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415. Paphum: on the island of Cyprus; an important centre of Venus's worship. sublimis: with adverbial force, through the


416. laeta: as contrasted with her mood in line 228 (tristior)· templum: understand est. illi: Veneri. Sabaeo ture: Sabaean incense is mentioned also in the Old Testament; cf. Jeremiah, vi, 20, incense from Sheba.

418-440. Aeneas and Achates enter Carthage. Activity of the people.

418. corripuere viam : have sped on their way. 419. plurimus: with mighty mass. 421. molem: the pile of buildings. where huts had formerly stood.

422. strata viarum: i.e. the paved streets. 423. pars: in apposition with Tyrii.

magalia quondam: i.e.

ducere: to build; this and

the following infinitives depend upon instant.

425. tecto: for a dwelling; Dative of Purpose. concludere sulco: to enclose it (the site of the dwelling) with a trench, viz. for the foundation walls.


426. legunt with jura, adopt; with magistratus and senatum, choose; Zeugma; B. 374, 2, a; A. 640; G. 690; H. 751, 2, N.

427. theatri: an anachronism.

period here referred to.

Theatres were unknown at the

429. scaenis . . . futuris: lofty ornaments of a stage that is to be (C.). The dative is poetically used where we should expect the genitive; decora is in apposition with columnas.

430. qualis apes exercet labor: such toil as busies the bees. Expressed in complete logical form the sentence would read: tali labore ('in such toil') qualis apes exercet, etc.

432. liquentia: from liquor, not liqueo. 434. venientum: poetic for venientium.

435. ignavum pecus: in apposition with fucos. 436. fervet: i.e. goes briskly on.

437. fortunati: understand sunt. understood, the subject of sunt.

quorum: the antecedent is ei

438. suspicit: gazes up at. He has already descended from the hill.

439. dictu: for the construction, compare line 111, miserabile visu. 440. medios: understand viros from the following viris. miscet: supply se from infert se. viris with the people; dative; B. 358, 3;

A. 413, a, N. (2); G. 346, n. 6; H. 428, 3. neque cernitur ulli: and is seen by no one; literally, nor is seen by any (one). Note that the Latin regularly says neque ullus or neque quisquam, where we say 'and no,'' and no one'; ulli (the adjective) is here used where we should regularly expect the pronoun, cuiquam. The dative is one of Agency; B. 189, 3; A. 375, a; G. 354, n. 1; H. 431, 6.

441-493. Aeneas enters the Temple of Juno, where are pictures illustrating the chief events of the Trojan War.

441. laetissimus umbrae: most bounteous in shade. as in dives opum, line 14.

442. quo: with loco.

primum: i.e. upon landing.

dis et turbine: viz. on their voyage from Tyre.

The genitive

443. effodere: perfect, third plural. signum: a token.

jactati un

444. caput equi: Carthaginian coins often exhibit this device. sic: i.e. by using the horse's head as their emblem. fore: depending upon the idea of saying involved in monstrarat.

445. facilem victu: easily sustained; literally, easy to live; victu is the supine. The reference is to the commercial supremacy which Carthage so long enjoyed.

446. Sidonia: since Sidon was an important Phoenician city, Sidonius comes to mean Phoenician.'

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447. numine: the favor, the presence.

448. aerea cui gradibus,etc.: at the summit of whose steps was a brazen threshold; with bronze were fastened the door-posts; bronze were the doors with their grating hinges; literally, to the steps to which rose a threshold of bronze the hinge creaked to doors of bronze; cui, gradibus, foribus are Datives of Reference. The emphasis of the passage rests on aerea, aere, aënis; i.e. the poet represents the entire entrance threshold, jambs, portals -as constructed entirely of costly bronze; hence the twofold repetition of this idea. -que e is elided before the initial vowel of the following line, thus producing an Hypermeter Verse; see note on line 332.

450. nova res oblata: the appearance of a new circumstance; literally, a new thing presented; B. 337, 6; A. 497, a; H. 636, 4.

452. afflictis melius, etc.: have a fairer trust in his shattered fortunes; rebus is ablative; B. 219, 1; A. 431; G. 401, n. 6; H. 476, 3. 453. sub ingenti templo: i.e. under the dome or roof of the structure. singula i.e. the separate details of the edifice.

454. reginam opperiens: apparently inconsistent with line 389, in which Venus bids Aeneas proceed to the palace of the queen.


fortuna sit: indirect question, representing an exclamation of direct discourse; quae = = quanta.

455. artificum manus inter se: the rival skill of the artists, i.e. of those who had worked on the temple. operum laborem: i.e. the

toil involved in the work.

458. saevum ambobus Achillem: i.e. both to Priam and to the . Atridae, Menelaus and Agamemnon. Agamemnon had forcibly taken from Achilles a captive maiden allotted to him as his share of the spoils. This was the occasion of the so-called Wrath of Achilles,' the chief subject of Homer's Iliad.

459. jam: i.e. already all places are full of the story of our struggles. Achate for the form of the vocative, see B. 22; A. 44; G. 65; H. 81. 460. nostri laboris: i.e. the sufferings of the Trojans in the siege and capture of their city.

461. hic etiam: i.e. here, too, as well as elsewhere. sua praemia laudi: worth has its own, or its fitting, rewards; B. 244, 4 ; A. 301, b ; G. 309, 2; H. 503, 2.

462. sunt lacrimae rerum: there is compassion for suffering. mentem mortalia tangunt: the sufferings of mortals touch the heart, i.e. arouse sympathy; a restatement in other words of the thought in lacrimae rerum.

463. tibi: Aeneas addresses Achates, but is thinking also of himself. We should have expected nobis.

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466. uti: how; introducing the indirect questions.

circum Anastrophe.

467. hac, hac: here, there.

jan youth, etc.


premeret, etc.: (and how) the Tro

468. hac Phryges: ut hac Phryges fugerent. Phryges, as often,

refers to the Trojans. For the termination-ěs, see B. 47, 2; A. 81,

G. 66, 4; H. 109, 4.


469. Rhesi tentoria: Rhesus was a king of Thrace, who came to assist the Trojans in the war against the Greeks. With him he brought his snow-white horses. An oracle had declared that Troy should be impregnable, if these horses should once graze on the meadows of Troy and drink the waters of the Xanthus. Therefore Ulysses and Diomedes surprised Rhesus as soon as he entered Trojan territory, slew him, and led his horses away. niveis velis: another anachronism. Huts and not tents seem to have been used as a shelter in the Heroic Age.

470. primo somno: i.e. on the first night after entering Trojan territory.

472. avertit, etc.: not a part of the picture, but an addition of the poet. castra: viz. of the Greeks. priusquam gustassent: before they should taste; an act anticipated and forestalled: for the subjunctive, see B. 292, 1, b; A. 551, b; G. 577; H. 605, 11. 474. Troilus: a son of Priam. He was slain by Achilles. i.e. his shield. He still clung to his spear.

armis :


For the

475. impar congressus Achilli: having met Achilles in combat; impar is predicative nominative; Achilli is dative. poetical use of the dative with verbs of contending, etc., see B. 358, 3 ; A. 413, a, N. (2); G. 346, N. 6; H. 428, 3.

476. fertur equis: i.e. his lifeless body is still drawn along in his chariot, though he no longer guides the steeds. curru to the chariot; Ablative of Association; Appendix to Bennett's Latin Grammar, § 337. 477. lora tenens tamen: i.e. he has a death grip on the reins. Virgil's description is inconsistent with the practice of the Homeric warriors, who, when fighting from the chariot, were regularly accompanied by a driver. huic cervix, etc.: his head and locks; huic

is a Dative of Reference.


478. versa hasta with his trailing spear; literally, turned spear; i.e. the tip of the spear, instead of pointing forward, as it did when used by the warrior, is inverted and trails after the car.

the i is irregularly long here

479. interea i.e. in the course of the events just described. aequae angry; in consequence of Paris's verdict.

pulvis :


480. crinibus passis: with dishevelled hair; a sign of grief and distress. peplum Virgil attributes to the Trojans the custom later existing at Athens, where an embroidered saffron-colored robe (TÉTλos) was annually offered to Athena at the festival of the Panathenaea.

481. tunsae pectora: beating their breasts. The perfect participle is here used with the force of the present. For the construction of pectora, see B. 175, 2, d; A. 397, c; G. 338, 2; H. 407.

482. diva: the goddess, viz. Pallas. of her displeasure; solo is ablative.



: as a mark

483. ter circum, etc.: after slaying Hector, Achilles is said to have dragged his body in triumph before the city. raptaverat: i.e. prior to yielding the body up to Priam, the act referred to in vendebat.

484. exanimum: poetic form. In prose, the adjective is usually of the third declension. vendebat Priam brought rich gifts to Achilles, in return for which he received Hector's body.


486. spolia: i.e. the spoils Achilles had taken from Hector. rus: poetic plural. The reference is to the chariot of Achilles, on which Hector had been dragged.

487. manus inermis: as a suppliant, Priam naturally went unarmed. 488. principibus: Ablative of Association. permixtum : i.e. in battle.

489. Eoasque acies: further explained by nigri Memnonis arma. Memnon, son of Aurora, had brought the Aethiopians to lend assistance to the Trojans. He was slain before Troy by Achilles.

490. Amazonidum: the Amazons also lent help to the Trojans. lunatis peltis: with their crescent shields; a free use of the Ablative of Quality. The Amazons carried peculiar crescent-shaped shields; see the illustration.

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491. Penthesilea: queen of the Amazons. Achilles. furens: in martial frenzy (C.). conspicuous.

She was slain by

ardet: i.e. looms

492. exsertae: uncovered; literally, thrust out, protruding. 493. virgo: though a maiden.

494-519. Dido enters the temple. Aeneas's comrades are revealed to him.

498. qualis: just as. Eurotae: the Eurotas was a river of Laconia, a district where Diana was especially worshipped, and which in consequence she was especially supposed to frequent. juga Cynthi Diana, with Apollo, was born at the foot of Mt. Cynthus on the island of Delos. Hence Cynthus was regarded as a favorite haunt of the goddess.

499. exercet choros: leads her dancing bands, viz. of wood-nymphs. Diana: elsewhere Virgil treats the i as short. quam secutae : following whom, in whose train.

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