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given in writing to all junctions of fences which came. within two chains of the test lines upon the plan.

The fields in which the angular points of the triangle occurred were to be wholly surveyed, or enough of their boundaries ascertained to determine precisely the position of those angular points of intersection on the plan.

The entries in the field-books were to be made with ink in the field, and any alterations which required to be made in them were to be attested by the initials of the surveyor. An explanation of the cause of the alteration was also to be entered as a note upon the plan or in the field-book.

A projection of the testing lines on the scale of the original plan was to be sent with the field notes to the office of the Tithe Commissioners.

The cost of testing on the ground did not, as a rule, exceed £15 for a parish or district under 3,000 acres ; and for a parish of larger size was reckoned at the rate of about £5 per thousand acres, not including travelling expenses.

Although the above regulations have since the authority given to the Board of Agriculture become obsolete, they contain hints useful for adoption, except the requirement to make the field-book entries in ink, for the reason given upon page 46.

The following particulars should be borne in mind by a surveyor when preparing plans for deposit.

In new roads across fields, the surveyor should aim, in setting out, to have as great a length as possible straight, and as far as practicable cross roads at right angles to one another, as this arrangement not only facilitates the division of land, but contributes greatly to the economy of cultivation with the plough. All old roads that may be deemed unnecessary may be stopped up and allotted to the different claimants or diverted into more convenient directions at the discretion of the surveyor.

In the metropolis all plans for the formation of new streets are required to be made to a scale of 88 feet to the inch, and to be accompanied by longitudinal and cross sections to a scale of 88 feet to the inch horizontal, and 11 feet to the inch vertical, showing the natural and intended surfaces of the streets, and also by a key-plan of the locality.

The levels are to be computed from Ordnance or some other fixed datum, which must be clearly stated.

Forty feet at the least is the width of every new street intended for carriage traffic; twenty feet at the least is the width of every new street intended only for foot traffic; and the said widths, respectively, are construed to mean the width of the carriage and footway only, exclusive of any gardens, forecourts, open areas, or other spaces in front of the houses or buildings erected or intended to be erected in any street.

The measurement of the width of every new street is taken at a right angle to the course thereof, half on either side from the centre or crown of the roadway to the external wall or front of the intended houses or buildings on each side thereof; but where forecourts or other spaces are intended to be left in front of the houses or buildings, then the width of the street, as already defined, is measured from the centre line up to the fence, railing, or boundary dividing or intended to divide such forecourts, gardens, or spaces from the public


The carriage-way of every new street should curve or fall from the centre or crown thereof at the rate of three-eighths of an inch, at the least, for every foot of breadth, or at an average transverse gradient of 1 in 32.


In every new street the kerb to each footpath should not be less than four nor more than eight inches above the channel of the roadway, except in the case of crossings, paved or formed, for the use of foot-passengers; and the slope of every footpath towards the kerb must be half an inch to every foot of width if the footpath be unpaved, or not less than a quarter of an inch to every foot of width if the footpath be paved.

Building plots should always be measured in feet and inches, and in every case the frontage and depth should be figured on the plan. Care should be taken that no portion of any new work encroaches upon the remainder of the estate by any overhanging eaves, barges, spouting, stone weathering, etc. (See page 122.)

When called upon to fix a frontage upon the ground, first measure off the length of the piece to be dealt with or

pegged out, and then measure the remaining portion of the boundary, as a proof that you have accurately marked off no more nor less than as indicated on your plan.

For the preparation of Street Plans to be submitted to a Local Authority, the following data may be taken to include all that is generally necessary to be indicated.

1. The heading to state to which class the street belongs. 2.-The plans to be numbered.

3. The sections to show the ground floor and cellar floor levels of every house in the street and the existing surface of the centre of the street above Ordnance datum.

4.-The cellar and floor levels and also the existing and intended levels of the centre and ends of the street shall be shown on the plan. The levels to the existing surface to be in Black-intended levels in Red. 5.-The levels for the section shall be commenced always at the lowest end of the sewer proposed to be laid in the street.

6. All reference to floor and cellar levels on right side of the section, i.e., on the right side of the section running from the lowest to the highest end of the sewer, shall be in Blue, and on the left side in Red. 7. The existing surface of the street shall be shown by a black line. The intended surface and the bottom of road foundation by red lines.

8.-Existing sewers shall be shown in Black. 9.-Intended sewers in Red.

Surface water sewers in Blue.


11. The scale for plans made in the Local Surveyor's office to be the same as the Town Plan (41·66 feet I inch). Plans submitted for approval not less than 40 feet to an inch. The vertical scale shall be 8 feet to an inch.

12. The Horizontal and Vertical Scales for cross sections

shall be the same.

13. The average level of the equinoctial tides above Ordnance datum to be stated where necessary.

14. Where the level of any street is less than a prescribed number of feet above Ordnance datum, the equi

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noctial tide level shall be shown by a fine blue line drawn across the section.

15. The scales to be drawn on the plans and figured dimensions to be fully given.

16. The distance between two manholes or a manhole and a ventilator should not exceed 300 feet. In the case of a change of gradient between two manholes or a manhole and a ventilator, a lamphole shall be built at the point where such change is made. The lamphole shall be 18 inches square inside. The brickwork to be 9 inches thick one foot above the top of the sewer, and brick thick for the remainder of its height. The brickwork to be in Portland cement, and covered with an approved cast-iron cover.

17.-Gullies should not be more than 100 feet apart where the gradient is less than 1 in 300.

18. The manholes, ventilators, lampholes, and gullies to be built in accordance with the Local Surveyor's plans.

19. The cross fall for roads should be, when practicable, half-an-inch to the foot, and for paved footpaths three-eighths of an inch to the foot.

20. The fall from the kerbstone to the channel should

not be less than three nor more than six inches, except in the case of crossings paved or formed for the use of foot passengers.

The preparation of Plans and Sections for Parliamentary deposit is dealt with in the following chapters. (Pages 239-308.)

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IN the preparation of Plans and Sections for Parliament connected with projected schemes having reference to railways, tramways, docks, subways, water or gas supply, electric lighting and other works, the practice of surveying differs so much from ordinary chain or theodolite work, that a good expert surveyor of estates or parishes may often prove a slow surveyor for parliamentary work. The procedure is based upon certain regulations of both Houses of Parliament termed "Standing Orders," which have been framed with the object of giving due publicity to any application connected with a project to be laid before Parliament, in order that all parties who may be in any way. affected by the proposed scheme may have a fair opportunity of stating their objections and acquire a locus standi before Committee to secure protection to their interests. dealing with the various preliminary stages through which a private bill has to pass, the author will briefly indicate the purely legal proceedings with which it is necessary for a surveyor to be acquainted particularly as to prescribed dates, but the carrying out of which are for the most part beyond the province of a surveyor. The rules and practice of parliamentary work, however, demand an Engineer's knowledge of such regulations. As regards his own work the usual practice is to correct such portions of the Ordnance map to date as show the country which lies between the prescribed limits of deviation to be indicated upon the deposited plan, the principal object in the first instance being position and general direction


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