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193. ultro: actually. Asiam: i.e. Troy. Pelopea moenia: this suggests Mycenae, the capital of Agamemnon, who was descended from Pelops.

194. ea fata: viz. magnum exitium. manere: the present, as compared with the future venturam (esse), gives greater vividness to the prophecy.

196. res: the story. capti: = = capti sumus.

coactis: forced, false.

197. quos: its antecedent is the subject of capti sumus.

199-233. Laocoon's punishment.

199. aliud: another incident. miseris to our wretched gaze; miseris agree with nobis understood.

200. obicitur: the first syllable is long, for the compounds of jacio though written with i are often to be pronounced as though written with ji.

201. ductus sorte: chosen by lot. 202. sollemnis: wonted.

Neptuno: Dative of Reference.

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203. a Tenedo: "the coming of the snakes from Tenedos symbolized the later coming of the Greeks from the same quarter. Knapp. alta: the deep. In this sense the word is usually confined to the singular.

204. immensis orbibus: Ablative of Quality.

205. incumbunt pelago: breast the sea; pelago is dative. pariter : side by side.

207. pars cetera: the force of quorum extends also to pars, — the rest of whom, i.e. their bodies and tails.

208. sinuatque

rolling folds.

terga and makes their huge backs writhe in

209. sonitus spumante salo: the alliteration with s is well calculated to suggest the noise made by the foaming waters; spumante salo is Ablative Absolute, denoting cause, - by the foaming of the sea. arva: here for litora.

210. ardentis oculos suffecti: their blazing eyes suffused; oculos is the direct object of suffecti, which has middle force; B. 175, 2, d; A. 397, c; G. 338, 2; H. 407.

212. diffugimus: i.e. scattered in all directions. visu at the sight; Ablative of Cause. agmine certo: in an unswerving


213. Laocoönta : accusative; B. 47, 1; A. 81, 2; G. 66, 3; H. 109, 3. 216. post the adverb. auxilio i.e. to render aid; Dative of Purpose.

218. medium: his waist. The adjective agrees with eum to be understood as the object of amplexi. collo squamea circum terga dati: having thrown their scaly backs about his neck; circum . . . dati (by Tmesis for circumdati) is used as a middle. It takes terga as direct object, and collo as indirect.

219. superant capite, etc.: tower above him with their heads, etc.; capite is used for capitibus, which (owing to its three successive short syllables) could not stand in dactylic verse.

221. perfusus vittas: for the construction, cf. line 210, oculos suffecti. atro so characterized as bringing death. Black is the color belonging to death and to all things associated with it.

223. qualis mugitus: such bellowings (as a bull raises); accusative plural, object of tollit understood.

224. incertam: ill-aimed.

Virgil does not expressly state that Laocoon and his sons perished, but leaves their death to be inferred by the reader.

225. lapsu effugiunt: i.e. glide away.

delubra ad summa: i.e.

to the sanctuary on the heights of the acropolis.

227. sub pedibusque : when used to connect a prepositional phrase, -que is not usually appended to a monosyllabic preposition, but to the substantive. deae: i.e. her statue. Ancient statues of Pallas represent a serpent coiled at the feet of the goddess.

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teguntur: with

229. scelus expendisse: condensed expression for sceleris poenas expendisse. merentem: deservedly; the emphasis of the sentence rests upon this word.

230. qui laeserit et intorserit: since he smote and hurled; Clauses of Characteristic with accessory causal force. robur cf. line 186, roboribus textis.

232. ad sedes: i.e. to its fitting resting-place within the city. oranda divae numina: viz. by expiatory sacrifices.

233. conclamant: i.e. cry with one voice.

234-249. The Trojans bring the wooden horse into the city.

234. moenia: fortifications.

235. accingunt: for se accingunt.

pedibus rotarum subiciunt

lapsus: place gliding wheels beneath its feet; literally, the gliding of

wheels; pedibus is indirect object.

236. vincula: cords, ropes. collo: dative. 238. feta armis: i.e. filled with armed men. -round about.

circum: the adverb,

239. sacra: i.e. sacred hymns.

utero: Ablative of Separation.

240. illa: referring to machina. 243. substitit: an ominous sign. 244. immemores: i.e. heedless of the omen. caeci: blinded. 246. tunc etiam: i.e. then also, as well as on many previous occasions. fatis futuris: to foretell the coming fates; Dative of Purpose. Cassandra Cassandra, a daughter of Priam, had once rejected with scorn the love of Apollo. In revenge Apollo endowed Cassandra with the gift of prophecy, but ordained that no one should believe her utterances.

247. dei viz. Apollo.

credita limiting ora. By poetic freedom credo is here used transitively. Ordinarily it is intransitive and can be used in the passive only impersonally. Teucris Dative of


248. quibus ultimus esset ille dies: since that day was our last; a Clause of Characteristic with accessory notion of cause, — (yes, I say 'wretched'), since that day, etc.

250-267. The Greeks emerge from the horse, and take possession of the city.

250. vertitur caelum: the ancients conceived the earth as station

ary and the heavens as revolving. ruit Oceano: here night is represented as rushing up from the ocean. In line 8, it was conceived as falling from the sky.

251. involvens umbra, etc.: the prevalence of spondees in this line is admirably suited to the sense.

252. Myrmidonum: properly the followers of Achilles, but here by Synecdoche used of the Greeks in general. per moenia: i.e. throughout the city.

254. phalanx: here of a fleet.

255. tacitae per amica silentia lunae: the moon is represented as friendly (i.e. favoring the Greeks with its light), yet silent (i.e. not betraying them to the Trojans).

256. flammas: as a signal. cum: after. regia puppis: i.e. the flagship of King Agamemnon.

257. -que connecting ibat to the Historical Present laxat. The clause cum extulerat belongs logically with laxat as well as with ibat, i.e. Sinon opens the horse on the signal seen from Tenedos.

258. inclusos . . . Sinon: the meaning of laxat varies with its objects, — releases the Greeks, undoes the fastenings. Notice too that the natural sequence is inverted, for the fastenings must be undone

before the Greeks are released. The figure is known as Hysteron Proteron.

263. primus: the force of primus here is uncertain. Some interpret 'foremost'; others, 'peerless'; but 'foremost' is not suited to the context, and peerless' is inconsistent with the character of Machaon, who is described in Homer as a physician.

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265. vino: the Trojans had celebrated the departure of the Greeks by festivity.

266. portis: Ablative of Way by Which. 267. socios: i.e. the Greeks from the fleet.

conscia: confederate.

268-297. The shade of Hector appears to Aeneas and urges him to flee.

269. gratissima serpit: i.e. steals with its gracious influence through the frame.

270. oculos: understand meos.

maestissimus: in deepest sorrow.

272. raptatus bigis: i.e. by the chariot of Achilles; cf. i. 483. 273. perque pedes trajectus lora tumentis: and his swollen feet pierced with thongs, i.e. the leathern thongs with which Achilles had fastened him to his chariot. The construction of lora is not clear, and discussion of the point is unnecessary for the elementary pupil. 274. ei mihi: ah me! mihi is a Dative of Reference.

275. redit: the present for greater vividness, where we should expect the perfect. exuvias indutus Achilli: clad in the arms of Achilles. Hector had slain Patroclus, who had been wearing the armor of his friend Achilles; indutus literally means 'having put on.' It has middle force and hence governs a direct object. The slaying of Patroclus and the carrying of fire among the ships of the Greek camp (mentioned in line 276) marked the climax of Hector's achievements. 276. puppibus: Dative of Direction.

277. squalentem barbam . . . gerens: with beard stiff, hair matted with blood, and those many wounds, etc.

278. circum muros: i.e. while being dragged about the walls. plurima: the superlative has a fondness for the relative clause rather than the antecedent.

279. ultro first; without waiting for him to speak.

281. lux: i.e. saviour, deliverer.

282. tenuere: as object understand te.

Hector exspectate: long

looked for Hector. With poetic freedom the two words are separated.

283. ut: how! i.e. with what joy!

285. serenos voltus: thy fair features.

287. nihil: understand respondit.

290. alto a culmine: i.e. from top to bottom.

291. sat datum: understand a te,- thy duty has been done to thy country, etc. dextra: by prowess.

292. etiam hac: by mine too; dextra is understood.

293. sacra: i.e. the sacred utensils employed in the worship of the gods. Penatis: the gods of the city, analogous to the household gods of the family.

294. comites: predicate accusative.

his: for these.

295. pererrato ponto: i.e. having finished thy wanderings over the deep.

296. vittas Vestamque potentem: i.e. the statue of august Vesta adorned with fillets. Vesta was one of the Penates. According to tradition, her worship at Rome was introduced from Troy.

298-317. The tumult in the city. Aeneas seizes arms.

298. diverso: an adjective limiting luctu, but translate: everywhere. miscentur: is agitated, thrown into confusion.

299. secreta . . . recessit: stood back, retired and hidden by trees. 301. ingruit: breaks upon us. Understand nobis as indirect object.

horror: i.e. a din that makes one shudder.

303. ascensu: by climbing.

304. veluti cum: just as when.

furentibus Austris: at a time

when the winds are raging; Ablative Absolute.

305. montano flumine: with rapidus, -made impetuous by a mountain flood, i.e. by a heavy fall of water on the mountains.

306. sternit, sternit: such repetition is a favorite characteristic of poetry in all languages; cf. Tennyson, Sir Galahad,

laeta: bounteous.

and tapers burning fair;

Fair gleams the snowy altar-cloth.

boum labores: i.e. the product of their toil. Page compares Psalms, cxxviii. 2, Thou shalt eat the labor of thy hands.

307. stupet inscius: stands dazed, ignorant (of the cause).

309. manifesta fides: understand est; fides here means 'truth.'

310. dedit ruinam: i.e. has fallen in ruins.

311. Volcano superante: destroyed by fire; literally, Vulcan destroying (it). proximus Ucalegon: literally, neighboring Ucalegon, i.e. the house of Ucalegon near by.

313. exoritur: here of the third conjugation.

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