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433. Heleno: Helenus speaks of himself in the third person. prudentia: here in the original sense of the word, foresight (providentia.). vati: as a prophet.

434. fides: trustworthiness.

435. illud: explained by what follows (line 437 f.). In English: this. pro omnibus: instead of all others; i.e. as more important. 437. Junonis, Junoni: emphatic. As traditional enemy of the Trojans, Juno must be appeased. primum: adverb; before all.

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438. cane: offer; literally, sing, chant; prayers were couched in rhythmic formulas. libens: cheerfully; i.e. not as a mere perfunctory formality.

439. supera: win over, conciliate.

440. Trinacria . . . relicta: i.e. thou shalt leave Sicily behind and be admitted to Italy; mittere is future indicative and the future force extends also to the Ablative Absolute; finis is Accusative of Limit of Motion.


442. divinos lacus see the note on line 386. They are called divinos since near them lies the entrance to the underworld.

443. insanam: frenzied, inspired.


vatem: the famous Cumaean

rupe sub ima: in the cavern under the rock (C.).

444. foliis notas et nomina mandat: i.e. she jots down words and symbols on leaves; literally, commits

the basis of her prophecies.

445. virgo: the vates of line 443.

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to leaves. The jottings are

448. eadem referring to the folia, — but these same leaves; object of prendere.

449. janua: i.e. the opening of the door.

451. revocare situs: i.e. to restore them to their places. jungere carmina i.e. to put them together again.

452. inconsulti: here in active sense, without having consulted her. abeunt the subject is general, people go away, viz. those who come to consult the oracle.

453. ne qua . . . tanti . . . quin adeas, etc.: let no expenditure of delay be of so much importance to you that you fail to approach the Sibyl and ask, etc.; fuerint is Jussive Subjunctive, the perfect tense being used essentially with the value of the present; tanti is a predicate Genitive of Value; B. 203, 3; A. 417; G. 380, 1; H. 448, 1; quin adeas is a Clause of Result, of so great importance that you do not approach; B. 284, 3; G. 554 and N. 3; H. 594, 11. and 2.

454. vi: loudly.

cursus the voyage; here personified.

455. sinus: vela. secundos i.e. with favorable breezes. 457. ipsa canat, etc. : (entreating her) to prophesy herself; canat and resolvat are Substantive Clauses (without ut) Developed from the Volitive, dependent upon the idea of asking involved in oracula poscas; ipsa means that the Sibyl is to speak with her own lips, and not merely refer Aeneas to the leaves. volens graciously.

459. quo modo fugias ferasque : Deliberative Subjunctives in Indirect Question, - how you are to escape and bear.

460. venerata: passive,—duly entreated.

462. ingentem: Prolepsis. fer ad aethera: i.e. make famous. 464. gravia the final a is here irregularly long. secto elephanto: of sawn ivory, i.e. ivory sawed into thin plates and used for inlaying chairs, sofas, and the like.

466. ingens argentum: massive silver plate.

Dodonaeos lebetas:

i.e. like the silver cauldrons at the oracle of Dodona, where priests interpreted the resonance of the cauldrons as prophetic.

467. consertam hamis: fastened together with hooks; i.e. a corselet of chain mail. auro trilicem: literally, triply woven with gold;

i.e. made of triple rings of gold, the rings being linked with each other in sets of threes.

468. conum insignis galeae: i.e. a beautiful pointed helmet.

469. et: also.

470. duces: pilots.

sua: appropriate.

parenti: understand meo.

471. remigium supplet: fills up the complement of the crews. Aeneas had lost some of his men in Crete; see line 140 and cf. line 190.

473. ferenti: one that bears the ships along. Translate: favorable. 475. conjugio superbo: with the proud honor of wedlock; dignor takes the same construction as the adjective dignus. passive force.

dignate: with

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476. cura: darling. bis erepte see the note on ii. 642. 477. ecce tibi: lo! before thee; tibi is Ethical Dative. Helenus points toward the Italian coast. arripe i.e. strive to reach, - yet not immediately.

478. hanc praeterlabare necesse est: you must sail by this; i.e. for the present; praeterlabare is a Substantive Clause (without ut) Developed from the Volitive, originally, sail past! you must; and So, you must sail past.

484. nec cedit honore: i.e. she does not yield to Helenus in paying honor to the Trojans.

487. puer she addresses Ascanius.

longum undying.

489. o mihi sola, etc. : 0, thou only surviving image of my Astyanax; super, properly an adverb, here has adjective force. Astyanactis son of Hector and Andromache. At the capture of Troy he was hurled to death from the battlements by the Greeks.

490. sic oculos, etc.: such eyes did he have, etc.

491. pubesceret: would be growing up to manhood; apodosis of a contrary-to-fact condition, with omitted protasis. One may easily supply, if he were now alive.'

493. vivite felices: may ye be happy. The imperative here denotes a wish rather than a command; vivere in the sense of esse is not uncommon in the poets.

494. sua: destined.

498. melioribus auspiciis: i.e. under better auspices than the real Troy was built.

499. quae fuerit: which shall prove to be.

500. vicina Thybridis: vicinus is here construed with the genitive; usually it takes the dative.

502. cognatas urbes, etc.: we will sometime make the sister cities and kindred nations in Epirus and Hesperia both one Troy in spirit. Aeneas refers to the city of Helenus in Epirus, and that which he himself is to found in Italy. olim with faciemus.

503. Epiro, Hesperia: Ablatives of Place limiting urbes and populos, a poetic usage.

504. idem casus: the same disasters. utramque resuming urbes and populos.

505. maneat nostros ea cura nepotes: alluding to the founding by Augustus of the city of Nicopolis in Epirus, near Actium. The emperor decreed that the inhabitants of the new city should be considered kinsfolk of the Romans.

506-569. The Trojans reach Italy and sail along the coasts of Italy and Sicily.

507. Italiam: Accusative of Limit of Motion, used as an attributive modifier of iter and cursus.

509. sternimur: i.e. they land and go to sleep on the shore. undam: near the shore.


510. sortiti remos: i.e. they allot the places at the oars, that they may embark and get under way without delay.

511. corpora curamus: refresh our bodies.

512. orbem medium: i.e. the middle of its course through the heavens. nox horis acta: night sped by the hours (Page).

513. haud segnis: Litotes for 'vigilant.'

517. armatum auro: alluding particularly to the bright stars in the belt and sword of Orion. Oriona a spondaic ending.


518. cuncta constare: i.e. that the weather is settled.

519. castra movemus: a technical military expression for 'break camp.'

520. temptamus viam : essay our course. velorum alas: our sails as wings; velorum is Appositional Genitive; the sails are the wings.

523. Italiam, Italiam, Italiam: the grand objective of the wanderers is emphasized by the threefold occurrence of the word.

524. 'Italiam' laeto clamore salutant: take up the greeting, 'Italy!' with glad cry.

525. cratera corona induit: see the note on i. 724.

527. celsa in puppi: the image of the patron deity of a ship was set up in the stern.

528. maris: this and the following genitives all depend upon potentes, masters of.'

529. ferte: bring us.

vento facilem: made easy by the wind. spirate secundi: the gods are asked to breathe favorably,' when the winds are really meant.

530. portus: thought to be the Portus Veneris in Calabria. patescit propior: opens to view as it grows nearer.

531. arce Minervae: the locality was known as Castrum Minervae in Virgil's time.

532. proras


torquent they approach the shores by rowing. 533. ab Euroo fluctu curvatus: hollowed out by the eastern waves; the waves are here personified.

534. objectae: i.e. exposed to the fury of the waves. salsa spumant aspargine: the accumulation of s-sounds is well suited to the description of foaming waters; cf. ii. 209, sonitus spumante salo. 535. ipse the harbor. gemino demittunt bracchia muro turriti scopuli tower-like rocks send down arms forming a double wall; i.e. on either side of the harbor at the entrance is a towering rock from which springs an arm forming a wall or breakwater; gemino muro (Ablative of Quality) refers to the two walls, one on each side of the harbor.

536. refugit i.e. is set back.

537. primum omen: in apposition with equos.

538. tondentis: cropping.

539. bellum, bello, bellum: note the emphatic repetition. The horse has already been mentioned in i. 444, as a symbol of war; bello

is Dative of Purpose.

541. olim at times.

curru dative. sueti: understand sunt.

542. jugo: under the yoke; a loose use of the ablative.


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