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present condition with their former life and vigour: nor need sternuntur mean “are being laid low,' for the passive of sterno can be used as equivalent to an intransitive verb = 'lie stretched,' e.g. sternuntur campi, so that a perfect is not necessary.

366. poenas dant sanguine] ‘pay forfeit with their life.'

367. victis, virtus, victores] Note the assonance-vanquished,' valour,' 'victors.'

369. pavor et] Cf. 5. 521 n. plurima mortis imago : 'many a form of death,' i.e. death in many a form. Cf. Thuc. 3. 81 πάσα ιδέα κατέστη θανάτου. .

370—401. The Greek Androgeos joins us thinking that we were Greeks : discovering his mistake he attempts to fly, but we cut him and his followers down. Coroebus urges us to disguise ourselves in the armour of the fallen men; we do so and thus disguised are able to destroy many Greeks.

370. se offert] Not merely meets' but comes to meet.' Thinking they were Greeks, who had but lately landed, he goes up to them to urge them on as laggards.

371. socia] Predicate : deeming our ranks friendly.' Androgeõs a Gk. form=’Avopoyé'ws, but 392 Androgei, as if from Androgeus.

372. inscius] For emphatic adj. at beginning of a line followed by a pause, cf. 4. 310 n.

ultro: see 145 n. : 'unaccosted by us he addresses us': φθάνει προσαγορεύων. .

374. alii...vos] The prominent position of these words marks the contrast ; οι μέν άλλοι... υμείς δέ. Cf. 1. 184 n.

rapiunt...feruntque: the ordinary phrase is ferre et agere (dépelv kai šyelv), c.g. Liv. 22. 3 res sociorum ferri agique vidit, where strictly ferre is used of 'carrying off' portable property and agere of 'driving away' captives or cattle, but here any distinction between rapiunt and ferunt is unnecessary. Translate, plunder and pillage.'

376. neque enim...] ‘for indeed no answer that he could well trust was being given (by us).'

377. sensit delapsus] An imitation of the Greek construction after verbs of feeling, knowing,' etc. = 7o deTo ÈUTTEJÚV, he felt that he had fallen.' Cf. G. 2. 510 gaudent perfusi sanguine fratrum.

378. retroque...] 'and (shrinking) backwards checked his foot and voice.'

379. aspris]=asperis: a very harsh instance of Syncope. For the simile cf. Hom. Il. 3. 33

άψ δ' έτάρων είς έθνος εχάζετο κήρ' αλεείνων.

ως δ' ότε τίς τε δράκοντα ιδών παλίνoρσος απέστη,... 380. nitens] Conington explains of 'advancing with effort' because of the briars, but its position seems to connect the word with pressit humi'has trampled on as he plants his foot'; the word too as noting his firm tread is in graphic contrast with the sudden jump back' which follows, a contrast which is also emphasised by the rhythm, the spondaic nitens being followed by trěpědūsquě rěspēntě rě- | in which the repetition of re and of the weak caesura is obviously intentional,

381. attollentem...] 'raising up its wrath and puffing out (lit. swelling as to) its deep blue neck’: cf. G. 3. 421 tollentemque minas et sibila colla tumentem.

382. abibat] Note the full force of the imperfect.

383. circumfundimur] A middle use ; cf. 227 teguntur ‘hide themselves,' 302 excutior 'I rouse myself,' 393 n.,. 401 conduntur, 510 cingitur ferrum (cf. 520 cingi telis) 633 expedior, 707 inponere place thyself on’; 1. 215 inplentur, 713 expleri mentem ; 3. 279 lustramur Iovi, 405 velare comas cover thy hair,' 545; 4. 493 accingier artes ; 5. 309 caput nectentur oliva ; 6. 184.

386. successu exsultans animisque] Note the different use of the two ablatives : the success causes his exultation and his exultation is exhibited ‘in his high spirit.'

387. o socii...] 'comrades,' he cries, 'where fortune first points out the road to safety, and where she shows herself propitious, let us follow. What the road is which fortune points out to them he explains in the next line.

388. ostendit se dextra] The construction is a natural variation of the ordinary ostendit se dextram : 'Fortune on the right hand (dextra) shows herself (on the right hand, dextram).' Cf. 1. 314 sese tulit obvia ; 3. 310 verane te facies...adfers ; 6. 879 se...tulisset obvius,

389. insignia] This word is used of those parts of dress or armour which serve to distinguish' the wearer (as in such phrases as imperatoris insignia ; pontificalia ins. ; regia ins.) and of course such marks of distinction' usually denote superior rank or dignity: here however Danaum insignia describes those portions of their armour (as helmets, shields,


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swords, see 392, 3) which distinguish the Greeks from the Trojans.

In 392 insigne is clearly the “badge' or device' upon the shield (cf. 7. 657 clipeoque insigne paternum | centum angues... gerit) and not the shield itself. We have no word in English which can be used equally of the 'badge’ upon a shield and of the shield itself as marking the character of the bearer.

390. dolus...] The full construction would be something like (utrum) dolus (sit adhibendus) an virtus, quis...; 'who in (the case of) a foe would ask whether fraud or courage is to be employed.' The question is an apology for his conduct on the principle that anything is fair in love and war.' The terseness of the Latin is highly rhetorical : Sidgwick well renders: Fraud or valour, who would ask in war ?'

391. arma...] 'they themselves (i.e. although they are our foes) shall give us weapons.

sic fatus deinde... : 'so having spoken thereafter...,'cf. 5. 14 n.

392. clipei insigne decorum] put for 'the shield with its fair device.

393. induitur] 'he dons': a middle-use, cf. 383 n.

394. ipse] We do not know anything of Dymas and there. fore cannot say why he is thus specially distinguished : Virgil probably adds ipse for the sake of variety, and also by thus particularising him to give a sense of reality to the narrative.

396. haud numine nostro] 'guided not by gods of our own.' By putting on the Greek armour they are supposed to pass under the guidance of the Greek gods, and as the Greek gods were victorious they might hope for success when under their protection. The peculiar negative form of the expression shows however that this is not the only idea Virgil wishes the words to convey : the gods that guided them were also 'not their own’in the sense of being 'hostile’; under their guidance they were being guided to fresh disaster, see 410-413.

398. demittimus Orco] Cf. Hom. Il. 1. 3 yuxàs "AÑOL προίαψεν. .

400. fida] 'trustworthy,' safe,' because their ships were there.

formidine turpi : dishonourable panic.' By his use of turpi and of the words nota conduntur in alvo it is clear that Virgil wishes to suggest that the flight of the Greeks had something almost grotesque about it.

402—452. Our good fortune was short-lived, for Coroebus, seeing Cassandra being dragged away by Ajax into captivity, madly attempts to save her and we follow him. Our position is most pitiable, for Ajax turns on us in fury at being robbed of his prey, while the Trojans from a temple rain missiles upon us mistaking us for Greeks, and lastly the various bodies of Greeks whom we had met and discomfited on our road begin to collect and, detecting our disguise, join in overwhelming us.

My comrades fall thick around me : I court death in despair and, had it been my destiny to die, must have perished, but in the confusion I and two friends get separated from the fight and are attracted by shouts to the palace of Priam. We find it furiously assailed and desperately defended and resolve to assist its defenders.

402. heu nihil...) 'alas, no trust may any place in the gods against their will.'

Their own gods were unpropitious to the Trojans : Aeneas and his comrades for a while seemed to have secured the protection of the Greek gods by putting on Greek armour (396 n.) ; they are now to find that the gods are not so easily balked and misled ; they had trusted in the gods who favoured Greece, thinking to have cheated them against their will, and now find that they have not succeeded.

404. a templo adytisque] These words emphasise the sacrilegious character of the act: she was being dragged from the sanctuary, ay, and shrine of Minerva. Templum is the whole building including the sacred enclosure (TÉuevos) in which it stands : adytum (côutov) 'the unenterable place' is the innermost shrine in which was the image of the deity. Cassandra was said to have been clinging to the image of the goddess, and Ajax son of Oileus used such violence that he dragged the image away with her. The subject was frequently represented in Greek art.

The precincts of religious buildings have in all ages furnished places of refuge, and the name of 'The Sanctuary'at Westminster still survives. Any one taking refuge at the altar was specially inviolable, cf. 1 Kings ii. 28 seq., where Joab is killed though he 'caught hold on the horns of the altar,' and St. Matt. xxiii. 35 · Zacharias son of Barachias whom ye slew between the temple and the altar.'

406. arcebant] 'confined' so that she could not stretch them heavenward. palmas: because the open 'palm' was uplifted in prayer, cf. 3. 177 n.

407. non tulit...] ‘Coroebus with maddened soul brooked not that sight.'

408. sese iniecit periturus] There is no reason to take periturus here as a variety for periturum (cf. 388 n.); resolved to die he flung himself into the thickest of their ranks.'

411. nostrorum] Notice this gen. of noster used as a substantive='of our friends,' and distinguish it from nostri, nostrum. obruimūr: cf. 1. 667 n. miserrima: because inflicted by friends.

412. facie] abl. of cause : ‘by reason of' or 'thanks to the appearance of our arms and deception of our Grecian plumes.'

413. ereptae virginis ira] wrath at the rescue of the maid.' Sidgwick calls this the 'gen. of reference,' but surely the gen. denotes that which causes the anger; the 'rescue of the maiden'causes, brings with it, involves anger: the anger is not directed at the rescue, but arises from it. Cf. 412 errore iubarum ‘mistake caused by the plumes,' 784 lacrimas Creusae 'the tears that Creusa causes'; 1. 462 sunt lacrimae rerum 'tears caused by events’; Livy 5. 33 ira corruptae uxoris ab Lucumone 'anger caused by his wife's seduction.' So in Greek the causal gen. is common after wolowodal, unvielv, άχθεσθαι.

. For erepta virgo='the carrying off of the maiden,' cf. 643 n.

414. acerrimus] ‘most fiercely,' as being especially aggrieved.

415. gemini Atridae] 'the twin Atridae': so they are regularly called in Greek δισσοι 'Ατρείδαι, not because they were actually twins, for Agamemnon was the elder, but because of their famous union in the siege of Troy.

416. adversi...] 'as at times, when a hurricane bursts, the winds dash together face to face. For all the winds being let loose at once cf. 1. 85 n. The simile here is intended specially to bring out the confusion of the battle that was raging.

418. equis] The wind- god comes riding upon the winds; cf. Hor. Od. 4. 4. 44 Eurus | per Siculas equitavit undas. Note the effective alliteration of stridunt silvae, saevit,

419. Nereus] The sea-god is graphically described as eagerly aiding the winds in increasing the disturbance--foaming he rages with his trident and stirs up the sea from its lowest depths. Note the skill of saevit spumeus, the adj. being equally applicable to the angry sea-god or the angry sea.

421. fudimus insidiis] 'we routed with our wiles.' agitavimus : 'hunted': so commonly agitare feras.

422. primi...] Hitherto all had been confusion (cf. 416 n.), Greeks and Trojans being armed alike: now that these new

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