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Why lest1 God make you so, my dearest heart,

To do a silly prisoner thus smart,
That loves you all, and wote of nought but wo J
And, therefore, mercy sweet! sen it is so."

Of her array the form gif I shall write,
Toward her golden hair and rich attire,

In fret-wise couch'd2 with pearlis white,
And greats balas3 lemyng* as the fire,
With many an emerant and fair sapphire,

And on her head a chaplet fresh of hue

Of plumys, parted red, and white, and blue.

Full of quaking spangis5 bright as gold,
Forged of shape like to the amorettis

So new, so fresh, so pleasnnt to behold;
The plumis eke like to the floure-jonettis,7
And other of shape like to the floure-jonettis ;8

And above all this there was, well I ^ote,

Beauty enough to make a world to dote 1

About her neck, white as the fyre amaille,9
A goodly chain of small orfoverye;10

Whereby there hung a ruby without fail,
Like to an heart [y-] shapen verily,
That as a spark of lowe,11 so wantonly

Seemed burning upon her white throat;

Now gif there was good party, God it wote.

And for to walk, that fresho Maye's morrow,
And hook she had upon her tissue white,

That goodlier had not been seen to-forrow,ia
As I suppose; and girt she was a lyte;13
Thus haHling14 loose for haste, to such delight

It was to see her youth in goodlihead,

That, for rudeness, to speak thereof I dread.

In her was youth, beauty, with humble aport,
Bounty, richess, and womanly feature j

Goil better wote than my pen can report:
Wisdom, largess, estate, and cunning sure,
In every point so guided her measure,

In word, in deed, in shape, in countenance,

That Nature might no more her child avance.

1 Pleased: that In, "If thon art ft goddess, I cannot resist thy power; but If only a mortal creature, God surely cannot lc-st or incline you to grieve or give pain to a poor creature that loves yoo."— TytUr. 1 Inlaid like fret-work. a A sort of precious stone. * Shining.

5 Spangles, o "Made In the form of a lovc-knot or garland."—TyUtr.

"A kind of Illy. It Is conjectured that the royal poet may here allude covertly to the name of his mistress, which, In the diminutive, was Janet or Jonet.— Thomson'* Edition of Kin ft Qiihuir. Ayr, 1111,

s Tlie repetition of Uus word is apparently a mistake of the original transcriber.

» Q.u. t« this an error for /otr email, 1. e. enamel t 10 Oold-work. U Fire, flame.

u Before. 1* A UtUe. M Half.

And when she walked had a little thraw
Under the sweete greene boughis bent,

Her fair fresh face, as wlute as any snaw,
She turned has, and furth her wayia went;
But the- began mine aches and torment,

To see her part and follow I na might;

Methought the day was turned into night'

WILLIAM CAXTON. 1413—1491.

O Anion I still thy gratitude confess
To Caxtos, founder of the British Press:
Since first thy mountains rove, or rivers flow*d,
Who on thy Isles so rich a boon bestow'd T


Lord I taught by thee, when Caxtox bade
His silent words for ever speak:

A grave for tyrants then was made-
Then crack'd the chain which yet shall break.


The name of William Caxton will ever be held in grateful remembrance by the world of letters, for he it was who introduced the art of printing into England. He was born in the county of Kent in the year 1413, and at the age of fifteen was put as an apprentice to a merchant of London. In consideration of his integrity and good behavior, his master bequeathed him a small sum of money as a capital with which to trade. He was soon chosen by the Mercer's Company to be their agent in Holland and Flanders, in which countries he spent about twenty-three years. While there, the new invention of the art of printing2 was everywhere spoken of j and Caxton, at a great

1 "It would, perhaps, be difficult to select even from Chaucer's most finished works a long specimen of descripUve poetry no uniformly elegant as this: indeed some of the verses are so highly finished, that they would not disfigure the compositions of Dryden, Pope, or Gray."—Emb.

2 It is not a little singular that the history of printing, that art which commemorates all other InvenUons, and which hands down to posterity every Important event. Is so enveloped In mystery U»at the ablest minds In Europe have had long and acrimonious disputations respecting the question to what place and to what person the Invention is rightfully due. There Is Dot space here to give even an ouUine of these controversies; I can merely give the result. The two ciUes which claim the discovery are Haarlem or Haerlem, a city of North Holland, and Mentz, in Germany on the Rhine. The dispute, however, as Mr. Timperley properly observes, has turned rather on words than facts, arising from the different definitions of the word pawTrxo. If the honor is to be awarded from the discovery of the principle, it is unquestionably due to Lawrence Coster, of Haarlem, who flrat found out the method of impressing characters on paper, by means of blocks of carved wood, about 14S0. If movable types be considered the criterion, as it seems to mc they must, the merit of the invention Is due to John Guttenburg, of Mentz, who used them about 1440: while Schoefler, in conjunction with Faust, was the first who founded types of metal.

From all the arguments and opinions, therefore, which have been adduced In tills Important controversy, the following conclusion may be satisfactorily drawn. To JOHN GUTTENBURG, of Mentz, is due the appellation of Father Of Printixg; to PETER SCHOEFFER that of Father Of Letteh-fouvsiko; ;u id to JOHN Fa L ST that of Ksehgetic P Ate On, by whose pecuniary aid the wonderful discovery was brought rapidly to perlbcUou.

expense of time and labor, and with an industry to which all obstacles will ever give way, made himself complete master of it, as then known. He first employed himself in tmnslating from French into English, The Recuyell' of the Hutoria of Troye, which was published at Cologne, 1471, and is the first book ever printed in the English language. The next year Caxton returned to England, and in 1474 put forth Tho Game of Chess, remarkable as being the first book ever printed in England. It was entitled, The Game and Playe of the Cheste: Tmntlaled out of the French, and imprynted by William Caxton. Fynyshtd the last day of Marche, the yer of our Lord God, a thousand fame hundred, Ixxiiij.

Caxton was a man who united great modesty and simplicity of chamcter to indefatigable industry. He styled himself " simple William Caxton." He' printed, in all, about sixty-four different works, a great number of which he tmnslated as well as printed; and those which he did not trsnslate, he often revised and altered; so that, in point of language, they may be considered as his own. He continued to prepare works for the press to the very close of his life; and though of no brilliancy of talent, he exemplifies, in a remarkable degree, how mnch good one man may do, of even modemte powers, provided he industriously and faithfully employs all that has been given to him with an eye single to one great object.2

Among other works2 printed by Caxton were tho Chronicles of England, which contained indeed some true history, but mnch more of romantic fable. As a specimen of the latter, the following may be given upon tho


Before that I will speak of Brute,4 it shall be shewed how the land of England was first named Albion, and by what enchesoni it was so named.

Of the noble land of Syria, there was a royal king and mighty, and a man of great renown, that was called Dioclesian, that well and worthily him governed and ruled thro' his noble chivalry ; so that he conquered all the lands about him; so that almost all tho kings of the world to him were attendant. It befel thus that this Dioclesian spoused a gentle damsel that was wonder fair, that was his uncle's daughter, Labana. And she loved him as reason would; so that he had by her thirty-three daughters; of tho which the eldest was called Albine. And these damsels, when they came unto asre, became so fair that it was wonder. Whereof Dioclesian anon let make a summoning, and commanded by his letters, that all the kings that held of him, should come at a certain day, as in his letters were contained, to make a feast royal. At which day, thither they came, and brought with them admirals, princes, and dukes, and noble chivalry. The feast was royally arrayed; and there they lived in joy and mirth enough, that it was wonder to wyte.1 And it befel thus, that Dioclesian thought to marry his daughters among all those kings that were of that solemnity. And so they spake and did, that Albine, his eldest daughter, and all her sisters, richly were married unto thirty-three kings, that were lords of great honour and of power, at this solemnity. And when the solemnity was done, every king took his wife, and led them into their own country, and there made them queens.

The story then goes on to relate how these thirty-three wives conspired to kill their husbands, all on the same night, and "anon, as their lords were asleep, they cut all their husbands' throats; and so they slew them all."

When that Dioclesian, their father, heard of this thing, he became furiously wroth against his daughters, and anon would them all have brente." But all the barons and lords of Syria counseled not so for to do such straitness" to his own daughters; but only should void the land of them for evermore; so that they never should come again; and so he did.

And Dioclesian, that was their father, anon commanded them to go into a ship, and delivered to them victuals for half a year. And when this was done, all the sisters went into the ship, and sailed forth in the sea, and took all their friends to Apolin, that was their God. And so long they sailed in the sea, till at the last they came and arrived in an isle, that was all wilderness. And when dame Albine was come to that land, and all her sisters, this Albine went first forth out of the ship, and said to her other sisters: For as much, (said she,) as I am the eldest sister of all this company, and first this land hath taken; and for as much as my name is Albine, I will that this land be called Albion, after mine own name. And anon, all her sisters granted to her with a good will.

WILLIAM DUNBAR. 1465—1530.

William DuifBAti is pronounced by Ellis,4 to be «the greatest poet Scotland has produced." His writings, however, with scarcely an exception, remained in the obscurity of manuscript, till the beginning of the last century; but his fame since then has been continually rising. His chief poems are The Tuistle Aitd The Rose, Toe Dance, and TnE Goldex Teboe. The Thistle and the Rose was occasioned by the marriage of James IV. of Scotland with Margaret Tudor, the eldest daughter of Henry VII. of England, an event in which the whole future political state of both nations was vitally interested, and winch ultimately produced the union of the two crowns and

l Know. » Burnt. a Strlctneiii. ♦Specimens of the Early Englinh Porta,'

▼oL L p. 377: bat should he not have excepted Burns and Sir Walter Scott t

kingdoms, in the person of James VI. of Scotland, and I. of England, 1603— 1633. This poem opens with the following stanzas, remarkable for their doscriptive and picturesque beauties:

Quhen1 Merche wes with variand windis past,
And Appryll had with hir silver shouris
Tane leif2 at Nature, with ane orient blast,
And lusty May, that muddir3 is of flouris,
Had maid the birdis to begyn thair houris,
Amang the tendir odouris reid and quhyt
Quhois4 harmony to heir it wes delyt:

In bed at morrow sleiping as I lay,
Methoeht Aurora, with her cristall ene
In at the window lukit5 by the day,
And halsit6 mo with visage pale and grene;
On quhois hand a lark sang, fro the splene,7
ttAwak, luvaris,8 out of your slemering,9
Se how the lusty morrow dois upspring!"

Methoeht freschc May befoir my bed upstude,
In weid10 depaynt of mony diverse hew,
Sober, benyng, anil full of mansuetude,
In bright atteir of flouris forgit" new,
Hevinly of color, quhyt, reid, brown, and blew,
Balmit in dew, and gilt with Phebus1 bemys;
Quhil al the house illumynit of her lemys.13

The Diicci of the Seven Deadly Sins through Hell has much merit. On the eve of Lent, a day of general confession, the poet, in a dream, sees a display of heaven and hell. Mahomet,13 or the devil, commands a dance to l>e performed by a select party of fiends, and immediately the Seven Deadly Sins appear. The following is a description of Esvx:—

Next in the dance followit Isvr,
Fild full of feid'* and fellony,

Hid malyce and dispyte;
For pryvie haterit15 that tratour v»ymlit,'6
Him followit mony freik dissymht,"

With fcynit wordis quhyte.
And flattercis into mens facis,
And back-byttaris18 of sundry racis,

To ley" that had delyte.
With rownaris20 of fals lesingis:21
Allace! that Courtis of noble kingis

Of tliam can nevir be quyte!"22

As a specimen of one of his minor poems take the following, containing much wholesome advice:—

1 When. Os has the force of w. 1 Taken leave. ■ Mother. 4 Whose. S Looked, 6 Hailed. T Wtth (rood wHL « Lovers. » Slumbering. 1° Attire. U Forged, made. 12 Brightness. n The Christians, In the crusades, were accustomed to hear the Saracens swear by their Prophet Ushomet, who then became, In Europe, another name for the Devil. 1« Enmity. Is Hatred. M Trembled. "Dissembling gallant. IS Backbiters. 1» Lie. s9 Rounders, whispers. To rossd et tar for, or simply to round, was to whisper In the ear.

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