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may destroy. Spatio brevi spem longam reseces, Hor. Carm. i. 11. 7. Scaliger's interpretation is more in the manner of Virgil; who does not affect antitheses.

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108. Fuat apparently the ancient subjunctive present of the verb fuo, signifying existence; from quw: whence fui, and its cognate

tenses come.

109. Fatis Italûm: fatally for the Italians.'

110. Monitisque sinistris: 'oracles and prophecies, leading to its destruction.'

111. Nec Rutulos solvo : nor do I absolve the Rutulians from their fate.'-Sua. ..... exorsa: 'that which each has undertaken.'-Laborem ferent: shall produce its consequences.'


113. Fata viam invenient: the fates will accomplish their end;' intimating that they are not under his control.

117. Ad limina: attend him to the door of his private apartment.' D. 130. Hi the besiegers; illi, the besieged.


133. Caput.... detectus: he was without a helmet; as he had been directed to withdraw from the fight; Æn. ix. 661.

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136. Terebintho probably ebony;' growing near Oricus in Epire. 151. Conciliet i. e. by the alliance of Turnus.


153. Admonet reminds him of the instability of fortune.'

154. Libera fati: now freed from all restraint of the fates;' the augurs had announced that the Tuscans were to be led to war against Mezentius by a foreigner; viii. 498. seqq.

155. Gens Lydia: the Tuscans;' who claimed descent from the Lydians.

leones: these animals were sacred to Cybele, the

157. Phrygios tutelary deity of Phrygia.

158. Ida: a representation of that mountain, grateful to the Trojan feelings, as it reminded them of their native country. There, also, grew the timber of which the fleet had been built; Æn. iii. 6; ix. 88. 161. Jam quærit sidera: he now desires Eneas to point out the stars.-Opaca noctis iter: by which he steers his vessels in the night.' H.

169. Corytique leves and light quivers.'

171. Aurato.



Apolline with a gilded statue of Apollo.' 172. Populonia mater: Populonia, his native city.'


173. Ilva. Little could the poet foresee that this island of Elba would one day send forth another expedition, almost as inconsiderable in point of numbers, but threatening consequences important to the civilized world.

176. Parent: are subject to his skilful interpretation.' The idea of commanding futurity is here blended with the soothsaying art.

179. Alpheæ: Pisa was said to be built by colonists from Elis in the Peloponnesus, in which the river Alpheus flowed.

180. Etrusca solo: 'but situated in the Etruscan territory.'

184. Intempesta: 'living in an unhealthy situation.'-Gravisca: gravisca, dicta sunt, quod gravem aërem sustinent, Cato in Origin.


188. Crimen the cause of the transformation of Cycnus was his friendship for Phaethon. Serv.-Paterna: Cupavo was the son of Cycnus; this line is obscure, and is thought by Heyne to be an interpola


192. Canentem molli plumâ: 'covered with a white, downy plumage. 195. Ille the figure of a Centaur, placed at the bow.

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201. Non genus .. unum: i. e. of a mixed lineage; partly from Tuscany, partly from Venetia, and partly from Gaul.

202. Gens illi triplex.... vires: Ocnus led a force composed of descendants of the three nations mentioned in the preceding note; each of which was subdivided into four tribes; the inhabitants of the Mantuan territory were the most powerful; and, among them, the Tuscans had the predominance.

204. In se Mezentius armat: the odium, in which Mezentius was held, induced them to arm.

205. Patre Benaco.... Mincius: Benacus is a lake in the territory of Verona, now called Lago di Garda. The river Mincius rises out of it; and therefore the epithet patre is added to Benaco. Dav.-Velatus: a river god, as the personification of the Mincius, was placed on the prow of the vessel in which Ocnus and his troops were conveyed.

207. Gravis: brave.' Serv.-Centená . . . . arbore: 'with a hundred oars ;' each in size resembling a tree.

215. Concesserat: sc. nocti.-Cœlo: i. e. in cœlo. Serv.

220. Cybebe: the name of the mother of the gods is written either Cyběle, or Cybebe; from Kußian and Kußißn. Genetrix Berecyntia, En. ix. 82.

221. Numen habere maris: 'to be marine goddesses.'

228. Deûm gens: i. e. dis genite, En. ix. 642. The vestal virgins, when commencing certain ceremonies, thus addressed the rex sacrorum; Vigilasne rex? Vigila. Serv.

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234. Refecit: changed.'

235. Dedit esse: according to the Greek idiom; as, donat habere. En. v. 262.-Agitare: duyev, agere.

239. Arcas eques: when Eneas embarked the infantry, he appears (though it is not expressly said) to have given orders that the cavalry should march by the shore towards the camp. Their junction Turnus was taking measures to prevent.

240. Jungant: se, understood.

249. Inde aliæ: the other Nymphs, in the same manner as Cymodocea, accelerated the course of the remainder of the fleet. Serv.

254. Propinques augurium: 'by your own presence give effect to the augury.

256. Revoluta ruebat: advanced in its revolution.'

270. Capiti: on the head of Æneas.

274. Ille, sitim: imitated by Milton.

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277. Præcipere: to preoccupy.'

278. Ultro: this line, which appears Æn. ix. 127, is not, in several MSS., here repeated.

279. Quod sc. tempus: the time you have prayed for.'


230. In manibus Mars ipse: the combat is within your own power.' 231. Referto call to memory.'



288. Pontibus: framed ladders' for disembarking.-Recursus languentis pelagi: 'the retreating wave;' not the tide. The shore was nearly flat..

289. Brevibus: 'to the shoal water;' incipiunt, or some similar verb, understood.

290. Per remos: sc. descendunt: others get on shore by help of the oars.'

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291. Vada non spirant: i. e. a part of the shore where there was no surf. Fervetque fretis spirantibus æquor, Geo. i. 327.

303. Dorso: ' a sandbank.'-Iniquo: mischievous; destructive.' 304. Fatigat: 'whilst she buffets the waves.'

313. Erea suta: a breast-plate formed of brass chain-work.' 317. Quòd licuit parvo: the violent death which he had escaped, when born.-Nec longè: not long after.' Serv.

321. Usque.... dum: as long as.'

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325. Nova gaudia: a new object of affection.' 326. Securus: 6 death.

no longer solicitous about;' 'forgetting;' i. e. in

345. Curibus: the capital of the Sabines was named Cures.-Primævo corpore: on his youth.'-Clausus: the Claudii derived their descent from Clausus, a Sabine; the name was probably here introduced in compliment to that family.

359. Stant obnixa omnio contrà

each other are at a stand.'

all the elements contending against

363. Torrens: not the Tyber; but a flood dry in the summer. Perennis sit unda, non torrens; Seneca, Ep. 40. Cerda.

365. Latio..

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sequaci: to the Latins pursuing them.'

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366. Aspera queis . equos since the roughness of the ground had induced them to relinquish their horses.'

370. Devicta for depugnata; 'by the battles you have won.' 378. Trojamne or the fortifications;' Nova Troja.

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392. Indiscreta suis: 'not distinguishable one from the other, even by their own friends.'

394. Thymbre: in the voc. Nom. Thymber and Thymbrus.

398. Viri: of Pallas.

399. Fugientem. . . . præter: præterfugientem. By tmesis.

405. Optato: to his wish.'

407. Correptis.... mediis: penetrating the centre; the progress of the flames, and that of a victorious army, are compared.

408. Acies Vulcania: metaphorically, for the raging flames.' 409. Ovantes: as if rejoicing in victory.

411. Sed merely an inceptive particle, not making any opposition between the preceding sense and what follows. Serv.


412. Tendit.... colligit arma: advanced, covering himself with his shield.' Serv. En. xii. 491.

415. Elatam: threatening to pierce his throat.


418. Canentia dying.' The eyes roll up their white part in death. 424. Texit used aoristically; whilst he was covering.'

425. Arcadio.... telo: the spear of the Arcadian Pallas.'

432. Nec turba: the combatants rushed together in so dense a crowd that they could not use their weapons.

439. Soror: sc. Turni; the nymph Juturna. Æn. xii. 138. seqq. 441. Socios: inquit, understood.

444. quore jusso: from the part of the plain which they were required to quit.

447. Omnia: his armour, and every thing about his person.

450. Sorti.... est: sc. ferendæ; my father is equally prepared for either fortune;' either for victory or my glorious death; this applies to the brutal wish of Turnus, verse 443.

458. Ire prior: voluit, understood.

466. Genitor natum : Jupiter addresses Hercules. 467. Statis fixed.'

481. Penetrabile: this adjective, of a passive form, has been before
taken in an active sense, Geo. i. 93.

482. Terga: 'plates.'

494. Illi stabunt: will cost to Evander.

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497. Impressumque nefas: the horrid tale there represented;' viz.
the story of the daughters of Danaus, who murdered their husbands on
the wedding night. Class. Dict.

511. Discrimine leti: in danger of utter ruin.'

514. Limitem agit ferro: hews a passage with his sword.'

519. Umbris: for umbra. to the shade of Pallas.

541. Ingenti umbrâ: 'with the shades of death;' or, 'with everlast-
ing night.

544. Veniens: 'who had come from.'

545. Dardanides: sc. Æneas.

546. Dejecerat: sc. Eneas.

547. Dixerat ille: sc. Anxur. H.-Aliquid magnum: Anxur had
repeated some charm.

548. Coloque animum: had thought highly of his own prowess.'
552. Ille reductâ .... hastâ: Æneas, drawing back his spear, then
pierces the buckler and breastplate of Tarquitus, in which the spear
remains fixed.

564. Tacitis: this epithet has been given to Amyclæ in consequence
of a tradition that, by a law of that state, any alarm was forbidden to be
given on an enemy's approach. An enemy did suddenly approach and
capture the city.

565. Egaon or Briareus.
582. Evi of your life.'

608. Ut rebare .. pericli: this is said ironically.

617. Nunc pereat

perish.... although'.


tamen said with indignation; 'now he must


623. Ponere sentis: if your meaning be that I should so dispose the


625. Vacat: for licet.

623. Quod voce.... dares: if that favour, which you decline grant-
ing verbally, you should grant me in reality.'

630. Veni vana feror: I am mistaken in the truth.'

631. Quod in which respect.' xa' 8. H.

652. Nec....

ventos: 'nor sees how groundless his exultation is ;'

venti ferunt gaudium is a proverbial expression. Serv.

653. Crepidine: the ancient dative, for crepidini.

668. Crimine dignum: i. e. worthy of such an imputation on my
character as that of deserting in battle.

670. Quem: i. c. qualem?with what character?'

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672. Manus illa: sc. dicet; what will the troops say of me?'

681. Mucrone . induat: whether he shall stab himself.' Se ipsi
acutissimis vallis induebant, Cæs. de B. G. vii.

686. Animi miserata: an elliptical expression; dolorem animi mise-
rata. H.

688. Urbem: Ardea. Æn. vii. 412.

698. Latagum.. occupat os; i. e. secundum os.

706. Ignarum: for ignotum.

709. Defendit : 'sheltered.'

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711. Inhorruit armos: i. e. in armos, or armis; erecting the bris-
tles on his shoulders.'

712. Irasci.... virtus: sc. est; 'nor has any one courage to exas-
perate, or to approach him.'

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725. Surgentem in cornua: poetically, a stag distinguished by stately horns.'

733. Cæcum..

vulnus: a wound inflicted from behind; unseen,

therefore, by him who receives it.

734. Obvius....


occurrit: i. e. having run by, he turns and meets

736. Pede nixus: sc. ait Mezentius.

738. Lætum paana secuti : 'raising a joyful song.'

758. Inanem: 'fruitless.'

763. Turbidus: 'raging.'-Quam: 'such as.'

765. Stagna: the deepest parts of the ocean.' Æn. i. 126. 766. Aut. referens: or resembling.'

767. Ingreditur.... solo: Homer represents Orion as a hunter. 773. Dextra: i. e. let my right hand, which is my god, and this good spear, which I poise, now lend their aid.' It will be remembered that Mezentius is styled contemptor divûm.

775. Lause, tropeum: instead of promising to adorn the trunk of a tree with the spoils of Æneas, Mezentius says he will array his son Lausus in them, when he shall have stripped them from his foe. 781. Alieno vulnere: by a wound intended for another.'

784. Tribus.... tauris: three bulls' hides.'

786. Sed....

pertulit: but it had spent its force.'

792. Vetustas here put for posterity.' De me nulla unquam obmutescet vetustas, Cic. pro. Mil. 35.

794. Ille: Mezentius.-Inutilis: sc. pugnæ; 'disabled.'—Inque ligatus: and entangled; encumbered.'

804. Præcipitant: sc. se.

805. Tuta... arce: in a place of shelter.'

833. Genitor: sc. Lausi; Mezentius.

834. Vulnera siccabat lymphis: 'was stanching his wounds with

cold water.'

838. Colla fovet: 'eases his neck by leaning.'

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845. Corpore inhæret clings to the body of Lausus.

861. Rhebe: this address to his horse is very natural in Mezentius, under existing circumstances.

879. Perdere: sc. me.

880. Divûm parcimus: alluding to the invocation by Eneas, of Jupiter and Apollo: this verb has here the sense of the Greek yeideodai, to dread; to reverence.'

887. Silvam: i. e. the spears fixed in the shield.


689. Pugnâ. iniqua: Mezentius was mounted; Æneas on foot. Lausus: nor did my son make with you an

902. Nec tecum


agreement, that you were to spare my life.'

905. Defende: 'forbid; prevent.'

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ALTHOUGH the last book terminates without completing the narration of the battle, it may be presumed that the Latins and Rutulians were repulsed. The Trojans, worn down by long watchings and by the toils and hardships of the sanguinary conflict of the preceding day,

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