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LAND

SURVEYING

AND

LEVELLING.

LAND SURVEYING

AND

LEVELLING.

BY

ARTHUR THOMAS WALMISLEY,

Member of The Institution of Civil Engineers, Fellow of Th
Surveyors' Institution, Fellow of King's College, London,
and Honorary Associate of The Royal Institute of
British Architects.

LONDON:

D. FOURDRINIER, "Builder " Office, Catherine Street, W. C.

ALSO OF

WHITTAKER & CO., Paternoster Square, E.C.

1900

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PREFACE.

IN the Author's opinion, no existing treatise upon the subject of Land Surveying is complete as a single textbook which will enable a student to become self-taught, nor does this book aim at such distinction. Efforts have been made by others to render accessible in a single volume what heretofore was scattered throughout many; but the criticisms of reviews show the disappointment of such attempts. A few lessons in the field received from an experienced surveyor are indispensable for proficiency, and will provide an opportunity for valuable suggestions to the student as to what he should read up carefully and what he may skim over. In the acquisition of such book-knowledge, he is recommended to study four or five treatises by different Authors, and to exercise his own judgment, aided by the information received from his Instructor as to the methods he adopts. Throughout the compilation of both this and its companion volume, "Field Work and Instruments," one purpose has been persistently kept in view, namely, the practical aim of the work. Every surveyor knows that much time is saved in the execution of work, by the due exercise of forethought, but without knowledge, forethought is practically impossible. Great patience must be exercised by the young beginner He must remember that it is better to be blamed by his employer for being slow than for being inaccurate, and he

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