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595. aut quonam...] 'or whither pray hath departed thy care for me?' The next sentence immediately makes clear what 'care for me' means : if he cares for his mother, Aeneas must show some regard for his father.

596. prius] 'first,' i.e. before thinking of anything else. ubi: i.e. “in what position' or 'plight.'

597. superet coniunxne] Oblique question dependent on aspicies ; the direct question would be superatne coniunx?, and the position of ne here seems purely for convenience.

599. ni...resistat...tulerint] The ordinary conditional sentence ni... resistat...ferant would='did not my care still keep preventing it, the flames would be destroying': the rarer form used here is ='did not my care still keep preventing it, the flames would e'er now have destroyed.' The contrast is marked between the present of continuous effort and the perfect which marks the quick ruin which would at once follow any relaxation of that effort.

600. hauserit) we should say 'devoured' here, though we talk of a sword 'drinking blood.

601. tibi] Ethic Dative : “'Tis not, I tell thee....

602. divom...) Note the force of the repeated divom : it is the emphasis which is placed on this word which makes the omission of “but' before it possible. The old reading verum inclementia exhibits clearly by contrast the power of the text.

604. aspice is connected with 608 hic....

namque... : 'for all the cloud that now drawn over thy sight dulls thy mortal vision and with dank darkness surrounds thee-lo! I will remove it: do thou fear nought thy mother commands....' So Iliad 5. 127 Pallas opens the eyes of Diomedes

αχλύν δ' αυ τοι απ' οφθαλμών έλoν, ή πριν επήεν,

όφρ' ευ γιγνώσκης ήμεν θεόν ήδε και άνδρα, and cf. 2 Kings vi. 17 ‘And the Lord opened the eyes of the young man ; and he saw, and behold the mountain was full of chariots of fire....'

609. mixtoque...] 'and the smoke rolling in billows mingled with dust’; the dust is from the falling houses.

610. Neptunus...] As being 'the Earth-Shaker.' 612. saevissima] As being the bitterest enemy of Troy.

613. prima] 'leading the onset' or 'in the van': the force of the word is made clear by what follows: she is leading the way while she 'summons her confederate host' to follow her. Conington with less force explains 'at the entrance of the gate.'

616. nimbo effulgens et Gorgone saeva] Two explanations seem equally possible :

(1) With Wagner to take sacva as nom. and nimbo of the dark cloud which usually veils the deities from sight (cf. 12. 416 Venus obscuro faciem circumdata nimbo), and from which now Pallas is seen "shining forth and terrible with the Gorgon' (cf. 6. 825 saevumque securi Torquatum).

(2) With Conington to take saeva as abl. and compare Il. 18. 203 and 15. 308 where Apollo appears eiuévos Guoliv vedélny, čxe d' aiyida boõpiv, and explain nimbo et Gorgone saeva of the aegis with which Pallas is regularly represented, and which is described at length Il. 5. 738-742 as a shield (or breast-plate)

girt round with terror' and having the Gorgon's head in the centre-'flashing forth with her storm-cloud and grim Gorgon.' The objection to this is that nimbus is usually a dark cloud, but on the other hand the idea here may be to suggest the moment when the lightning 'flashes forth from the stormcloud.'

Kennedy with one MS. reads limbo 'the border of her robe,' referring to the well-known téarlos.

617. ipse Pater...) Note the skill with which the poet abstains from any attempt to point out or portray the figure of the Father himself.'

619. eripe fugam] 'quickly secure flight.' His chance of flight was doubtful unless he quickly 'snatched it out’ of the hazards which environed him.

622. inimica] Predicate, while magna is an attribute : 'the mighty powers of the gods appear fighting against Troy.'

624. tum vero omne...] Omne is emphatic : the flames have gradually been making head, but at that supreme moment Aeneas seems to see 'all Ilium sinking into the flames and Neptune-reared Troy overturned from its foundations. The poet for the sake of vivid effect represents the destruction as culminating in one universal crash, and proceeds to emphasise the idea by his simile of a tree which is long attacked, then quivers and rocks, and at last sinks crashing to the ground.

625. Neptunia] Cf. 3. 3 n.

626. ac veluti...cum] 'even as... .when,' cf. 4. 402 ; 6. 707, and see 4. 441 n. Particulae serviunt comparationi qua praegressa illustrantur,' Wagner.

‘Even as some ancient ash on a mountain summit, which VOL, I

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hacked with steel and hard-plied axes the woodmen strive eagerly to uproot ; it ever threatens (to fall)....'

630. vulneribus...] ‘until little by little o'ermastered by the blows it has given one last deep groan and, torn from its native ridge, come crashing down.' The tree, it will be observed, is uprooted, not cut down. Conington and others take iugis with trazit ruinam (“fallen in ruined length along the ridge), but avulsa must go with iugis, for the tree must be 'torn away from something, and Conington's supposition that the tree is torn away from the stump with ropes' is purely gratuitous and also neglects eruere.

For trahere ruinam see 465 n. 632. deo] Indefinitely for dea ; 'with a deity for guide.' 633. expedior] ‘I make my way.'

633–670. When I reach home Anchises refuses to be removed : 'I have already lived too long,' he cries, 'bid me the last farewell and leave me here to die.' He resists all our entreaties, and I, resolved not to fly without him, and maddened at the thought of seeing him and my wife and child butchered by Pyrrhus before my eyes, prepare to rush again to battle and seli my life as dearly as I may.

634. ubi perventum] sc. est mihi, when I reached,' cf. 6. 45 n.

635. tollere] Cf. 707, 708.

638. integer aevi sanguis] It would be natural to explain aevi as the Greek gen. after negative adjectives=xpóvov auktos

untouched by time,' but cf. 5. 73 aevi maturus 'ripe in regard to time’; Hor. Od. 1. 22. 1 integer vitae 'holy in regard to life' ; Cat. 12. 9 leporum disertus ; Tac. Ann. 14. 40 spernendus morum, which show that it is a gen. of respect—blood (i.e. vigour) untouched as regards age,' 'youthful vigour still unmarred.

641. me) Emphatic by position and so marking the contrast, = 'but me.' ducere vitam : 'lengthen (my thread of) life, cf. 3. 315: a metaphor from spinning ; each man 'draws out' the thread of his existence until at the appointed hour

• Comes the blind Fury with the abhorred shears

And slits the thin-spun life.'—Milton, Lycidas 75. 642. satis...] 'enough and more than enough (is it) that I have seen one sack': the reference is to the sack of the city by Hercules whom Laomedon had defrauded. Cf. 3. 476 n.

643. captae superavimus urbi] Superare is used here exactly as superesse with the dat. = 'survive.'

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capta urbs : 'the capture of the city.' Latin idiom has a considerable dislike to verbal nouns and, where we use such a noun followed by a genitive, it often employs a noun and past part. in agreement, cf. 413 erepta virgo 'the carrying off of the maiden'; 1. 515 res incognita 'ignorance of the facts’; 5. 665 incensas perfert naves 'the burning of the ships'; Hor. Od. 2. 4. 10 ademptus Hector 'the loss of Hector,' and the phrases ab urbe condita, ante Christum natum.

644. sic o sic...] 'thus lying, yea thus, bid my body farewell and depart.' He urges them to regard him, not as a frail old man lying stretched upon a bed, but as already a corpse laid out (positum) upon the bier : adfati refers to the last 'greeting and farewell' Have Vale addressed to the dead at the close of a funeral, cf. 6. 231 n.

645. ipse manu) must mean 'with my own hand' (cf. 4. 344 n.), and Heyne's note manu : non mea sed hostis,' which Conington dubiously approves, is impossible. The words do not however describe suicide, but his intention to act as Priam had done and court death by attacking the foe : when the old man takes his sword into his hand it is not to slay but to be slain. The next words explain what he means : the foe will ruthlessly slay him for the sake of his armour.

Those who speak of the foe ‘killing him for pity' miss the point of miserebitur hostis: the words of Anchises are uttered in bitterness of soul : the foeman's pity is no pity and will consist in pitilessly slaying him : of course the death thus inflicted will be really pity, for it will relieve him from the burden of life, but it will not be inflicted in pity.

646. facilis iactura sepulchri] Again remark the exceeding bitterness and despair : the loss of sepulture' is throughout antiquity regarded as almost the greatest loss which can befall a man: when Anchises speaks of it as 'a light thing,' his words are intended to startle us by their utter hopelessness (summa omnium rerum desperatio, Wagner).

647. annos demoror] The advancing years have long since claimed him as their victim : by living he 'delays them,' balks their eagerness.' Cf. Hor. Od. 3. 27. 50 inpudens Orcum moror.

649. fulminis...] 'breathed upon me with the blast of his thunderbolt and smote me with his lightning.' He is said to have been so punished for boasting of the love of Venus.

651. effusi lacrimis] sc. Sumus, were poured forth in tears’: a very strong expression, as though they wholly melted

into tears. ne vellet is oblique petition dependent on the idea of entreaty contained in the preceding words.

653. fatoque...] 'and seek to add fresh weight to our heavy destiny': fate was pressing hardly (urguenti) enough on them without this fresh® burden. Servius compares the phrases currentem incitare, praecipitantem inpellere.

654. inceptoque...] Sidgwick gives unmoved in place and purpose': his unchanged attitude is the outward sign of his unchanged resolution.

656. quae iam...] 'what chance (of safety) was offered now?'

658. sperasti?] 'didst thou dream ?': for spero with present inf. ='expect'cf. 4. 292 n.

tantumque... : 'and did such impiety fall from a father's lips?'; patrio is emphatic and marks the nature of the impiety, which consisted in urging a son to quit his father.

660. sedet hoc animo] 'this (purpose) is firm seated in thy soul': for sedet used to express fixity of purpose cf. 4. 15; 5. 418. It is exactly=stat 750 n.

661, isti] 'that of thine,' that which thou seekest': this scornful use of iste is very common in arguing with an opponent. patet ianua is used metaphorically, cf. 2 Cor. ii. 12 'a door was opened unto me of the Lord.'

662. multo de sanguine] ‘(fresh) from all the blood.'

663. qui obtruncat] ‘he who butchers': the present is not merely more vivid than the past here (cf. 274 n.) but suggests that his butcher work is still unfinished.

664. hoc erat ..., quod me... eripis, ut... cernam ?] The phrase quod me eripis is lit. 'as to the fact of thy saving me,' whereas thou savest me'; it is here used as equivalent to a simple noun 'thy saving of me' and is the nom. to erat, the . sentence being 'thy saving me...was (i.e. meant) this !' The meaning of hoc is explained by the clause ut...cernam. Translate : ‘For this then thou art bringing me safe through sword and fire, that I may behold...'

Erat is used (like ñv špa) to imply that this was all along the design of Venus, though it is only now that Aeneas discovers it to be so. Conington strangely remarks on ut cernam following erat as a 'confusion of tenses': there is no confusion, for hoc erat really means 'this is, I now see, the object of thy saving me, namely that I may behold.' For the idiom cf. 7. 128 haec erat illa fames 'this then is the hunger foretold long ago.'

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