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heat. toto descendit corpore: makes its way through the whole framework. For the ablative, see note on line 456, aequore toto. 686. auxilio: Dative of Purpose.

687. si nondum exosus (es), etc.: if thou dost not yet utterly hate the Trojans to a man.

688. si quid pietas, etc. if thy tender mercy of old hath any regard for human woes (Page).

689. da... classi: vouchsafe to the fleet to escape the fire; evado is here transitive, a poetic use.

690. tenuis res: the slender fortunes.

691. quod superest: i.e. the remnant of the fleet. The antecedent of quod is id to be supplied as object of demitte.


694. sine more: without precedent.

695. ardua terrarum: the hills.

697. super adverb, —from above.

morti: ruin,

700-718. The seer Nautes urges Aeneas to leave in Sicily a portion of

his followers.

701. nunc huc, nunc illuc, etc.: was shifting his mighty cares now hither, now thither, pondering, etc.

702. Siculisne resideret, capesseret: Deliberative Subjunctives in indirect questions.

704. unum: above all others.

706. hac viz. arte. responsa: i.e. prophetic responses. quae portenderet, quae posceret: indirect questions, dependent upon the idea of telling involved in responsa dabat.

708. isque superfluous after Nautes in line 704.

711. divinae stirpis: in line 38 he is said to have been the son of the river-god Crinisus.

712. consiliis: with socium; dative.

force, for he will consent.

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volentem: with causal

713. trade: as object supply eos, antecedent of qui. amissis superant, etc.: who are left over, now that the ships are destroyed.

716. quicquid: neuter, where the English requires the masculine. metuens pericli: fearful of danger. For the genitive, see B. 204, a ; A. 349, b; G. 375; H. 451, 3.

717. habeant sine: permit them to have.

718. urbem appellabunt Acestam: Virgil means to suggest that the Sicilian city of Segesta or Egesta goes back to this settlement of the Trojans. permisso nomine: by a name sanctioned (by you).

719-745. Anchises appears to Aeneas in a dream and enjoins compliance with Nautes's advice.

720. tum vero: resuming the idea of the previous line. in curas animo, etc. in English, his mind is distracted with manifold cares. 722. caelo facies delapsa: the vision descends from heaven; Anchises was in the underworld. The usual explanation is that it is not Anchises's shade that appears, but merely an apparition sent by Jupiter.

724. vita: Ablative of Comparison with care magis.

727. miseratus est: absolutely, has had compassion.

728. pulcherrima: the superlative, as often, is attracted from the antecedent into the relative clause.

730. cultu: way of life.

733. congressus meos: a meeting with me.

is here equivalent to an Objective Genitive.

The possessive pronoun

734. tristes umbrae: the place of sorrowing shades; in apposition with Tartara.

735. colo. huc: Hiatus.

huc viz. to Avernus.

lowed; as the servant of the gods.

casta: hal

736. nigrarum: black victims were chosen for sacrifice to the gods of the underworld. multo sanguine: Ablative of Attendant Cir


737. genus omne tuum: all thy future descendants.

738. torquet medios cursus: in English, is revolving in the middle of her course.

739. me saevus equis, etc.: cf. the words of the ghost in Hamlet, But soft! Methinks I scent the morning air; saevus means ‘cruel.' The dawn is so characterized, as necessitating Anchises's departure. 741. deinde: now; here in an inferential sense. derstand te.

743. cinerem et ignis: viz. those on his own hearth. 744. canae: Vesta was one of the most ancient deities.

proripis: un

746-778. Aeneas founds a city for those left behind. With the remainder of his followers he sets sail from Sicily.

746. primum: before all.

751. nil egentis: that feel no need.

754. bello vivida virtus: but a manly band keen for war.

756. hoc Ilium, etc.: Aeneas seems to disregard Nautes's command to name the city Acesta.

757. gaudet regno Acestes: Acestes is to be ruler over the new city.

758. indicit forum: appoints court; for the dispensing of justice. patribus: the elders. The word suggests the Roman patres conscripti, or senators. vocatis: i.e. summoned in council.

759. vicina astris: Hyperbole for 'lofty.' Erycino vertice: on the summit of Mt. Eryx. sedes: a temple. This shrine was famous in

historical times.

760. Idaliae: i.e. worshipped at Idalium in Cyprus.

763. factus (erat) honos: sacrifice had been made.

764. creber aspirans: freshly blowing.

766. inter se: reciprocal; each other.

767. ipsae jam matres, ipsi: the very matrons, the very men. 772. Tempestatibus: for sacrifices to the storm-gods, cf. iii. 120.

774. tonsae: trimmed; as in line 556.

775. procul: apart from the rest.

779-826. At the request of Venus, Neptune promises to bring Aeneas safely to Italy.

781. nec exsaturabile pectus: and her implacable heart.

782. preces descendere in omnis: to have recourse to the humblest prayers. Venus knows that Neptune is master of the sea and hostile to the Trojans; hence the necessity of humble petitions.

783. pietas nec ulla: i.e. no righteousness on the part of Aeneas or the Trojans can satisfy her.

784. nec quiescit: viz. Juno. The change of subject is somewhat abrupt.

785. media de gente Phrygum: out of the very heart of the race of the Phrygians.

786. urbem: Troy.

traxe: traxisse; as object, understand

eos, referring to the citizens suggested by urbem.

787. peremptae: of the ruined (city).

788. sciat illa: 'tis for her to know; i.e. others cannot; sciat is Jussive Subjunctive.

789. nuper Libycis in undis: referring to the tempest described at the opening of Book i.

792. tuis: as indicated by the position, the emphasis of the sentence rests on this word. The enormity of Juno's offence consisted in the fact that it was committed in Neptune's own realms. Venus

emphasizes this fact to revive Neptune's resentment against Juno, and so to win favor for her own petition.

793. per scelus Trojanis matribus actis: having driven the Trojan matrons into crime.

795. linquere: as subject understand Aenean.

terrae dative. 796. quod superest, etc.: let the remnant be permitted to commit their sails safely to thee; quod superest is used as in line 691.

798. ea moenia: i.e. the promised city in Italy.

799. Saturnius: here Neptune, who (like Jupiter) was also the son of Saturn.

801. unde genus ducis: whence thou drawest thy birth. Venus was fabled to have sprung from the foam of the sea. merui quoque:

i.e. I have deserved that thou shouldst trust me.

803. Xanthum Simoentaque testor: Neptune invokes these streams, since they had witnessed what he tells.

806. daret, gemerent, posset: also governed by cum. i.e. choked with corpses.

repleti : 808. Pelidae forti congressum Aenean, etc.: Aeneas, who, with the gods and the odds against him, had encountered brave Pelides; a reference to the combat between Aeneas and Achilles. The phrase nec dis nec viribus aequis is freely rendered. It literally means, neither the gods being propitious nor his strength equal; aequis is to be understood with dis. The construction is Ablative Absolute.

810. cum: though.


vertere: here, as in i. 20, in the sense of

811. structa meis manibus, etc. : see note on ii. 610. perjurae : the sin of Laomedon is attributed to the city itself.

812. mihi: Dative of Reference.

813. portus Averni: i.e. the harbor of Cumae near Lake Avernus; see the map on p. 324.

815. caput life; as often.

817. auro: by Metonymy for the golden or gilded yoke.

818. feris: = equis.

free rein.

manibus . . . habenas: i.e. gave the horses

821. aquis: with tumidum.

822. comitum: i.e. Neptune's attendants.

derstand veniunt, apparent, or some such word.

native plural.

facies as verb un

cete: Greek nomi

823. senior chorus: aged train (C.); the band is called aged, because its members are aged.

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827-871. Death of Palinurus.

827. vicissim : i.e. in the place of anxiety comes joy.

829. intendi bracchia velis: the yards to be spread with sails. 830. una omnes fecere pedem, etc.: all worked the sheets together (a sheet is a rope, not a sail), and together let out the sails now on the left, now on the right. If Virgil's description is correct, and the fleet was sailing toward Cumae, the vessels were running before a southwest wind, jibing at intervals.

831. torquent . . . detorquentque: turn the ends of the yards back and forth.

832. sua favorable.

834. ad hunc after him, according to him.

alii: the rest; used for cētĕri, whose quantity prevents its standing in the dactylic hexameter.

835. mediam metam: i.e. the turning-point in the middle of its course ; mid-heaven. The figure is drawn from the races of the Circus ; see note on iii. 429.

838. levis lightly, gently.

843. ipsa of themselves, of their own accord.

844. aequatae: regular.

845. labori: from toil; Dative of Separation.

848. mene, mene: emphatic, as indicated by the position and repetition.

849. huic monstro: the sea.

850. Aenean credam, etc.: am I (why pray ?) to intrust Aeneas to the treacherous breezes? For the force of enim, see note on i. 19. 851. et deceptus: and that too after having been deceived. 852. clavum: with amittebat.

affixus et haerens: cleaving and

clinging (to it); affixus has middle force.

853. nusquam : an emphatic numquam. sents the original quantity.

amittebat: -āt repre

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