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854. Lethaeo: the river Lethe, in the lower world, brought forgetfulness to those who drank its waters.

The

855. vi soporatum Stygia: drugged with Stygian potency. idea is the same as that in Lethaco rore. utraque for the plural, see note on line 233, utrasque palmas.

856. cunctantique . . . solvit: and relaxed his eyes despite his struggles; literally, to him lingering; i.e. resisting before he surrendered.

857. primos: the idea in primos belongs logically with laxaverat, - scarcely had slumber begun to relax his limbs.

858. et: when. incumbens: limiting is (Somnus) understood, the subject of projecit.

859. cum gubernaclo: Palinurus still gripped the tiller tightly.

862. currit iter tutum, etc.: nevertheless the fleet speeds safely on its course over the sea; currit is here transitive, governing iter; Accusative of Result Produced ('makes its run ').

863. promissis: in accordance with the pledges; see lines 812 ff. interrita incolumis.

:

864. jam adeo: as in ii. 567.

865. quondam: as in iii. 704, Virgil speaks from the point of view of his own times.

866. sale: surf, rote.

867. fluitantem errare: was drifting from its course; the subject is ratem.

868. rexit: steered.

869. animum: Greek Accusative.

871. nudus jacebis: i.e. thou shalt lie unburied.

BOOK VI.

1-13. Aeneas reaches Cumae and visits the Temple of Apollo.

1. sic: referring to Aeneas's words at the close of Book v.

2. Euboicis: logically with Cumarum. Cumae was settled by colonists from Chalcis in Euboea.

3. obvertunt pelago proras: another way of saying that they came to land. It was customary to moor the galleys with the sterns resting on the shore and the prows pointing seaward.

6. semina flammae, etc.: i.e. they seek flint-stones wherewith to strike sparks for kindling a fire.

7. densa tecta: the thick coverts; in apposition with silvas.

8. rapit: scours.

9. altus Apollo: by 'lofty Apollo' Virgil means 'Apollo in his temple on the height.'

10. horrendaeque procul secreta Sibyllae: the haunt of the dread Sibyl hard by. For this force of procul, cf. iii. 13.

11. antrum immane: in apposition with secreta. cui: its antecedent is Sibyllae; cui is Dative of Reference with inspirat, indirect object with aperit; whose mind he inspires and to whom he reveals. mentem animumque: mens is strictly the intellect, animus the emo

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13. subeunt: viz. Aeneas and his companions. Triviae lucos: Trivia (i.e. Diana, the sister of Apollo) naturally has her grove near the temple of her brother. aurea tecta: the temple; aurea refers

to the rich decorations.

14-41. The carvings on the temple doors.

14. Daedalus: the clever artificer who built the Labyrinth for Minos, king of Crete. fugiens Minoia regna: Daedalus had incurred the anger of Minos by assisting Theseus to thread the mazes of the Labyrinth and kill the Minotaur. Daedalus and his son Icarus

were imprisoned by Minos, but escaped on wings of wax, which Daedalus's art had devised.

17. Chalcidica arce: see note on line 2. levis super astitit: hovered lightly over.

18. redditus. terris: here first restored to earth.

19. remigium alarum: i.e. the wings with which he rowed his way through the air.

20. letum Androgeo: i.e. the picture of his death. Androgeo is Greek genitive. Androgeos was a son of Minos. He visited Athens and was victorious in all the athletic contests of the Panathenaic festival. This excited such jealousy among the Athenians that they put him to death. As a penalty for his son's destruction, Minos compelled the Athenians to send an annual tribute of seven youths and seven maidens to Crete to be devoured by the Minotaur (see note on line 24 below). tum: another picture.

21. jussi: the participle.

miserum: alas! septena corpora natorum: Virgil varies the story, representing the tribute as consisting of youths only.

22. stat ductis sortibus urna: the urn stands with the lots drawn. The youths sent as tribute to Minos were selected by lot.

elata mari: respondet:

23. contra: on the opposite half of the double door. Creta was a mountainous island; cf. v. 588, Creta alta. corresponds; viz. to the picture on the opposite half of the doors; i.e. Crete on one side corresponds to Athens on the other.

24. hic in a third picture. crudelis amor, etc.: Pasiphaë, queen of Minos, was stricken with unnatural passion for a bull. By Daedalus's help she gratified her desires, and gave birth to the Minotaur, a monster half bull and half man. suppostaque furto Pasiphaë: and Pasiphae stealthily mated, viz. to the bull.

25. mixtum genus prolesque biformis: the Minotaur.

26. Veneris: by Metonymy for amoris.

27. hic labor ille domus, etc.: referring to the Labyrinth ; ille means 'that famous '; domus is genitive. hic in the fourth picture.

28. magnum reginae amorem: Theseus, son of King Aegeus of Athens, was one of the seven youths sent on one occasion to be offered to the Minotaur. Ariadne, daughter of Minos, fell in love with him; regina, therefore, here means 'princess.' sed enim: but now, but

yet; for this force of enim, see on i. 19.

29. ipse i.e. although he had devised the Labyrinth.

ambagesque: the maze of the Labyrinth.

dolos tecti

30. caeca regens filo vestigia: Daedalus arranged a thread, by fol

lowing which, Theseus could find his way through the intricacies of the Labyrinth. tu quoque partem haberes: i.e. Icarus's fortunes would be here depicted.

31. sineret dolor: equal to si sineret dolor; had grief permitted; i.e. had Daedalus's grief over the loss of his son permitted him to produce the picture; sineret is a Jussive Subjunctive (let grief have permitted) used as a protasis. A further peculiarity is the use of the

imperfect (instead of the pluperfect) referring to the past.

32. conatus erat: viz. Daedalus. casus: understand tuos. The reference is to Icarus's fall into the sea, when he flew too near the sun and lost his wings by the melting of the wax.

33. patriae manus: the father's hands. quin: actually. protinus perlegerent: would have gone on to scan; the subject of perlegerent is Aeneas and his companions. The imperfect again has the force of the pluperfect. omnia: to be read as two syllables

by Synizesis.

34. praemissus: viz. to announce Aeneas's coming.

35. afforet: in the sense of advenisset.

36. Glauci: understand filia.

38. grege de intacto: i.e. from the number of those that have not been used for work. Only such animals were suitable for sacrifice.

39. praestiterit: 'twere better; Potential Subjunctive. The force of the perfect in this usage is indistinguishable from that of the present. lectas de more bidentis: see note on iv. 57.

40. sacra jussa: the sacrifices ordered. to perform.

morantur: i.e. hesitate

42-76. Aeneas prays that he may now have rest from his wanderings.

42. in antrum: to make a grotto.

45. ventum erat: they had come.

after sacrificing in the temple.

ask for the oracles.

ad limen viz. of the grotto, poscere fata tempus: it is time to

46. deus, ecce, deus: i.e. as the priestess enters the temple she is filled with the inspiration of the god.

47. non unus mansere: became altered.

48. non comptae comae: i.e. her hair, which had been comptae ('in order') now streamed wildly in all directions.

49. major videri: greater to behold; a poetic use of the infinitive. 50. mortale sonans (est): i.e. she does not utter earthly sounds. For the accusative mortale, see B. 176, 2, b, N. quando: introduc

ing aflata est, but placed late in its clause in accordance with poetic freedom.

51. cessas in vota: do you hesitate to begin your prayers?

52. neque ante, etc.: i.e. the entrance to the shrine will not open before Aeneas has prayed to the god.

53. attonitae ora domus: the house has lips, and is inspired by the presence of the god, as though a person.

54. dura: sturdy. Sturdy though the Trojans are, they are terrified by what they see.

57. qui Paridis

...

Aeacidae: Paris, with Apollo's help, slew

Achilles by an arrow; direxti is for direxisti.

58. obeuntia: virtually equivalent to circumfusa, surrounding'; literally, meeting.

62. hac Trojana tenus, etc.: thus far only may it prove that' Trojan luck' has followed us; i.e. henceforth may our lot be a different and a brighter one. The emphasis of the sentence rests on Trojana. 'Trojan luck' is mentioned as something proverbial; hac... tenus is for hactenus by Tmesis, as in v. 603; fuerit secuta is Optative Subjunctive. The perfect tense is exceedingly rare in this use of the subjunctive, and refers not to past time, but to a completed act in future time, 'may the future show that something has been realized.'

64. di deaeque omnes quibus, etc.: particularly Juno, Minerva, and Neptune. obstitit: i.e. was an object of hatred.

67. fatis ablative; mihi is to be supplied with indebita. 68. agitata: i.e. driven about from place to place; agitata numina adds no new idea, but is merely explanatory of errantis deos.

69. tum: i.e. if his prayer is answered. solido de marmore: few structures of solid marble existed at Rome in Virgil's time. The chief one was the magnificent Temple of Apollo on the Palatine, erected by Augustus in 28 B.C. The poet here gracefully alludes to that structure. 70. festos dies de nomine Phoebi: i.e. holidays named after Phoebus; an allusion to the Ludi Apollinares. These went back to the days of the Second Punic War, but were revived by Augustus, who did much to increase and extend the worship of Apollo.

71. te . . . nostris: te is the Sibyl. Aeneas declares that she shall have a special shrine in his new kingdom; an allusion to the deposit by Augustus of the Sibylline books in the Temple of Apollo.

72. fata: oracles, as in line 45; the fata are the same as the sortes. 73. lectos sacrabo viros: the so-called quindecimviri sacris faciundis, a board charged with the custody and interpretation of the Sibylline books.

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