéan and Kupiißn. Genetrix Berecyntia, Æn. ix. 82.
221. Numen habere maris : 'to be marine goddesses.' 228. Deùm gens : i. e. dis genite, Æn. ix. 642. The vestal virgins, when commencing certain ceremonies, thus addressed the rex sacrorum; Vigilasne rex? Vigila. Serv.
234. Refecit : changed.' 235. Dedit esse : according to the Greek idiom ; as, donat habere. Æn. v. 262.-Agitare: duúyelv, agere.
239. Arcas eques : when Æneas embarked the infantry, he appears (though it is not expressly said) to have given orders that the cavalry should march by the shore towards the camp. Their junction Turnus was taking measures to prevent.
240. Jungant : se, understood.
249. Inde aliæ : the other Nymphs, in the same manner as Cymodocēa, accelerated the course of the remainder of the fleet. Serv.
254. Propinques augurium : ' by your own presence give effect to the augury.
256. Revoluta ruebat : 6advanced in its revolution.'
Like a comet burn'd
And from his horrid hair
Paradise Lost. ii. 710-11. 277. Præcipere: 'to preoccupy.'
278. Ultro : this line, which appears Æn. ix. 127, is not, in several MSS., here repeated.
279. Quod : sc. tempus : 'the time you have prayed for.' 230. in manibus Mars ipse: “the combat is within your own power.' 281. Referto : "call to memory.'.
288. Pontibus : "framed ladders' for disembarking.–Recursus languentis pelagi : 'the retreating wave;' not the tide. The shore was nearly flat.
289. Brevibus : 'to the shoal water ;' incipiunt, or some similar verb, understood.
290. Per remos: sc. descendunt : 'others get on shore by help of the oars.'
291. Vuda non spirant : i. e. a part of the shore where there was nu surf. Fervetque fretis spirantibus æquor, Geo. i. 327.
303. Dorso: a sandbank.'— Iniquo : mischievous ; destructive.' 304. Fatigat : ' whilst she buffets the waves.' 313. #rea suta : ' a breast-plate formed of brass chain-work.' 317. Quod licuit parvo : the violent death which he had escaped, when born.—Nec longè : 'not long after.' Serv.
321. Usque . dum : ' as long as.'
326. Securus : 'no longer solicitous about ;' 'forgetting ;' i. e. in death.
345. Curibus : the capital of the Sabines was named Cures.-Primevo corpore : 'on his youth.'- Clausus : the Claudii derived their descent from Clausus, a Sabine ; the name was probably here introduced in compliment to that family.
359. Stant obnixa omnio contrà : "all the elements contending against each other are at a stand.'
363. Torrens : not the Tyber; but a flood dry in the summer. Perennis sit unda, non torrens ; Seneca, Ep. 40. Cerda.
365. Latio .... sequaci : 'to the Latins pursuing them.'
366. Aspera queis .... equos : since the roughness of the ground had induced them to relinquish their horses.'
370. Devicta : for depugnata; by the battles you have won.' 378. Trojamne : 'or the fortifications ;' Nova Troja.
392. Indiscreta suis : 'not distinguishable one from the other, even by their own friends.' 394. Thymbre: in the voc. Nom. Thymber and Thymbrus. 398. Viri: of Pallas. 399. Fugientem . præter : præterfugientem. By tmesis. 405. Optatò : “to his wish.'
407. Correptis : mediis : penetrating the centre; the progress of the flames, and that of a victorious army, are compared.
408. Acies Vulcania : metaphorically, for the raging flames.' 409. Ovantes : as if rejoicing in victory.
411. Sed : merely an inceptive particle, not making any opposition between the preceding sense and what follows. Serv.
412. Tendit. colligit arma : advanced, covering himself with his shield. Serv. Æn. xii. 491.
415. Elatam: threatening to pierce his throat. 418. Canentia : 'dying. The eyes roll up their white part in death. 424. Texit : used aoristically ; 'whilst he was covering.' 425. Arcadio .... telo : 'the spear of the Arcadian Pallas.'
432. Nec turba : the combatants rushed together in so dense a crowd that they could not use their weapons.
439. Soror : sc. Turni ; the nymph Juturna. Æn. xii. 138. seqq. 441. Socios : inquit, understood.
444. Æquore jusso: from the part of the plain which they were required to quit.
447. Omnia : his armour, and every thing about his person.
450. Sorti .... est : sc. ferendæ ; ' my father is equally prepared for either fortune ;' either for victory or my glorious death"; this applies to the brutal wish of Turnus, verse 443.
458. Ire prior : voluit, understood.
481. Penetrabile : this adjective, of a passive form, has been before
482. Terga : 'plates.'
497. Impressumque nefas : “ the horrid tale there represented ;' viz.
511. Discrimine leti : in danger of utter ruin.'
541. Ingenti umbrâ : 'with the shades of death ;' or,' with everlast-
544. Veniens : " who had come from.'
547. Dicerat ille : sc. Antur. H.-Aliquid magnum : Anxur had
548. Cæloque animum : 'had thought highly of his own prowess.
552. Ille reductå . hasta: Æneas, drawing back his spear, then
564. Tacitis : this epithet has been given to Amyclæ in consequence
565. Ægæon : or Briareus.
617. Nunc pereat tamen : said with indignation ; ' now he must
623. Ponere sentis : 'if your meaning be that I should so dispose the
625. Vacat: for licet.
628. Quod doce .. . dares : « if that favour, which you decline grant-
630. Veni vana feror: 'I am mistaken in the truth.'
.... ventos : 'nor sees how groundless his exultation is ;'
653. Crepidine : the ancient dative, for crepidini.
668. Crimine dignum : i. e. worthy of such an imputation on my
670. Quem : i. c. qualem ? with what character ?'
681. Mucrone. induat : whether he shall stab himself.' Se ipsi
686. Animi miserata : an elliptical expression; dolorem animi mise-
688. Urbem : Ardea. Æn. vii. 412.
occupat os ; i.e. secundum os.
711. Inhorruit armos : i. e. in armos, or armis ; . erecting the bris-
712. Irasci .... virtus : sc. est ; 'nor has any one courage to exas-
786. Sed ....
725. Surgentem in cornua : poetically, a stag distinguished by stately horns.
733. Cæcum .. vulnus : a wound inflicted from behind ; unseen, therefore, by him who receives it. 734. Obvius ....
occurrit : i. e. having run by, he turns and meets Orodes.
736. Pede nicus : sc. ait Mezentius. 738. Lætum pæana secuti : raising a joyful song.' 758. Inanem : fruitless.' 763. Turbidus : raging.'- Quam : such as.' 765. Stagna : "the deepest parts of the ocean. Æn. i. 126. 766. Aut .. referens : 'or resembling.' 767. Ingreditur .... solo : Homer represents Orion as a hunter.
773. Dextra : i. e. “ let my right hand, which is my god, and this good spear, which I poise, now lend their aid.' It will be remembered that Mezentius is styled contemptor divům.
775. Lause, iropæum : instead of promising to adorn the trunk of a tree with the spoils of Æneas, Mezentius says he will array his son Lausus in them, when he shall have stripped them from his foe.
781. Alieno vulnere: ' by a wound intended for another.' 784. Tribus .. tauris : three bulls' hides.'
· pertulit : ' but it had spent its force.' 792. Vetustas : here put for ' posterity.' De me nulla unquam obmu. tescet vetustas, Cic. pro. Mil. 35.
794. Ile : Mezentius.-Inutilis : sc. pugnæ ; 'disabled.'— Inque ligatus : (and entangled; encumbered.'
804. Precipitant : sc. se.
834. Vulnera siccabat lymphis: "was stanching his wounds with cold water.'
838. Colla fovet : eases his neck by leaning.'
861. Rhæbe : this address to his horse is very natural in Mezentius, under existing circumstances.
879. Perdere : sc. me.
880. Divûm parcimus : alluding to the invocation by Æneas, of Jupiter and Apollo: this verb has here the sense of the Greek geideogai, * to dread; to reverence.'
887. Siloam : i. e. the spears fixed in the shield. 889. Pugnâ .... iniquâ : Mezentius was mounted ; Æneas on foot.
902. Nec tecum . Lausus : 'nor did my son make with you an agreement, that you were to spare my life.' 905. Defende : forbid; prevent.'
ÆNEID. BOOK XI.
Although the last book terminates without completing the narration of the battle, it may be presumed that the Latins and Rutulians were repulsed. The Trojans, worn down by long watchings and by the toils and hardships of the sanguinary conflict of the preceding day,