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560. subiit: there came to my mind; understand mentem. 561. aequaevum : i.e. of the same age as Anchises.


He later finds it

563. direpta i.e. in Aeneas's imagination. unharmed. domūs the u is irregularly lengthened.

564. quae copia: i.e. what strength in the way of followers.

565. deseruere, misere, dedere: picturesque present perfects, have deserted (me), have dropped, have yielded up.

566. aegra: exhausted.

567-587. These lines are lacking in the best manuscripts and by some editors are thought to be an interpolation.

567. adeo: in fact.

super unus eram: I alone was left; Tmesis. limina servantem: stationed at the entrance; literally, keeping the entrance. cum aspicio: cum-inversum; B. 288, 2; A. 546, a; G. 581; H. 600, 1.

568. tacitam secreta latentem: the excessive redundancy emphasizes Helen's anxiety to avoid detection.

570. erranti, ferenti: agreeing with mihi understood.

. . ferenti: i.e. noting everything.


571. sibi: with infestos.

572. Danaum: at the hands of the Greeks.


573. communis Erinys: the common curse.


deserti conjugis:

574. invisa sedebat: sat crouching, the hated creature. 575. ignes: fury.


subit: as above in line 560.

ira: the angry

576. ulcisci, sumere: the infinitives depend upon the idea of wishing involved in ira; a poetical construction. sceleratas poenas:

vengeance for her wickedness; literally, accursed vengeance.

577. scilicet haec aspiciet: so she is to see? (C.). Mycenas: loosely used for Graeciam, as often.

578. parto ibit regina triumpho: i.e. shall ride as queen in a triumphal procession; literally, shall go a queen, having won a triumph. Virgil attributes to the Heroic Age the peculiarly Roman custom of a triumph.

579. conjugium: := conjugem; the abstract for the concrete. patres: her parents.

580. turba, ministris: Ablatives of Accompaniment without cum; cf. i. 312, uno comitatus Achate. comitata: with passive force, as in i. 312.

581. occiderit, etc.: is Priam to have perished, Troy to have been consumed, etc.? i.e. are these things to have occurred without

punishment for her who caused them? The verbs are future perfects.

583. nomen := gloria.

584. feminea victoria: a victory over a woman; the adjective is here equivalent to an Objective Genitive.

585. exstinxisse nefas, etc.: yet I shall be praised for having destroyed the abominable creature (literally, the abomination) and for having inflicted vengeance on the guilty wretch. The infinitive with laudabor is poetical; merentis is the genitive limiting ejus to be understood with poenas, ·vengeance on her deserving it.

586. animumque explesse juvabit, etc.: and it will be a joy to have filled my soul with avenging fury and to have satisfied the ashes of my kindred. The dead are conceived as crying for vengeance; explesse takes the genitive after the analogy of adjectives of fulness.

588. ferebar: and was being carried along.

589. mihi se videndam obtulit: presented herself to my sight; literally, to me to be seen. non ante: never before. 590. per noctem: with adversative force,


although in the dark

591. confessa deam: confessing the goddess; as opposed to the usual custom whereby the gods appeared to men in human disguise. qualisque videri, etc.: with the mien and stature in which she is wont to appear to the denizens of heaven.

592. dextra: by my right hand, with which Aeneas had already drawn his sword to slay Helen. prehensum: limiting me to be sup

plied as object of continuit.

594. dolor: resentment.

595. nostri for us; i.e. Anchises and me.

self as one of Aeneas's household.

596. non: for nonne.

Venus includes her

This usage occurs particularly in impassioned questions. prius i.e. before doing anything else; first. 597. superet: survives.

598. quos omnes: governed by circum.

599. ni mea cura resistat, etc. : were not my care to prevent, straightway the flames would destroy them (your household) and drink their blood; a condition of the 'should '-' would' type, where we should expect a condition contrary-to-fact; the perfect subjunctive in tulerit and hauserit has the force of the present; tulerint for abstulerint, as tulit for abstulit in line 555. As object of hauserit (literally, drain), understand eos.

601. non tibi Tyndaridis, etc.: mark you, it is not the hated beauty of Spartan Helen, or guilty Paris, but the sternness of the gods, - yes of the gods I say, that is destroying this empire and overthrowing Troy from its summit; i.e. Troy's ruin is brought about, not by the guilt of Paris prompted by Helen's beauty, but by the vengeance of the gods, Neptune, Juno, Minerva, all of whom had special cause for indignation against the Trojans ; see below on lines 610, 612; tibi is Ethical Dative.

602. divum inclementia, divum: the absence of sed before these words (Adversative Asyndeton) and the rhetorical repetition of divum are in keeping with the lofty tone of the entire passage.

604. obducta tuenti: drawn before your gaze; literally, before you gazing.

605. umida circum caligat: spreads its dank pall around (Papillon and Haigh); literally, being damp is in a mist.

606. ne time neu recusa: prohibitions expressed by ne (neu) with the present imperative are chiefly poetical.

609. mixto pulvere: mixed with dust; literally, dust being mixed (with it).

610. Neptunus: Neptune, along with Apollo, had erected the walls of Troy for Laomedon, but upon the completion of the work Laomedon not merely refused the gods their covenanted reward, but rudely expelled them from his dominions. Hence Neptune's hatred of the Trojans. Note that the god who built the walls is now destroying them.

612. Juno saevissima: Juno and Pallas had been affronted by Paris's award of the golden apple to Venus. portas poetic plural for singular, as often in English.

613. prima in the van. socium agmen : her confederate band, viz. of the Greeks. furens limiting Juno.


615. Pallas nimbo effulgens: i.e. shining forth from the cloud that envelopes her.

616. Gorgone saeva: fierce with the Gorgon; saeva is nominative. On her breastplate, Pallas wore a representation of the head of the Gorgon Medusa.

617. pater: Jupiter.

secundas: victorious; literally, favorable.

619. eripe fugam: i.e. flee quickly.

620. patrio:= patris tui.

622. apparent to my eyes are disclosed.

labori: to the struggle.

facies: forms, shapes;

further explained by numina magna; -que is explanatory, not copu


624-670. Aeneas hastens home. Anchises refuses to leave the house.

624. considere in ignis: i.e. settle down into the flames. Neptunia: Troy was so called since its walls were built by Neptune; see note on line 610.

627. ferro accisam crebrisque bipennibus: attacked with repeated blows of their iron axes; literally, hacked into with iron and repeated two-edged axes.

628. illa: the tree. fall).

usque minatur: continually threatens (to

629. tremefacta comam, etc. : trembling with its foliage, nods as its crest is shaken; comam is a Synecdochical Accusative.

630. supremum congemuit: has given one final crash; for the accusative, see B. 176, 2; A. 390, c; G. 332; H. 409, 1.

631. traxit ruinam: as in line 465. jugis with avolsa. Virgil does not complete the comparison, but leaves it to his readers to imagine ancient Troy falling like the ancient ash-tree, expiring in one final agony.

632. descendo: viz. from the acropolis. deo here, the goddess. 633. expedior: reflexive, extricate myself, make my way out. dant tela locum, etc.: viz. through the intervention of the goddess. 634. ubi perventum (est): when I had arrived.

637. abnegat producere: abnego takes the construction of nolo. 638. integer aevi: unimpaired in years; for the genitive, see B. 204, 4; A. 349, d; G. 374, n. 6,; H. 452, 2.

641. me emphatic and contrasted with the preceding vos.

642. satis una superque, etc.: enough and more (than enough) is it to have seen one destruction and to have survived (one) capture of the city; literally, sufficiently and more I have seen one destruction, etc. The emphasis of the sentence rests upon satis superque and una; satis superque, a standing expression, is here made emphatic by the separation of the two members. The idea of 'one' in una is also to be understood with captae urbi. Anchises refers to the capture and destruction of Troy by Hercules, who had been promised by Laomedon the hand of the Princess Hesione. The king refused to keep his pledge, whereupon Hercules captured and sacked the city.

643. captae urbi: for the force of the participle, see note on i. 27, spretae formae. superavimus: with the force and construction of superfuimus, have survived.'


644. sic, o sic positum, etc.: i.e. say farewell to my body thus laid out, and haste away! ponere is the technical term for laying out a

dead body; affari refers to the custom of bidding farewell to the departed by saying vale, vale, vale! Anchises imagines himself as practically already dead.

645. ipse as for me; contrasting himself with those whom he has just addressed. manu: by my prowess, i.e. I will take arms and provoke the enemy to slay me. miserebitur hostis: i.e. from Anchises's point of view, death will be a mercy.

646. facilis jactura sepulcri: Anchises speaks in bitterness of soul. To be honored with due rites of sepulture, was to the ancient mind one of the most cherished privileges. But Anchises has already suffered so much in the fall of the city that he is now resigned to any fate.

647. invisus divis: Anchises had been lamed by the stroke of Jupiter's thunderbolt for having boasted of enjoying Venus's love; divis is dative. annos demoror: I delay the (passing) years; i.e. I protract a useless existence.

648. ex quo: ever since; see note on line 163.

649. fulminis ventis: the lightning is conceived as a fiery wind; ventis is Ablative of Means.

651. effusi (sumus) lacrimis: were bathed in tears; literally, were poured out in tears. conjunxque: -que is correlative with the following connectives (-que . . . -que).

652. ne vellet: Substantive Clause Developed from the Volitive (B. 295, 1; A. 563; G. 546; H. 565), dependent on the idea of entreating involved in effusi lacrimis. vertere secum cuncta: implying that the rest of the household would refuse to go without Anchises.

653. fato urgenti incumbere: i.e. to intensify their present trouble; literally, lean against pressing fate. Anchises is figuratively pictured as leaning his body against a weapon already touching him with its point.

654. incepto et sedibus haeret in isdem: clings to the same purpose and fixed resolve. Understand in eodem with incepto.

656. jam longer.

657. mene: -ne is regularly appended to the emphatic word of the sentence, - here me.

658. tantum nefas: i.e. such an impious proposal.

659. si nihil, etc.: if it please the gods that nothing be left.


660. sedet hoc animo: this purpose is fixed in your mind; hoc is explained by the following clause, perituraeque . . . juvat, -que being explanatory and not copulative; cf. line 622; animo is ablative. periturae: doomed.

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