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with a stationary steam-engine, is allowed to be made across any railway, tramway, turnpike-road or other public carriageway on the level, unless a report thereupon from some officer of the Board of Trade shall be laid before the Committee on the bill, and unless the committee, after considering such report, if they shall disagree with the said report, recommend such level crossing, giving the reasons and facts upon which their opinion is founded; and in every clause authorising a level crossing, the number of lines of rails authorised to be made at such crossing shall be specified.

A clause is inserted in Railway, Tramway, and Subway Bills imposing penalty unless the line be opened. This applies to every bill whereby the construction of any new line of railway, tramway, or subway is authorised, or the time for completing any line already authorised is extended.

Also for railway, tramway, or subway deposits a clause is usually inserted providing that deposits be impounded as security for the completion of the line, and a clause providing for (1) application of depositor, (2) penalty in compensation to injured parties, and (3) the time limited for completion of line.

The period limited shall not, in the case of a new railway line, exceed five years [or in the case of a new tramway line two years], and the extension of time for completion shall not in the case of a railway line exceed three years [or in the case of a tramway line one year]. In the case of extension of time the additional period shall be computed from the expiration of the period sought to be extended.

In any Railway Bill or Tramway Bill to which the preceding provisions are not applicable, the Committee on the Bill shall make such other provision as they shall deem necessary for ensuring the completion of the line of railway or tramway.

Notices to be given and deposits made in cases where work is altered while bill is in Parliament.

Whenever during the progress through either House of any bill of the second class originating in that House, any alteration has been made in any work authorised by such

bill, proof must be given before the Examiners that a plan and section of such alteration, on the same scale and containing the same particulars as the original plan and section, together with a Book of Reference thereto, has been deposited in the Private Bill Office (in the case of the Commons), or in the office of the Clerk of the Parliaments (House of Lords), so that a record is kept in both Houses, also with the Clerk of the Peace of every county, riding, or division in England or Ireland, and in the office of the sheriff clerk of every county in Scotland in which such alteration is proposed to be made, and where any county in Scotland is divided into districts or divisions, then also in the office of the principal sheriff clerk in and for each district or division in which such alteration is proposed to be made; also that a copy of such plan and section, so far as relates to each parish, together with a Book of Reference thereto, has been deposited with the parish clerks of each such parish in England, or, in the case of any extra-parochial place, with the parish clerk of some parish immediately adjoining thereto, with the session clerk of each such parish in Scotland, and in royal burghs with the town. clerk, and the clerk of the union within which such parish in Ireland is included, in which such alteration is intended to be made, two weeks previously to the introduction of the bill into the House; and that the intention to make such alteration has been published previously to the introduction of the bill into the House once in the London, Edinburgh or Dublin Gazette, as the case may be, and for two successive weeks in some one and the same newspaper of the county in which such alteration is situate, or if there be no such printed paper published therein, then in the newspaper of some county adjoining thereto; and that application in writing as nearly as may be in the form set forth in the Appendix marked (A) was duly made to the owners or reputed owners, lessees or reputed lessees, or in their absence from the United Kingdom, to their agents respectively, and to the occupiers of lands through which any such alteration is intended to be made; and the consent of such Owners or reputed owners, lessees or reputed lessees, and occupiers, to

the making of such alteration, shall be proved before the Examiner.

In conclusion, the Parliamentary surveyor must remember that the Standing Orders of both Houses of Parliament, as well as the Board of Trade rules and regulations for Provisional Orders, are subject to amendment from time to time, and that it is his duty to acquaint himself, prior to the execution of sessional work, with every alteration that has been made by the authorities and published. Parliamentary agent with whom he may be acquainted will gladly inform him what recent amendments may have been made since the above notes were written or during the Session of Parliament immediately preceding that for which his work is about to be prepared.

Any

CHAPTER XXII.

RAILWAY WORK.

IN railway work, prior to construction, the ground to be surveyed being long and narrow, the ordinary method of triangulation can seldom be resorted to, and a series of continuous base lines form the chief feature. Having ranged out the base lines and determined the main station points, the enclosures upon each side through which the intended railroad is to pass are surveyed by trapezium lines tied on to the base line at fixed points by diagonal lines, except in such cases where the direction of any boundary is such as to invite the formation of a triangle, one side of which lies upon the base line. Sometimes the position of the trapezium is fixed by taking the angle between the sides with a box sextant, and sometimes the trapezium lines enclosing the base line are measured, and the points of intersection with the base lines carefully noted. In open country the proposed centre line of the railway may be used as a base line, and the angles at the intersection of such base lines recorded so as to fix their position. The Parliamentary plan and section may, under certain circumstances, be enlarged and made use of for purposes of a preliminary tender.

Owing to the facilities for vision, the inexperienced surveyor in running a trial line for a railway may be tempted to place the intersection points where the curves would turn upon the several ridges crossed; but such a course of action should be studiously avoided where possible, because if such a line be adopted, the cuttings through the hills would all be curved in plan, whereas the best construction is to confine curves as much as possible to comparatively level and open ground. The diagram (pp. 313,314) illustrates a working

contract section for a line of railway, 6 furlongs I chain in length. The surface levels of the natural ground having been plotted by the method explained in Chapter XVI., the engineer then proceeds to rule up vertical red or blue lines upon the section at each chain's perpendicular to the datum line. The level of the datum line having been determined, the heights of the surface levels above the datum line are then written, as shown upon these vertical lines, just above the datum line. These heights should be derived as much as possible from the figures contained in the column headed "Reduced Levels," in the "Level Book," and should be only scaled as a check upon the plotting, or at points where no reduced levels are given in the "Level Book." The level of the upper surface of the rails should next be figured upon the section. This is arrived at by first "grading" the section, by stretching a suitable length of cotton over portions of the irregular line which indicates the present level of the ground, and adapting the cotton line by successive rising or falling gradients to allow of the amounts of banks and cuttings in each case appearing equal to the eye. In so grading a section, regard must be had to what is termed the "ruling gradient," namely, I in 100, or such other maximum inclination as is decided to be adopted. At each change of gradient a vertical black line is drawn in between the datum line and the surface level, and the heights of the rail level scaled off the section are figured upon these vertical lines. The horizontal distance is then scaled, and the inclination of the gradient calculated. If it is desired to make the gradient so found to rise or fall one unit in a certain multiple of chains, the height of the rail level at the further end can be raised or lowered the fractional tenths and hundredths of a foot which will enable the gradient to work out to this exact number in the given distance without remainder. The levels of the rails at each chain's length, or of the "formation level," from 9 in. to 2 ft. below the level of the upper surface of the rails, is next arrived at by calculation, and figured upon the section. Thus, referring to the diagram, the difference between the heights 109'90 and 122.20 gives 12:30 ft. in a length of 34 chains (2,277 ft.), which is equal to a rising

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