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rather than scrupulous accuracy of content. Every boundary, street, court, alley, dwelling house, yard and appurtenances within the limits of deviation must be shown upon the plan. In the case of a building estate he must notice if any pegs are in the ground, and if so, show the different allotments. In all cases descriptions should be borne in mind, and the plan enable the referencing, which will be more particularly described further on, and which is entrusted to the solicitor's department, to be clearly executed. Thus one field may have the same owner, but different tenants. At the same time no division need be shown on the plan which does not exist upon the ground. Difference of cultivation should be indicated by dotted lines. Roads that are metalled and all public footpaths must be shown; to ascertain whether they are public or not, the surveyor should see where they lead to. Thus in the case of a wood, it is well to walk round its boundary and note if there exists any gate, stile, or hurdle at the end of a footpath. Cut tracks leading as a cul-de-sac into a thick hedge need not be shown. It is not usual to show garden paths, but a footpath across a field leading to a church must be shown. All divisions that can be walked across are indicated by dotted lines. (See page 122.)
Prior to the publication of an Ordnance map (see pages 127 to 140) showing any particular country to be traversed, it was the custom to make tracings of selected portions of the parish or tithe map, then to piece such tracings together and to correct a copy of this combined tracing upon the ground. The method now adopted is to gum Ordnance maps together at their edges and to cut out long strips suitable for examination out of doors, containing sufficient of the surrounding roads and buildings to identify position outside the limits of deviation. A width of 18 inches is suitable for such strips, which should be rolled, not folded, and can be sent by post, if required, when not exceeding this length. The top of an old broomstick answers very well as a roller. When correcting the actual map in this way, a previous inspection of the area sheets published by the Ordnance Department may assist the surveyor in his observation of the leading characteristics
of the property over which he travels, as these sheets show the state of cultivation of the different enclosures at the time the map was originally prepared. If a tracing of the Ordnance map be used for the field plan, it should be mounted on linen, but the scale should be drawn upon the tracing before it is mounted, so that it may shrink uniformly. The surveyor should particularly notice what land is common, or commonable land.
Courtesy to those who own or have the care of the land over which the surveyor and his men travel is one great element of success, otherwise considerable hindrance may be thrown in the way of progress. (See pages 189, 190.) A broad-size sketch-book, not too thick, is a useful companion, carried in an inside pocket of an overcoat, which the season of the year at which parliamentary work is usually executed compels a surveyor to wear. He also needs a tape and arrows and a chain for muddy roads, and he should take into consideration the short days of November, the likelihood of bad weather, and the limited time available prior to deposit of plans, in making his arrangements. The object of the sketch-book is to sketch buildings, yards, and enclosures, the divisions of which appear too close together upon the corrected Ordnance map to be distinct, so as to clearly show the reference numbers in case of dispute with the referencers. The surveyor must remember that unless his plan is self-explanatory it is practically useless, and hence a sketch should be made of all small and confined areas. An H. B. pencil is usually deemed the best for the purpose.
For the purposes of Standing Orders of each House, all private bills to which such regulations are applicable are divided into two classes, and are stated by the parliamentary agents to be of the first or of the second class, according to the subject to which they respectively relate:
First Class.-1. Making, maintaining or altering a burial ground. 2. Enlarging or altering powers of charters and corporations. 3. Building, enlarging, repairing or maintaining a church or chapel. 4. Paving, lighting, watching, cleansing or improving a city or town. 5. Incorporating, regulating, or giving powers to a company. 6. County rate.
7. County or shire hall, court house. 8. Crown, church, or corporation property, or property held in trust for public or charitable purposes. 9. Ferry, where no work is to be executed. 10. Fishery, making, maintaining, or improving. II. Gaol or house of correction. 12. Gas work. 13. Land, enclosing, draining, or improving. 14. Letters patent, confirming, prolonging, or transferring. 15. Constituting local court. 16. Erecting, improving, repairing, maintaining or regulating a market or market-place. 17. Police. 18. Maintaining or employing poor. 19. Poor rate. 20. Conferring powers to sue and be sued. 21. Payment of stipendiary magistrate, or any public officer. 22. Continuing or amending an Act passed for any of the purposes included in this or the second class, where no further work than such as was authorised by a former Act is proposed to be made. 23. Improvement charge unless proposed in connection with a second class work to be authorised by the proposed bill.
Second Class.-Making, maintaining, varying, extending or enlarging any aqueduct, archway, bridge, canal, cut, dock, or drainage where it is not provided in the bill that the cut shall not be more than eleven feet wide at the bottom, embankment for reclaiming land from the sea or any tidal river, ferry (where any work is to be executed), harbour, navigation, pier, port, railway, reservoir, sewer, street, public carriage road, subway, to be used for the conveyance of passengers, animals or goods in carriages or trucks drawn or propelled on rails, tunnel, "tramway," by which term as used in the Standing Orders is meant a tramway to be laid along a street or road, "tramroad," by which term as used in the Standing Orders is meant any tramway other than a tramway to be laid along a street or road, and last, though not least, a bill relating to waterworks.
In the House of Lords private bills are further distinguished as either local or personal, and bills for confirming a provisional order or provisional certificate are referred to as provisional order confirmation bills. The division into two classes applies to all bills, not being estate bills, which seek power with reference to any of the above subjects. In the House of Lords, arbitration in respect of the affairs of
any company, corporation, or persons is added to bills of the first class.
A general list of plans that have been deposited is printed by the House, and can be obtained at the Private Bill Office of the House of Commons, upon application, early in the month of December.
Notices by Advertisement.—In all cases where application is intended to be made for leave to bring in a bill of either class, the Standing Orders of both Houses provide for notices to be given, stating the objects of the intended application and the powers intended to be applied for; and in the case of bills in respect to which plans are required to be deposited, such notices are ordered to contain a description of all the termini, together with the names of the parishes, townships, and townlands, together with extra-parochial places from, in, through, or into which the work is intended to be made, maintained, varied, extended, or enlarged, or in which any land or houses intended to be taken are situate, and where any common or commonable land is intended to be taken such notice shall contain the name of such common or commonable land (if any), with the name of any parish or township in which such land is situate, and the surveyor is called upon to furnish an estimate of the quantity of such common or commonable land proposed to be taken for insertion in the advertisement. In cases of bills for making a cemetery or burial ground, or for constructing gas works, or sewage works, or works for the manufacture or conversion of the residual products, or for a station for generating electric power, or for building a hospital for infectious disease, the notice shall specify the limits of land, in or upon which such cemetery or burial ground is intended to be made or such works constructed.
In the months of October and November, or either of them, immediately preceding the application to Parliament, the notices for a bill are published once in two successive weeks in some one and the same newspaper of the county in which such city, county of a city or borough, town, county of a town or district, or lands to which such bill relates shall be situate; or if there be no newspaper
published therein, then in the newspaper of some county adjoining or near thereto; and if such bill relate specially to any particular city, county of a city or borough, town or county of a town or urban district, in which any newspaper is published, the notices are published once in two successive weeks in one and the same newspaper published therein, with an interval between the two publications of not less than six clear days; or if such bill do not relate to any particular city, county of a city, town, county of a town or lands, such notices are published once in the London, Edinburgh, or Dublin Gazette only, as the case may be; and if such bill relate to lands situate in more than one county, such notices are inserted once in each of two successive weeks, in some newspaper or newspapers which are published in London at least six days in the week, or in Edinburgh or Dublin at least two days in the week, as the case may be, and in a newspaper of the county in which the principal office of the company or companies or other parties who are the promoters of any such bill is situate, and in a newspaper of every county in which any new works are proposed to be constructed, or in which any lands are intended to be taken, or in which any lands are situate in respect of which any new or further powers for the completion of works already authorised are intended to be applied for.
All advertisements are, nevertheless, in every case inserted once at least in the "London Gazette" if the place to which the intended application relates is situate in England or Wales, or in the "Edinburgh Gazette" if such place is situate in Scotland, or in the "Dublin Gazette” if such place is situate in Ireland.
The whole notice is to be included in one advertisement, which is to be headed with a short title descriptive of the undertaking or application. The advertisement for provisional orders and certificates is to be inserted once at least in each of two successive weeks in some one and the same newspaper published in the district affected by the proposed undertaking, or in the city, town, or place where the proposed works will be made; or if there be no such newspaper, then in some one and the same newspaper