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ÆNEID. BOOK IX. During the visit of Æneas to Evander, the account of which has taken up the principal part of the preceding book, Turnus was not idle.
At his departure, Æneas had left his companions strongly fortified on the margin of the river Tiber, and his fleet moored by the side of the encampment. He had directed his son and his commanding officers not to fight, except in self-defence, till his return; and in no case to venture out of their intrenchment.
The poet here begins to inform us what took place in the absence of Æneas; and to this the whole book is devoted. It is worthy of remark, that it is the only book in the poem in the incidents of which the hero takes no part himself.
7. Volvenda : quæ volvitur. Æn. i. 269.
8. Urbe : the intrenchment of the Trojans is sometimes called a camp, and sometimes a city. It was a camp fortified in the manner and form of a city, with turrets and gates.
11. Lydorum : of the Tuscans.' Æn. ii. 781.
23. Lymphas : ' in order to pray with washed hands and with more purity.' Æn. viii. 69.
26. Pictaï : this is one of the four instances in our poet, in which the diphthong æ is found dissolved by diæresis. Æn. iii. 354.
29. Vertitur .... est: this verse, which is found in Æn. vii. 784, is not, in many MSS., here repeated'; and, as it interrupts the comparison between the progress of an army and that of a river in the three next verses, it is probably an interpolation.
30. Surgens .... Ganges : 'as the deep Ganges when augmented by the junction of seven rivers.'--Sedatis : of which the violence has abated.
31. Aut pingui .... aloeo : 'or the fertilizing Nile, when, after its yearly inundation, it reverts to its natural channel.' The poet apparently means to compare the march of this army, collected and falling into military order, with one of these mighty streams proceeding towards the sea, in calm and stately majesty:
57. Fovere : 'keep close in their camp. Geo. iii. 420.-Turbidus : enraged.' 61. Nocte super mediâ : "beyond midnight.' 64. Sanguine : a, understood. 79. Prisca ....
perennis : 'the fact is of ancient date; but its fame endures through ages.' H.
84. Domito .. Olympo : 'now that Olympus is subjected to thy sway.' Jupiter had been preserved by his mother's aid from Saturn; to her, therefore, he was indebted for the possession of Olympus. Serv.
86. Arce . summâ : ' on the summit of mount Ida.' 88. Has : sc. arbores.-Dardanio juveni : 'to Æneas.' 90. Solde metus : dispel my fears.'-Atque
parentem : 6 and allow a parent's entreaties to avail so much.
92. Prosit : i. e. prosit his ortas esse.
94. Qud fata vocas : wherefore dost thou urge destiny?'--Istis : sc. trabibus, seu navibus ; i. e. in earum gratiam. H.
112. Idæi .... chori : choirs of Corybantes;' who usually attended Cybele. 114. Ne trepidate : "hasten not.' 125. Rauca : for raucè.
127. Animos tollit dictis : "he raises the spirit of his followers by addressing them.'
128. Monstra : prodigies.'.
130. Exspectant : they wait not Rutulian fire nor sword for their destruction.'
131. Pars altera : 6 one of the elements ;' i. e. the sea. 132. Tot millia : in this order ; Itala gentes ferunt tot millia arma. 139. Iste dolor : indignation at being insulted.
140. Sed .... est : 'but [it may be said] it is sufficient atonement for the Trojans to have been once destroyed.'—Peccare .... fæmineum : ' to transgress in this way before [it may be answered] should have been sufficient; nay, even to make them detest the whole female sex.' Turnus wishes to do away the impression that the Trojans are destined to prevail, and finally to establish themselves in Italy. As their former calamities befell them in consequence of their criminally taking Helen, so, he intimates, a second overthrow awaits them for attempting unjustly to deprive him of Lavinia, to whom he was betrothed. 143. Leti discrimina parva : slight security against death.'
154. Fuxo: an archaism for fucium, Serv.; as, Æn. xii. 316, apparently, fuco is contracted from the future perfect, fecero.
155. Distulit Hector : • whose efforts Hector repelled.'
158. Procurate : attend to ;' i. e. take care of yourselves.-Sperate: • expect.'
160. Flainmis : with watch-fires.'
170. Pontes : these were stages or galleries, communicating from tower to tower. Cerda.
171. Tela gerunt : convey missive weapons;' i. e. to be ready for the approaching assault.
174. Sortita periclum : distributing their duties by lot.”
185. An ... : cupido : 'is that, which a man earnestly desires, to be regarded as divine inspiration ? 191. Quid dubitem : . what I am considering.'
promitlunt : 'if they promise you what I demand.' The generous youth proposes to give to his friend Euryalus the reward to which this hazardous enterprise would entitle him; being satisfied himself with the glory of the action.
205. Lucis contemptor: 'a mind that despises life.'
215. Absenti : if his body were not found, at least a cenotaph to his honour might be erected (Æn. iii. 301), to which the oblations called inferiæ might be carried; which consisted of water, milk, honey, and blood. Æn. iii. 62. seqq. D.
221. Vigiles : 'the sentinels ;' who were to relieve them on guard. 223. Regem : Ascanius.
232. Pretiumque moræ : 'worth the delay,' which the interruption would occasion.
233. Trepidos: 'impatient.'
244. Vidimus. venatu assiduo : often, whilst hunting, we have seen, from the shady valleys, the nearest part of the town.'
254. Moresque .... vestri : “your own virtues and approving con sciences.'
273. Arma : 'the arms belonging to them all ;' i. e. to the captives. 288. Inque salutatam : separated by tmesis ; . without taking leave.'
194. Si tibi ....
291. Sine me .. tui : allow me to entertain these hopes from you.'
298. Nec partum . . manet : 'nor is it a slight obligation that she has conferred in giving us such a son.
315. Antè : to complete the sense, some words must be supplied ; antequam ipsi moriantur ; Serv.; or, antequam ad castra hostium perveniant ; supposing that the Rutulians whom they killed were lying between the camp and the fortifications. D.
319. Vina : i. e. pitchers, or jars of wine.
330. Premit : i. e. opprimit; he kills.'—Sub .... equis : 'close to the horses.'
337. Deo victus : 'overpowered by wine.'
348. Multâ morte recepit : 'withdrew it after inflicting by the wound certain death.'
350. Furto : i. e. the slaughter carried on under cover of night. 361. Jungeret : sc. se illi.
362. Dat habere : a Græcism; the infinitive for the gerund; as, dat ferre, Æn. v. 248.
363. Post mortem : after the death of Remulus. 364. Nequidquam : not long to be enjoyed. 365. Messapi: he was not among the slain ; verse 523. 374. Immemorem : 'regardless of the circumstance.' 375. Haud temerè est visum : 'this passed not unobserved. 377. Tendere contrà : they made no reply.' Serv. 383. Lucebat : received the moonlight. 385. Regione viarum: poetically, for viâ. Æn. ii. 737. Fear makes him miss the road by which his escape might have been effected.
386. Imprudens : not aware that Euryalus remained behind.
390. Infeliz .... reliqui : Nisus laments his own misfortune, in thus losing his friend. Serv.
408. Tholo : the tholus was the central and most elevated portion of the arched ceiling of a temple, from which the spoils taken in war were usually suspended.
427. Me, me: his eagerness to save his friend interrupts his speech; occidite, or some similar verb, is understood.
439. In solo. moratur : persists in the attack on Volscens alone.'
449. Pater Romanos : Jupiter Capitolinus. H.
486. Te, tua funera : though no variation in this reading has been discovered in the MSS. probably here is some error; for funera, funere is proposed by Heyne. Servius says that funerus, an adjective, is equivalent to funereus ; and that its meaning here is that on her the charge of the funeral rites of Euryalus devolved.
491. Hoc : alluding to his head, which she had in view. 500. Incendentem luctus : 'increasing the distress.' 528. Oras .... belli: "the limits, the extent of the war.' 535. Lampada : a kind of vessel, containing combustibles, and furnished with hooks; which was thrown in sieges. Cerda.
547. Vetitis . . . . armis : slaves were not in ordinary cases allowed to bear arms before they were manumitted.
548. Parmâque inglorius albâ : i. e. with no heroic device upon his escutcheon; he had never distinguished himself in battle.
558. Tecta : (the summit of the wall.'
559. Cursu teloque: equalling, in speed, the javelin which he threr. 575. Summis. pro turribus : 'on the battlements.'
577, Projecto tegmine : on receiving a wound, he dropped his buckler; therefore, demens.
580. Spiramenta anima: poetically, for the lungs. 582. Ferrugine .... Iberâ : of Spanish fabric, and a dark colour.'
584. Matris luco : this probably means in a grove sacred to Thalia, here represented as a nymph of the river Symæthus. She had by Jupiter two sons, called Palicus, or Palici, in the plural. One of these, as appears from the next verse, had an altar near the river Symæthus, in a grove consecrated to their mother.
585. Placabilis : Diodorus Siculus says, that this altar was an asylum for fugitive slaves; who could not be forced from it, but on a proinise of impunity. D.
588. Liquefacto: Lucretius had already said, Plumbea verò glans etiam longo cursu volvendo liquescit, Lib. vi. 177; or the poet may merely allude to casting the bullet; liquefacto, ' which had been formed or fashioned by melting.'
595. Indigna relatu : i. e. heaping reproaches on the enemy; as usual with Homer's heroes. 596. Novo ....
: ' by his recent alliance with royalty.' 605. Silvasque fatigant : "and constantly pursue the game in the woods. Serv.
609. Versâ .... hastâ : « with an inverted spear.'
618. Dindyma : where the ceremonies in honour of Cybele were performed.- Biforem : Varro is cited by Servius to prove that the Phrygian tibia was formed of two pipes; that on the right had one perforation ; that on the left, two.
627. Auratâ fronte : ' with horns gilt.'
. æquos : two
tall as their native firs and mountains.'
677. Pro turribus : ' as two towers.' H.
711. Sacea pila : cones of stone-work, joined by a cement called pozzolana, which hardens in the water.
712. Ponto : ' in the sea.'
715. Prochyta : now Procida. As the surface of this island is in fact level, alta must here be taken as a common epithet for islands elevated above the waves.
716. Inarime: now Ischia, an island rising high out of the water between the promontory of Misenum and Prochyta.
720. Undique conveniunt : i. e. the besiegers.
748. Neque enim is . ... auctor : is; talis, par, similis, Serv.; "this weapon is not wielded, nor is the wound inflicted, by such a person.'
757. Continud ... ea cura subissct : ' had that thought immediately occurred to him.' 772. Felicior ....
more skilled.' Serv. 773. Ungere
veneno : poisoning arrows is spoken of by. Minerva as one of the arts practised by Ulysses, Od. a. 263; again it is alluded to, and without reprobation, Än. x. 140.
776. Numerosque intendere : 'to adapt verse and music.'
794. Acerba tuens : 'fiercely lowering ;' an expression of Lucretias,
ÆNEID. BOOK X. AFTER having rescued Turnus from the Trojan camp, the poet here makes a digression to inform us how these transactions are viewed by
Æneas returns with succours to his friends, and a bloody conflict
1. Domus ... Olympi : on Olympus the ancient poets assign to the gods a palace of similar construction, and applied to the same purposes, as the habitations of the opulent in their own day; though, of course, of infinitely greater magnificence.
5. Incipit ipse : i. e. Jupiter.
: i. e. when the Carthaginians, opening a way for their army across the Alps, hereafter shall come to the destruction of the Romans.
14. Res rapuisse : for rapere ; then plunder will be permitted to the contending parties.'
28. Ætolis Tydides : again Diomedes rises against the Trojans from Ætolian Arpi.? Diomedes came from Ætolia, and built Arpi in Apulia.
29. Vulnera restant : alluding to the wounds which she formerly received from Diomedes, when she was rescuing Æneas.
30. Demoror: 'I must again suffer from.'
34. Manesque : i. e. the shade of Hector. Æn. ii. 294 ; of Creusa, 780. seqq. ; and of Anchises, v. 729, seqq.
35. Nova condere fata : plan new destinies.'
40. Movet : sc. Juno.-Sors rerum : the dominion of Pluto. Jupiter and Neptune had already been hostile to the Trojans.
42. Nil .... moveor : I do not now entreat for the kingdom ;' i. e. which had been promised by Jupiter.
68. Cassandræ impulsus furiis : 'impelled by Cassandra's mad predictions.' See Æn. iii. 183.
72. Fraudem : danger. Serv.
83. Nymphas : both this and the preceding instance of favour, though by Juno imputed to Venus, were acts of other divinities.
92. Expugnavit : plundered as an enemy?
107. Secat spem : whatever hope each party may indulge.' Quam quisque spem, factis, aperit; ut qui sibi viam aperit. Scaliger. Heyne's interpretation widely differs ; the latter half of this line he conceives was meant to be contrasted with the former. Whatever good fortune each party at present enjoys, or whatever hope each by his conduct