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ment which we used, that a predestinarian could believe in a subordinate grace of regeneration conferred upon all in baptism, and to the second that even if he rejected that esoterically, he could assert it formally and practically; the third argument, that even if, as a predestinarian he could not hold Baptismal Regeneration at all, he might still hold it, as not a predestinarian, that is to say in accordance with that other side of his theological system which counterbalanced his predestinarianism.

So much for one principal argument which has been used by our opponents in the late controversy. We enter now on the second division of our article, and turn to the authorities amongst our divines, which have been adduced.

With respect, then, to the authorities who have been quoted, the preceding remarks are a reply at once, without any further argument, to one very leading comment which has been made upon them, and its accompanying inferences. Other points noticed in them have to be answered; but one has already been. That predestinarian language which is undoubtedly found in many of them, and which has been adduced for the purpose of resting upon it the inference that such divines could not have held the doctrine of Baptismal Regeneration, has been proved not to authorize that inference.

We are desirous, however, of saying a little more on the subject of this predestinarian language, which has been held in our Church, because so much use has been made of it, not only in this present controversy, but generally, for throwing our Church's doctrinal system into the possession of a particular school. It has supplied the great material to all who have aimed at representing her doctrines as much as possible in a Genevan aspect. The 17th Article, upon Predestination, has always been pointed to, especially, as appearing to be a formal recognition by the Church herself of the doctrine of that school, and an incorporation of it into her creed. It is sufficient with many that they see a long Article, and see Predestination at the head of it. That word of itself is all-powerful; and the very short argument that the Church of England holds predestination, and that Calvin held predestination, leads immediately to the conclusion that the Church of England holds Calvinism. A more serious part of the community look through the Article itself, and while they recognise a protest at the end of it against an improper and rash use of the doctrine, are still somewhat staggered by the language in the body of the Article, which appears, at first sight, to deny the concurrence of free-will in producing holiness and good works, and to attribute them exclusively to a Divine decree external to the agent. This has produced the great show argument, the popular piece of criticism. It is decided that, while the services of the Church are Catholic, the articles are Calvinistic. Aud under the shelter of this criticism, the argument we have been noticing on the baptismal question has been put forward with the greater confidence—the disputant conceiving that he has not only a clear and easily stated argument on his side, but also one supported by a strong background of Calvinistic language in the Articles of the Church herself. The 17th Article, then, upon Predestination, as being the formal profession of our Church on this subject, and therefore the first and highest English authority which can be quoted; as the source, especially, of so much of the popular impression about the Calvinistic character of our Church teaching, deserves some attention, before we go to the language of individual theologians.

With respect to this Article, then, we must in limine confess our total inability to understand the extraordinary difficulty which some persons profess to discover in it, and the scruples of conscience which rise so much in connexion with it. We can understand a theologically uneducated person, who has only heard of predestination as a doctrine of Calvin, and who has a wholesome prejudice against that theologian, feeling some resistance in his mind, chiefly to the heading itself, and secondarily to the body of this Article ; but how persons of theological reading and education, and acquainted with the history of theological language, can have entertained such suspicions, and imagined it an expression of puritan and to use the conversational term'low Church' views, is more difficult of comprehension. This Article is, in real truth and fact, nothing more than a very moderate statement of the Augustinian doctrine on the subject of predestination. It says nothing more than S. Augustine himself, in his ordinary mode of stating the doctrine, says; and indeed is couched in almost the ipsissima verba of that Father. We may add, as a consequence of this, that it simply says what the followers of S. Augustine, S. Bernard, S. Anselm, Peter Lombard, and S. Thomas Aquinas, whom we have quoted, and many others whom we have not, said before it; and that it is couched almost in their ipsissima verba. The reformers undertook to construct a series of Articles on the most important points of Christian theology. The doctrine of predestination was a sufficiently prominent, and sufficiently important doctrine to have an Article devoted to it; they accordingly devoted an Article to it; and worded that Article in the established orthodox language on the subject, as it had come down to them. It is quite certain that the doctrine was held and taught in the Church from S. Augustine's days downwards ; that it occupied its regular established place in theological treatises and expositions, and was handed down from divine to divine, as a formal part of the Church's doctrinal system,

In this way it came before the eyes of the bishops and divines in this country who were engaged in the construction of the Articles. They took it as they found it, and expressed it as it had been expressed for them. It gained under them no one new notion, and no one new word. As for the part which Calvin, or Calvin's teaching, is supposed to have had in it-such an explanation is in the first place excluded, for the want of any call for it. There is no room for it, in the first place. The space is already occupied. There is a good, a sufficient, and a natural account of the appearance of the Article in the series, without any recourse to other modes of accounting for it being necessary. But there is another and still weightier reason for excluding it; and that is, that Calvin's name, as a theologian at all, was only just beginning to be known in this country at the very time the Articles were being constructed; and that Calvin's first work on Predestination was certainly posterior to the original construction of the Articles, at least one year. The 'Articles of Religion' came out in 1552, having been in course of construction throughout the preceding year, 1551 : and Calvin's tract, ' De Eterna Dei Predestinatione,' which was his first on that subject, came out in 1552. If it be replied, that though Calvin might not have influenced the construction of this Article, those who held the opinions subsequently called by his name, among the German reformers, may have done so; it is enough to say that Melancthon, the chief referee in this quarter, had, so early as 1529, (as is proved by his letters,') that is to say, twenty years before the construction of this Article, abandoned the Calvinistic ground, and censured those who maintained it; and that in an edition of his Loci Theologici,' in 1533, he expunged some passages, which had stood in a former edition, favouring it.

We have already given extracts from the authorities we have mentioned; but to save our readers the trouble of referring back, we will put the language of the Article and the language in these extracts side by side, that they may judge more easily. The case hardly requires this tabular juxtaposition; but if it would assist them at all

, they will see one in the next page. The language of the Article, as compared with the language of those writers, has indeed, if anything, rather a more moderate tone than theirs. Some parts of Peter Lombard's language—that where he touches on reprobation, and in what sense it is caused by the deserts of the reprobate, and in what sense not caused at all by their deserts, but by the absolute and irrespective decree of God, though balanced by what he says elsewhere, and on the whole tolerably negatived, still touches on bolder ground than what the Article does, and has more a Calvinistic look about it. The same may

be | Archbishop Lawrence's Bampton Lectures, p. 250. NO. LXVII.-N. S.

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XVII. ARTICLE.

S. AUGUSTINE.

S. BERNARD.

Predestination to Life is Whoever therefore are se- With this glue hath that the everlasting purpose of parated by Divine grace from Divine Intuition glued us God, whereby (before the that original damnation, we unto Himself from the founfoundations of the world doubt not but that there is dation of the world, that we were laid) he hath constantly procured for them the hearing might be holy and without decreed by his counsel secret of the Gospel; that when spot in His sight, in love. to us, to deliver from curse they hear, they believe; and For we know that he that is and damnation those whom that in that faith which born of God sinneth not, he hath chosen in Christ out worketh by love they con- because the heavenly begetof mankind, and to bring tinue unto the end: that if ting keepeth him. And the them by Christ to everlast. they ever go astray they are heavenly begetting is the ing salvation, as vessels made corrected, and being corrected eternal predestination whereto honour. Wherefore, they grow better; or that if they by God foresaw that they which be endued with so ex- are not corrected by men, would be conformed to the cellent a benefit of God be they still return into the image of his Son. Of these called according to God's path they left. All these none sinneth—i. e, persepurpose by his Spirit work- things in them lle worketh, vereth in sin; because the ing' in due season : they whose handiwork they are, Lord knows those that are through Grace obey the calls and who made them vessels His, and the purpose of God ing: they be justified freely : of mercy; IIe who chose them remaineth stedfast. And they be made sons of God by in his Son before the founda- though the mark of ever so adoption : they be made like tion of the world according horrible crimes be burnt into the image of his only-begot- to the election of grace : ‘and David, and Mary Magdalene ten Son Jesus Christ: they if of grace, then no more of be overwhelmed with seven walk religiously in good works; otherwise grace is no devils, and the chief of the works, and at length, by more grace.' These were not Apostles be sunk in the abyss God's mercy, they attain to called so as not to be chosen, of denial, there is none that everlasting felicity.

as those of whom we hear, can take them out of the 'many are called but few hand of God. For whom chosen ;' but they are called Ile hath predestiuated him according to his purpose, and He hath called, and whom therefore elected according He hath called him he hath to the election of grace. Of justified. S. Bernard's such the Apostle saith, we

Works. Paris Edit. 1640, know that all things work together for good to them Showed him the kingdom that love God, who are the

of God. The kingdom of called according to His pur-God is granted, is promised, pose. Of them pone perish, is shown, is received. It is because all are elect, and granted in predestination, they are elect because they is promised in vocation, is are called according to His shown in justification, is purpose; and that purpose received in

glorification. not their own but God's of Whence the invitationwhich He elsewhere saith- Come ye blessed of my 'that the purpose of God Father, receive the kingdom according to election might of God.' For thus saith the stand, not of works but of Apostle : Whom he predeshim that calleth.'. If tinated them he also called ; any of these perish, God is and whom he called them he deceived; but

none doth also justified; and whom he perish, for God is not de justified them he also gloriceived. If any of these fied. In predestination is perish, God is overcome by grace, in vocation is power, man's corruption : but none in justification is joy, in doth perishi, for God is con- | glorification is glory. -1.392. quered by nothing.-De Corrept. et Grat. c, vii.

p. 364.

S. ANSELM.

LOMBARD.

AQUINAS,

This is the predestination Predestination is the pre- As respects some, those, of Saints, the foreknowledge, paration of grace, or that viz. whom He predestinates, that is, and preparation of divine election by which God God represents His goodness the Divine benefits, in con- has chosen those whom He per modum misericordiæ, by sequence of which those who willed before the foundation sparing them; as respects are saved, are saved. For of of the world, as saith the others, those, viz, whom He those who are predestinated Apostle. Reprobation e con- reprobates, He represents none perisheth with the devil, rerso is the foreknowledge of it per modum justitiæ, by none will remain till death wickedness and preparation punishing them. This is the under the power of the devil. of its punishment. And as reason why God elects some If any one of these perish, the effect of predestination and reprobates others. It is God is deceived. But none is grace, so the effect of re- the reason which the Apostle of them does perish, because probation is obduration. * * assigns in the Epistle to the He is not deceived. Again, Jacob was elected and Esau Romans, when he saysas whom He foreknow He reprobated, neither on ac- God, willing to show his predestinated, so whom He count of any deserts which wrath (i.e. the vengeance of predestinated he called. Here they then had, because they his justice), and to make his we must understand 'ac- had none, inasmuch as they power known, endured (i.e. cording to His purpose.? | were not yet born; nor on permitted) with much long For there are others called account of any future ones suffering the vessels of wrath but not chosen, and there which were foreseen. God fitted to destruction, that he fore not called according to hath elected those whom He might make known the riches His purpose. Again, whom willed, according to His free of his glory on the vessels He called, i.e. according to mercy, and He hath repro- of mercy, which he had afore His purpose, them He also bated those whom He willed, prepared unto glory.' And justified. Just as an emperor, not on account of any future again — 'In a great house if he determined to elevate a merits foreseen by Flim, but there are not only vessels of humble person to the consul- according to a most absolute gold and of silver, but also of ship, would supply him with truth, removed from our cog. wood and earth, and some to the necessary expenses, and nizance. - Lombard. Libri honour and some to dis. equip him suitably to so high Sententiarum, i. Distinct. xl. honour.' But why God hath an office : so to those, whom xli.

elected some and reprobated He hath predestinated to life,

others there is no account to God giveth the degrees of

be given, except the Divine virtue and good works, which

Will, as S. Augustine saysare to raise them to that

• Why he draweth this man, sublime state. He calls them,

and draweth not that, desire and justifies them, and glo.

not to explain, if thou derities them. And these gifts,

sirest not to err.' to whomsoever He giveth

No charge of injustice can them, He foreknew beyond

be brought against God on all doubt He would give to

this account; because He prothese persons; and so pre

vides unequally for beings pared them in His foreknow

who are to begin with equal. ledge. Those whom He pre

This would, indeed, be condestinated, then, He also

trary to justice if that which called, with that calling of

predestination conveyed to which it is said, the gifts and

a man were given him becalling of God are without

cause it was owing to him. repentance. For the ar

But this is not the case. rangement of infallible and

That which predestination unchangeable foreknowledge,

conveys is the result of free and nothing else, is predes

grace; and in matters of tination. Not any others,

free grace a person can give then, but those whom He

more or less, exactly as he predestinated, He called ; nor

likes, without infringing any others but whom He called,

rule of justice. Summa He justified ; nor others but

Theologica, p. i. Q. 23, A. 5. those whom He predestinated and called, and justified, He glorified. — Anscim, tom. i. Pp. 55, 56.

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