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Greenbank and Piggott, arranged according to the form of Bidder's Tables. The heights given in the bottom and the vertical side columns range from zero to 16 metres, the values being expressed for every increase of one-fourth of a


For application to a Parliamentary section or for an approximate estimate of the value of a railway contract, Bidder's earthwork tables are invaluable; but where greater accuracy is needed, the contents must be derived from the vertical sectional areas calculated from actual transverse sections taken at intervals along the longitudinal section.

The terms "under bridge" and "over bridge" apply to the railway. In the measurement for a skew bridge where abutments exist, it is necessary to take six main dimensions as shown by dotted lines in the annexed figures A to B, B to D, C to D, C to A, B to C and A to D. Also to record the measurement of the outside angles of the abutment from the running edge of the nearest rail. This is measured at each of the four corners in case the rails are not found parallel to the face of the abutments. The usual distance is 4 ft. 9 in. The minimum headway for an over bridge is usually 14 ft. 3 in. in the centre, and 10 ft. 3 in. at the springing or abutment side. The measurements indicated in the diagram should be taken with a steel tape.

A form for an under bridge of 25-feet span with the usual quantities is given on pages 320-322, and the height of the railway over or depth under the surface thereof must not be less than that indicated in accordance with the Standing Orders of Parliament upon the deposited section. In the case of an over bridge, the railway authorities are supposed to know their own requirements as to clearance, and usually adopt the clearance measurements named above




(inserted by permission of the Council of the Royal Institute of British Architects).

1. The usual remuneration is at 5 per cent. commission besides expenses.-The usual remuneration for an Architect's services, except as hereinafter mentioned, is a commission of 5 per cent. on the total cost of the works executed from his designs; besides which all travelling and other incidental expenses incurred by the Architect are paid by the Employer, who may be also charged for time occupied in travelling if the work be executed at a considerable or inconvenient distance, or if more than ordinary personal attendance is required.

2. Except for decorative work.-But for all works in which the expenditure is mainly for skilled labour and not for materials, e.g., in designs for the fittings and furniture of buildings, for their decoration with painting or mosaic, for their sculpture, for stained glass, and other like works, the Architect's charge is not made by way of commission on the cost, but should be regulated by special circumstances and conditions.

3. Repetition in some cases justifies a lower rate.-When several similar but distinct buildings are erected at the same time from a single specification and one set of drawings and under one contract, the commission of

5 per cent. should be charged on the cost of one such building, and a modified arrangement should be made in respect of the others.

4. And small outlay, a higher rate of percentage.-In works of small value, say £500 in amount, 5 per cent. is not remunerative, and the charge should be by time, or by an ascending scale reaching 10 per cent. for works under £100.

5. Commission is to be reckoned as if for new materials and a builder employed, chargeable on all executed, and 2 per cent. on all omitted work.-The commission is reckoned upon the total cost of the works, valued as if executed by a Builder, and of new materials. 2 per cent. is charged upon any works originally included in the contract, but subsequently omitted in execution.

This is exclusive of the charge for measuring extras and omissions.

6. An Architect always entitled to payments on account.The Architect is entitled during the progress of the building to payment on account at the rate of 5 per cent. on the instalments paid to the Builder, or otherwise to half the commission on the signing of the contract, or the commencement of the works, and the remainder by instalments as above. N.B.-The terms of payment adopted by Her Majesty's Office of Works and Public Buildings may also be taken as an equitable method of payment on account, viz. :

One-third part of the commission shall be paid to the Architect immediately after the signing of the contract;

One-third part shall be paid to the Architect as soon as one-half of the contract sum has been paid to the Builder;

And the remaining one-third part shall be raid to the Architect after the final payment to the Builder. 7. Charge for special services.-The above charges do not cover professional services in connection with negotiations for site, in surveying it and taking levels, in making surveys and plans of buildings to be altered, in arrangements respecting party walls or right of

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