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630-671. Dido mounts the funeral pyre and destroys herself.

633. suam: viz. nutricem. The word here is not reflexive but is irregularly used for ipsius. cinis ater habebat: it is inexact to say that dark ashes held her own nurse. Virgil means that the nurse had become ashes and that the tomb or the earth held her.

635. dic properet et ducat: tell her to hasten and to bring; properet and ducat are Substantive Clauses (without ut) Developed from the Volitive. fluviali lympha: flowing water was used for purification. So Aeneas (ii. 719) washes himself flumine vivo.

636. monstrata: i.e. as directed. The word agrees with piacula. 637. sic: viz. with the victims, etc.

638. Jovi Stygio: i.e. Pluto. rite incepta cf. lines 504 ff. 639. perficere est animus: I am resolved to finish.

640. Dardaniique rogum capitis permittere flammae: explanatory of finem imponere curis. By Dardanii rogum capitis Dido means the pyre on which the effigies of Aeneas had been placed; capitis has the same force as in line 613.

641. illa: Barce. studio: zealously.

643. aciem := oculos. maculis trementis interfusa genas: her quivering cheeks flecked with spots; genas is the object of interfusa. 645. interiora domus, etc.: i.e. burst through the entrance, into the inner part of the palace (where the pyre was located; line 494). 646. ensem Dardanium: i.e. the sword of Aeneas.

647. non hos quaesitum, etc.: Dido had presumably asked the sword as a memento.

648. cubile: the marriage couch of herself and Aeneas.

649. mente: recollections.

651. dulces exuviae, etc. : ye relics, sweet while the fates, etc.

654. mei: the genitive of the personal pronoun, irregularly used for the possessive mea.

655. mea: my own.

656. ulta virum poenas recepi: not two separate acts. avenged her husband in visiting punishment on her brother. punishment consisted in carrying off Pygmalion's treasure; i. 363. 657. nimium felix : (but) too happy.

659. impressa: middle; os is object. 660. sic, sic: viz. unavenged (inultae).



662. nostrae omina mortis: my death as an omen; viz. of what awaits him; mortis is Appositional Genitive.

663. ferro: best taken as Ablative of Means; but translate: on her sword.

665. ad alta atria: to the roof of the palace; atria is here used for the whole edifice.

666. bacchatur: runs wild.

667. femineo ululatu: Hiatus.

668. plangoribus: beating the breast was a common manifestation of grief with the ancients.

670. Tyros: nominative.

672-692. Anna rushes to her sister's side.

672. trepido cursu : with ruit, not with exterrita.

675. hoc illud, germana, fuit: was this the meaning of those preparations, sister? me fraude petebas: i.e. were you trying to deceive


676. hoc rogus iste, etc.: is this what that pyre, etc., had in store for me?

678. vocasses, tulisset: the use of the pluperfect without utinam in the Optative Subjunctive is poetic and rare.

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upon the gods; i.e. joined with Dido in all her preparatory rites.

681. sic te posita: i.e. when thou shouldst be stretched in death. ut crudelis abessem: only to be cruelly absent. Though innocent of blame, Anna chides herself with cruelty for being absent when her sister died.

682. exstinxti: syncopated for exstinxisti; cf. exstinxem in line 606. meque populumque patresque urbemque tuam: note the impressive emphasis of the Polysyndeton (repetition of the connective). patres i.e. the elders of the state.

683. date volnera lymphis abluam, etc.: suffer me to wash her wounds and . . . to catch with my lips, etc.; abluam and legam are Substantive Clauses (without ut) Developed from the Volitive, governed by date, which here has the force of a verb of permitting ; B. 295, 2; A. 563, c; G. 553, 2. super the adverb, meaning 'over and above'; hence, if any last surviving breath still lingers. 685. ore legam: it was a Roman custom for the nearest relatives thus to catch the breath of one dying. sic fata: the perfect participle here has the force of the present, scaled the lofty steps, viz. of Dido's pyre; is chiefly poetical.

as she thus spake she had the transitive use of evado

686. semianimem: i before a here has the force of j, thus making a word of only four syllables.

689. stridit: gurgles. sub pectore: i.e. deep in her bosom. 690. sese: object not merely of attollens but also of levavit. 692. reperta: having found it; viz. the light; luce is to be supplied.

693-705. Juno releases Dido from further suffering.

694. difficilis obitus: i.e. difficulty in dying.

695. luctantem animam nexosque artus: i.e. to release her spirit from her limbs that clung to it.

696. fato: i.e. by a natural death. merita morte: a deserved death, i.e. a death by violence in retribution for some act of aggression, as in war.

698. nondum illi flavum, etc.: according to the Roman belief, Proserpina plucked a lock from the heads of the dying as a token of their admission to the underworld; but this practice was not thought to be followed in the case of those who took their own lives.

699. damnaverat: had not yet consigned; nondum belongs also to this clause.

700. roscida: as goddess of the rainbow.

701. trahens: trailing.

adverso sole: opposite the sun; but

adverso is an adjective and the construction is Ablative Absolute;

literally, the sun being opposite.

702. hunc: understand crinem from line 698.

703. jussa: by direction.

705. vita: i.e. the life principle or spirit.


1-34. Aeneas's fleet is driven by a storm on the coast of Sicily.

1. medium tenebat iter: i.e. was already in the midst of his voyage; an exaggeration for was well out to sea.'


2. certus: resolutely.

5. duri magno amore, etc.: the cruel pangs when a mighty love is outraged, and the knowledge of what a frenzied woman can do. The force of notum extends to duri dolores as well as to the clause quid femina possit, the knowledge of the cruel pangs . . . and of what a frenzied woman can do; notum is here used as a substantive. magno amore polluto: Ablative Absolute.

7. triste per augurium, etc.: lead the hearts of the Trojans to dismal forebodings; literally, through dismal auguries.

8-12. These lines are almost identical with iii. 192-195.

10. olli: see the note on i. 254.

13. quianam: an archaic word.

15. colligere arma: practically equivalent to shorten sail; literally, to gather in the tackle, etc.; i.e. make all things snug. validis incumbere remis: i.e. they are to use the oars to make good the loss in speed incurred by shortening sail. Besides this the oars helped to

steady the boat.

16. obliquat sinus: sets the sails obliquely to the wind. Virgil seems to mean that instead of going directly before the wind, Palinurus sets the sails at an angle, so that they draw less effectively; if this is the sense, the observation betrays ignorance of seamanship.

17. auctor: predicatively, as sponsor.

18. hoc caelo: with this sky; Ablative of Attendant Circumstance. sperem contingere: for the present infinitive, without subject accusative, after spero, cf. line 337.

19. transversa: accusative, with adverbial force, — athwart our


20. cogitur: is condensing.

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21. nec tendere tantum: nor to make so much effort; viz. so much as is necessary for the purpose of holding our course.

23. litora fraterna Erycis: i.e. the shores of your brother Eryx. As son of Venus, Eryx is brother of Aeneas, though by a different father, Butes the Argonaut; litora is subject of esse understood.

25. servata astra: the stars I once observed; viz. on their voyage from Sicily to Carthage. Lacking the compass or other instruments of navigation, the ancients, when out of sight of land, were forced to depend upon the stars to determine their course on the sea.

26. sic poscere: demand this; viz. that we alter our course.

28. velis: i.e. by changing the trim of the sails. an sit mihi, etc. : could there (literally, would there) be any more welcome land, or (a land) to which, etc.; tellus is to be understood with ulla and also as antecedent of quo. For an used to introduce the second member of a double question whose first member is omitted, see B. 162, 4, a; A. 335, b; G. 457, 1; H. 380, 3.

29. demittere: bring to harbor. quo magis optem: to which I should prefer; Potential Subjunctive in a relative clause.

30. Acesten: cf. i. 195.

31. Anchisae ossa: for Anchises's death, see iii. 707 ff.

33. gurgite on the waters, waves.

35-71. Aeneas is welcomed by Acestes and prepares to celebrate solemn games in memory of Anchises.

36. adventum sociasque rates: i.e. the coming of friendly ships. occurrit rushes to meet us.

37. horridus in jaculis, etc.: i.e. dressed as a hunter.

38. Troïa mater: Egesta by name. Criniso flumine: Ablative of Source.

39. veterum parentum: i.e. his Trojan mother.

40. gratatur reduces: congratulates them on their return.

42. Oriente: here in the sense of dawn.' cum fugarat: poetic for cum fugisset. The indicative was the original usage in all cumclauses, and hence is often employed in poetry where in prose the subjunctive would be used.

44. tumuli ex aggere: from the elevation of a mound.

45. genus alto a sanguine: descended from the lofty lineage.

46. annuus exactis, etc.: the year's cycle is fulfilled by the passing of the months (literally, months spent).

47. ex quo: since; see note on ii. 163 for this force of ex quo. divini: sainted; i.e. raised to the gods.

49. dies, quem, etc. : i.e. the anniversary of Anchises's death. 52. Argolico mari, etc.: i.e. in the midst of Troy's bitterest foes. et: we should expect aut. Mycenae here irregularly used in the singular number; Appositional Genitive.


53. tamen: i.e. despite any possible state of trial or hardship.


54. exsequerer: with vota, perform; with pompas, conduct. suis donis with their appropriate offerings; suis refers to altaria. For suus referring to an oblique case instead of the subject of a sentence, see B. 244, 4; A. 301, b; G. 309, 2; H. 503, 2.

55. ultro: beyond (expectation); unexpectedly.

56. reor: as object understand nos adesse from adsumus in line 57. 57. delati: i.e. brought to land.

atque haec me

59. poscamus ventos: viz. from Anchises. sacra, etc. and may he (Anchises) approve my offering these rites annually in the temple dedicated to him, after I found my city. The wish put in Aeneas's mouth by Virgil is intended to account for the origin of the Parentalia, a festival celebrated annually at Rome in honor of the spirits of the dead; urbe posita is Ablative Absolute. 61. Troja poetic extension of Ablative of Source.

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