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392. nec sum laetatus: Litotes for I regretted sorely.' Hercules came to carry off Cerberus. Charon ferried him across the Styx, for which act he was put in chains for a year. euntem here equivalent to venientem.


393. lacu: ablative; on my pool. Thesea Pirithoumque : these attempted to carry off Proserpina.

394. quamquam essent: the subjunctive with quamquam is mainly characteristic of poetry and later prose.

ille Hercules.


395. Tartareum custodem: Cerberus. by violence. in vincla petivit, etc.: brought him to chains from the throne of the king himself.

396. regis: Pluto.

398. Amphrysia: the epithet properly belongs to Apollo and was applied to him as having tended the flocks of Admetus on the banks of the Amphrysus in Thessaly. As the servant of Apollo, the Sibyl also is styled Amphrysian.'

400. licet ingens janitor terreat: the burly warder may terrify. 401. aeternum: adverbially; see note on mortale sonans, line 50. 402. casta: unassailed; the emphasis of the sentence is on this word. patrui Pluto was not merely the husband of Proserpina, but, as brother of her father Jupiter, also her uncle.

i.e. abide at home.

405. nulla: an emphatic non. imago picture.

406. at: yet.

407. ex ira: after his anger; with residunt.

servet limen :

408. nec plura his: understand dicit; his is Ablative of Compari


409. fatalis virgae: Appositional Genitive.

after a long time.

longo post tempore:

410. advertit: i.e. toward Aeneas and the Sibyl.

411. alias animas: an inexact, but poetically legitimate use of alius. Strictly interpreted the word implies that Aeneas and the Sibyl are also ghosts. So Homer speaks of 'Penelope and the other suitors.' per juga longa: scattered about the long benches.

412. deturbat laxatque: Hysteron Proteron.

413. gemuit sub pondere: the barge was unused to such a burden.

414. sutilis: being frail; literally, stitched. We are to conceive the skiff as consisting of pieces of leather sewn together over a wooden frame.

paludem water.

415. incolumis: predicatively with vatem and virum.

417-439. Aeneas passes Cerberus and comes to the abodes of those who died before their time, among them Dido.

417. trifauci: Cerberus was conceived as three-headed.

418. immanis: with his giant bulk.

419. colubris: Cerberus's hide was conceived as covered with snakes instead of hair. When the monster becomes roused the snakes bristle up, as it were.

420. melle soporatam, etc.: soporatam applies with strictness only to medicatis frugibus, not to melle; honey has no soporific power. frugibus: meal.

421. fame: the e in the ablative of this word is regularly long, as though fames belonged to the fifth declension.

422. objectam: understand eam referring to offam.

424. sepulto: i.e. buried in slumber.

425. evadit: passes beyond; here transitive, as in ii. 731.


meabilis: i.e. in general, but not in the present instance to Aeneas. 427. infantum: dependent on all three nominatives.

429. atra dismal. Black is the color regularly associated with death and its accessories.

430. falso... mortis: condemned to death on a false charge. 431. sorte: allotment.

432. quaesitor: as presiding magistrate. Minos: king of Crete. In consequence of his uprightness he was conceived as dispensing justice in the underworld. urnam movet: i.e. he draws by lot the The names of the jurors, written

jurymen who are to try the cases.

on tablets, were placed in the urn, which was then shaken until a name came out. silentum i.e. of the noiseless ghosts.

433. crimina: the charges against them.

manu: as in line 395. Conclusion of a con

434. sibi letum peperere: i. e. committed suicide. 435. insontes: i.e. guiltless of any crime. 436. quam vellent: how they would wish! trary-to-fact condition, with protasis omitted.

440-476. The Mourning Fields.

440. fusi: stretching.

442. quos: as antecedent understand eos with celant and tegit. 445. Phaedram : the wife of Theseus. She fell in love with her step-son, Hippolytus, who rejected her advances. Thereupon she brought about the death of Hippolytus and committed suicide.

Procrim: wife of Cephalus. Following her husband in the forest from motives of jealousy, she was accidentally slain by him with a hunting-spear. Eriphylen: bribed by the present of a golden necklace, Eriphyle had induced her husband, Amphiaraus, to participate in the expedition of the Seven against Thebes, where he perished. As a punishment for her betrayal of her husband, she was slain by her son, Alcmaeon.

It will be observed that Procris and Eriphyle do not properly belong among those whom cruel love has destroyed' (line 442). 446. nati: Alcmaeon.

447. Euadnen: Evadne, the wife of Capaneus, one of the Seven against Thebes, threw herself upon the funeral pyre of her husband. Pasiphaën: see the note on line 24. his: with comes. Laodamia:

wife of Protesilaus, the first of the Greeks to fall at Troy. After his death his devoted wife begged of the gods that her husband might return to life for three hours. Her prayer was answered, and she then died by her own hand, along with her husband.

448. Caeneus: the maiden Caenis had been changed by Neptune to the youth Caeneus, with the promise that he should be invulnerable to the sword. But in the battle with the Centaurs he was killed by trees piled on top of him. In death he again became Caenis.

450. recens a volnere: with her wound still fresh.

451. quam: the relative where we use the demonstrative, - as soon as he stood near her; though dependent primarily upon juxta, quam must be taken also with agnovit.

453. qualem, etc.: freely, like the moon, when one sees it or fancies he has seen it, etc.; literally, such as (one sees the moon), who sees it rise, etc. primo mense: at the beginning of the month. 456. verus mihi, etc.. the emphasis rests on verus, was then the message true that came, saying, etc. Aeneas is referring to the message from Mercury (iv. 564), and also very probably to the sight of Dido's burning pyre as he sailed away from Carthage (v. 3 f.).

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457. exstinctam (esse): reflexive; that thou hadst destroyed thyself; te is to be understood as subject. extrema secutam: hadst gone to the utmost lengths; hadst taken the final step.

458. funeris: as shown by the position and the context, the emphasis of the sentence rests upon this word, was it to death that I brought thee?

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459. et si qua fides, etc.: freely, and by whatever pledge is sacred here in the underworld; see the note on ii. 142.

461. jussa deum: see iv. 237, 270.

463. imperiis suis: as though di, not jussa deum, had stood in line 461.

464. discessu: understand meo.

466. quem fugis: rhetorical for, why dost thou flee me? extremum fato est: is destined to be the last; literally, last by fate.

467. ardentem: viz. with anger and scorn. torva tuentem: gazing savagely; for the accusative, see note on line 50, mortale sonans; ardentem and tuentem limit animum, which is boldly used for Dido herself.

468. lenibat: strove to assuage; for the form, see B. 116, 4, b; A. 183, 1; G. 130, 2; H. 244, 1. lacrimas ciebat: was bursting into


470. incepto sermone: i.e. by Aeneas's words.

taken as Greek Accusative,

-in feature.

voltum: best

471. silex, cautes: predicatively; than if she stood a hard flint rock, etc. Marpesia: i.e. of marble.

472. corripuit sese: hurried off.

473. illi: Dative of Reference.

475. casu iniquo: i.e. her cruel lot.

477-547. Heroes of the Theban and Trojan wars. Meeting with


477. datum: i.e. permitted by fate.

molitur toils along.


478. ultima: i.e. the farthest in this portion of the underworld. secreta: apart (from the other shades); used predicatively. 479. Tydeus, Parthenopaeus, Adrasti: three of the Seven against Thebes.

480. pallentis: grammatically with Adrasti, but logically with the others as well.

481. ad superos: among mortals.

483. Glaucum, Medonta, etc.. various Trojan heroes.

484. Cereri sacrum: i.e. Ceres's priest.

485. Idaeum: the charioteer of Priam.

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etiam: in temporal

487. vidisse, morari: as subject, understand the shades.

488. conferre gradum: to stride along beside him.

492. ceu quondam petiere rates: see ii. 276.

493. inceptus clamor, etc.: the shout they begin (attempt) mocks

their gaping mouths.

495. Deiphobum: son of Priam, and a famous warrior. After Paris's death he married Helen, who at the fall of Troy betrayed him to Menelaus.

498. tegentem: striving to cover.

499. supplicia: here in the concrete sense of 'wounds.'

vocibus in the old tones.


502. cui tantum, etc.: to whom was granted such license over thee? suprema nocte: i.e. on the night of Troy's destruction.

503. tulit: brought tidings.

505. egomet: with my own hands.

taph; see note on iii. 304.

tumulum inanem: a ceno

506. ter vale thrice uttered; cf. ii. 644 with note.

507. nomen i.e. an inscription containing thy name. vant: mark the spot. tě amice: Semi-hiatus.

508. patria: here the adjective.

509. tibi relictum: was left undone by thee.

510. funeris umbris: to the shade of his dead body. 511. Lacaenae: Helen.

locum ser

512. haec monumenta: these tokens; referring to the mutilation of his person.

513. ut: how. falsa inter gaudia: the Trojans imagined that Troy was saved; see ii. 234 ff.

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novisti. nimium necesse est: there is too good

515. saltu super ardua venit Pergama: "the phrase vividly describes the horse as something living and animated with an eager desire for Troy's destruction." Page.

516. gravis: heavily laden; with reference to the warriors inside. 517. illa: Helen. chorum simulans: i.e. pretending she was leading a band of Bacchanalian worshippers. euhantis orgia: celebrating the orgies with Bacchic cries.

518. flammam: a torch; as signal to the Greeks approaching from Tenedos; see ii. 254 ff. media ipsa i.e. she herself in the midst of the revellers.

The account here given is inconsistent with that in Book ii, where Sinon is represented as answering the signal of the Greek fleet, while Helen (ii. 567) hides in terror from the Greeks, fearing vengeance at their hands.

523. egregia conjunx: ironical.

526. scilicet: I suppose. munus favor. amanti: i.e. Mene


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