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cordia: peacefully. The epithet is transferred from the horses to the


543. et: also.

544. Palladis armisonae : for Minerva as a goddess of war, cf. ii. 425, diva armipotens. quae prima accepit: they had landed at Cas

trum Minervae (line 531).

545. Phrygio amictu: the purpureo amictu of line 405.

546. praeceptis Heleni, etc.: in accordance with the urgent injunctions of Helenus; see line 437 f.; the superlative maxima, in accordance with the prevailing Latin tendency, is put with the relative instead of with the antecedent.

547. Junoni Argivae: Argos was a famous seat of Juno's worship. jussos adolemus honores: offer the burnt sacrifices as directed; literally, burn the bidden honors.

549. velatarum antemnarum: of the sail-clad yards. obvertimus i.e. turn toward the sea or the wind.

550. suspecta arva: cf. 398.

551. hinc with temporal force, — after this.

Herculei: founded

by Hercules. si vera est fama : Virgil speaks as though common report attributed the founding of Tarentum to Hercules; but according to the usual tradition, the city was founded by Taras, son of Neptune. 552. diva Lacinia: i.e. the temple of the Lacinian goddess. The Lacinian goddess is Juno, whose temple stood upon the promontory of Lacinium on the coast of Bruttium. contra i.e. at the opposite entrance to the Gulf of Tarentum.

555. gemitum ingentem pelagi: the mighty sobbing of the sea. pulsata saxa: i.e. the rocks along the coast beaten by the surf. 556. longe with audimus, : - we hear from afar. fractas ad litora voces: broken sounds along the shore; explanatory of pulsata


557. aestu miscentur harenae: the sand is stirred up by the seething waters.

558. nimirum haec illa Charybdis: verily this is that Charybdis; viz. the one described by Helenus, line 420 ff.

560. eripite understand vos as object.


561. haud minus ac jussi: with the same force as haud secus ac jussi in line 236. rudentem proram: the dashing prow; alluding

to the noise of the dashing water.

562. laevas ad undas, laevam: i.e. they follow Helenus's injunction given in line 412. Note also the same emphatic repetition of laevus here as there.

563. laevam: the left; understand partem. fleet.

ventis: velis.


564. curvato gurgite: on the curving billow. likewise.

cohors: here for

idem: plural,

565. subducta unda: as the wave gives way beneath. imos: to Hell.

566. inter cava saxa: amid their stony caverns.

568. cum sole: at sundown.

570-587. The terrors of Mt. Aetna.

570. portus: i.e. portus Cyclopum.

ad Manis

immotus: i.e. sheltered.

ingens ipse i.e. large in and of itself, but suffering from the proximity of Aetna.

571. horrificis ruinis: with awful eruptions.

576. sub auras glomerat: whirls aloft.

578. Enceladi: Enceladus was a giant who attempted to storm Olympus. Jupiter overwhelmed him with his thunderbolt and then buried him beneath Mt. Aetna.

579. mole hac: viz. Aetna.

ingentemque insuper Aetnam, etc. : Virgil is not clear here. He apparently means to say that according to tradition the fires of the volcano come from Enceladus's buried body, though this is not distinctly stated.

580. ruptis caminis: through the clefts of its furnaces; literally, from its burst furnaces.

581. quotiens mutet latus: i.e. as often as he turns over. intremere murmure Trinacriam: the r's suggest the rumble of the earthquake.

583. noctem illam: Accusative of Duration of Time.

i.e. the mysterious noises from Aetna.


584. nec, quae sonitum det causa, videmus: Aeneas was not at the time aware of the explanation given in lines 571-577.

588-654. Achaemenides appears to the Trojans and describes Ulysses's adventure with the Cyclops.

588. Eoo: Eous, properly an adjective, is here used substantively in the sense of dawn.'

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590. confecta: Virgil represents the form of the man as exhausted by extreme hunger. We should expect confecta to agree with viri. 591. nova strange. miseranda: properly belonging, like confecta, with viri. cultu: dress.

593. respicimus: to be taken literally, 'look back.' The Trojans were preparing to set sail, when the stranger appears from the woods. immissa long.


594. cetera in other respects; Greek Accusative.

595. patriis: of his country, viz. Greece.

599. testor: understand vos.

600. hoc caeli spirabile lumen: this heavenly light we breathe (Page).

601. quascumque: here in the sense of 'any whatever.' Accusative of Limit of Motion.

602. scio: the final o is here irregularly shortened. classibus unum: a Greek sailor.

terras :

Danais e

605. spargite: i.e. tear my body in pieces and scatter it.

606. pereo: the present here has future force. There is Hiatus between pereo and hominum. hominum rather than of the Cyclops, of whom he presently speaks.

607. genua understand nostra. lutans: understand se, — writhing.

genibus: with haerebat.



608. qui: for quis, as occasionally in indirect questions. hortamur, etc.: the infinitive with hortor, as in ii. 74.

609. deinde limiting hortamur understood.

610. multa: Accusative of Result Produced, with adverbial force. 611. praesenti pignore : by a present pledge; referring to the offered right hand.


613. patria ex Ithaca: from Ithaca as my native country. felicis Ulixi: infelicis refers to Ulysses's long wanderings after the fall of Troy. Ulysses is infelix from the point of view of a fellow Greek. To the Trojans, however, he is durus, saevus, or the like.

614. genitore Adamasto paupere: Ablative of cause, - in consequence of the poverty of my father Adamastus; i.e. the poverty of the father forced the son to seek service in the wars.

615. mansissetque utinam fortuna: i.e. would I had remained poor and at home.

616. limina: viz. of the Cyclops.

617. immemores: i.e. forgetful of me.

618. sanie dapibusque cruentis: Ablatives of Quality.

619. ipse the master, viz. Polyphemus.

621. facilis pleasant. nec dictu affabilis, etc.: i.e. whom no one dares accost.

624. resupinus: bending back; in order to dash the bodies against the wall with greater violence.

628. haud impune quidem: not with impunity, to be sure; i.e. Polyphemus did not destroy Ulysses's companions with impunity. nec talia, etc.: explanatory of haud impune quidem.

629. sui: i.e. his wonted cunning.

630. simul :
:= simul atque.

631. cervicem inflexam posuit: i.e. let his drooping head fall upon

his breast.

632. immensus: with his huge bulk.

634. vices: our parts, i.e. the rôles each was to play. circum fundimur in the same sense as circumfundimur in ii. 383.



635. telo according to Homer's story, the weapon was a pointed stake heated in the fire. lumen: eye.

636. latebat: lay sunk.

637. Argolici clipei: the Argive shield was round. lampadis: i.e. the sun.


641. qualis quantusque, etc.: of the same nature and the same size as Polyphemus, who confines, etc. a hundred other Cyclopes; i.e.


a hundred other Cyclopes, like Polyphemus in nature and stature. 643. volgo everywhere.

644. Cyclopĕs: Greek ending.

645. tertia jam lunae, etc. : i.e. the third full moon is almost here. 646. cum traho: since I began to drag out.

647. ab rupe: an attributive modifier of Cyclopas, huge Cyclopes approaching from the cliffs.

648. tremesco: here transitive, — tremble at.

650. dant, pascunt: understand mihi with dant; me with pascunt. volsis radicibus: with their uptorn roots.

651. primum: for the first time; i.e. Aeneas's ships are the first he has seen since his companions abandoned him.

652. quaecumque fuisset: subordinate clause in implied indirect discourse. Achaemenides's thought was: 'Whatever it shall be (shall have proved to be), I will give myself up to it.'

653. gentem nefandam: i.e. the impious tribe of the Cyclopes. 654. hanc meam. potius .e. rather than leave me here to be destroyed by the Cyclopes.

655-691. The Trojans flee from the Cyclopes.

656. vasta se mole: his vast bulk; literally, himself of vast bulk ; vasta mole is Ablative of Quality.

658. monstrum horrendum, informe, ingens, etc.: the diction and rhythm are finely suited to the description of the savage monster.

659. trunca manu pinus: a lopped pine held in his hand; trunca pinus is a pine stripped of its branches; manu is really an Ablative of Means with regit, — guides him by means of his hand. steadies.

660. ea: for eae by attraction to the predicate voluptas.

firmat :


663. inde: literally, from it; i.e. from the sea. Translate with the water.

664. aequor medium: the open sea.

666. procul inde: afar from there; limiting fugam.

celerare :

Historical Infinitive. recepto supplice sic merito: taking along the suppliant (Achaemenides), who deserved (it).

667. sic merito: viz. to be taken with us.

668. et: placed after the beginning of the clause, as often in poetry.

669. vocis: of the noise; i.e. the sound of the oars.

670. affectare: with the rare force of seize'; dependent upon potestas; as object understand nos.

671. potis (est): = potest; dependent upon ubi. Ionios fluctus: i.e. the waves of the Ionian Sea. aequare sequendo: i.e. he cannot

go as fast as the waves carry the vessels along.

677. lumine torvo: with plural force.

678. caelo: Dative of Direction.

679. quales cum: as when.

681. constiterunt: perfect for present, as often in similes; for the ě, cf. ii. 774, with note. Jovis, Dianae: the oak was sacred to Jupiter, the cypress to Diana.

682. praecipites: predicate modifier of nos, to be supplied as subject of excutere. quocumque: logically this belongs only with intendere. Virgil means that the Trojans, in their eagerness to get away, set full sail and went before the wind' (ventis secundis), regardless of the direction in which they were carried.

683. excutere, intendere: the infinitives depend upon agit, which here has the force of cogit.

684. contra: on the other hand; i.e. as opposed to sailing before the wind, regardless of their course. Scyllam atque Charybdim inter with teneant cursus.


685. utramque viam leti discrimine parvo: each route one of death, with little to choose (between); literally, with small difference; discrimine parvo is Ablative of Attendant Circumstance; utramque viam is in apposition with Scyllam atque Charybdim; leti depends upon viam to be supplied in thought with utramque viam, each way a way of death.


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