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The rest were slain in Chevy-Chase,
Next day did many widows come,
Their husbands to bewail;
But all would not prevail.
Their bodies, bathed in purple gore,
They bnre with them away:
Ere they were clad in clay.
God save our king, and bless this land
With plenty, joy, and peace;
Tw ixt noblemen may cease.
THE TWO CORBIES.1
There were two corbies sat on a tree
Large and black as black might be;
And one the other gan say,
Where shall we go and dine to-day?
Shall we go dine by the wild salt sea?
Shall we go dine 'neath the greenwood tree?
As I sat on the deep sea sand,
I saw a fair ship nigh at land,
I waved my wings, I bent my beak,
The ship sunk, and I heard a shriek;
There they lie, one, two, and three,
I shall dine by the wild salt sea.
Come, I will show ye a sweeter sight,
A lonesome glen, and a new-slain knight;
His blood yet on the grass is hot,
His sword half-drawn, his shafts unshot,
And no one kens that he lies there,
But his hawk, his hound, and his lady fair.
His hound is to the hunting gane,
Ye shall sit on his white hause-bane,*
1 One of the most poetical and picturesque ballads existing.
2 The neck-hone—a phrase tor the neck. 3 Oolden.
O, cauld and bare will His bed be,
QUEEN ELIZABETH.1 1533—1603.
The pretensions of Queen Elizabeth to poetic genius are about as valid as her pretensions to beauty; yet she loved to be flattered for both, as mnch as for her classical attainments, which she really possessed. The desire of shining as a poetess was one of her weaknesses; and her vanity, no doubt, made her regard as tributes justly paid, the extmvagant pmises which the courtiers and writers of her age lavished on her royal ditties.
We have but very little of her poetry: the best piece, perhaps, is one which shows that, notwithstanding her maidenly stateliness and prudery, she was not altogether a stmnger to the tender passion,
VERSES ON HER OWN FEELINGS.0
I Ghieve, and dare not show my discontent,
1 It would of course be Impossible here to give a mere outline of Elizabeth's life, so full of Important events. Any pood history of England may be read for the requisite information. Of the smaller histories, Kelghtlcy's Is the beet. Read, nlso, a well-written life in Mrs. Strickland's "Lives of the Qneens of England." In Dr. Dmke's "Shakspeare and his Times," will be found some interesting paiticulars of her attainments, domestic habits, love of dress, vanity, Jealousy, and her fondness for the druma and the brutal show of bcar-b:Uting, fee. Se.
2 These verses first appeared in print in "Headley's Ane. Eng. Poet" They were transcribed from a manuscript in the Aohmolean Museum. Unfortunately, the moat Important word Is half obliterated—,l upon Moun—s departure;" but the following account from the old chronicler Stow shows pretty conclusively that it refers to the Duke of Alencon. "These Lords (the Ambassadors from Frunce,) after divers secret conferences amongst themselves, and return of sundry letters into France, signifying the qneen's declination from marriage, and the people's unwillingness to match that way, held It moat convenient that the duke should come in proper person, whose presence they thought in sneh aflairs might prevail more than all their omtory: and, thereupon, the first of November, the said prince came over in person, very princely accompanied and attended, though not In sneh glorious manner as were the ahove-named com miss loners, whose entertainment. in all respects, was equivalent unto his estate and dignity. By thin time his picture, state, and titles were advanced in every stationer's shop, and many other public places, by the name of Fnmncii of Valov, Duke of ALnuon, heir apparent of Frunce, and brother to the French king: but he was better known by the name of Monrimr, unto all aorta of people, than by all his other titles. During his abode in England, he used all princely means to prefer his suit, and in his carriage demeaned hlmse»' ",-"" I do, yet dare not say I ever meant,
I seem stark mute, but inwardly do prate:
I am, and not, I freeze, and yet am burn'd,
Since from myself my oilier self I turn:d.
My care is like my shadow in the sun,
No means I find to rid bun from my breast,
Till by the end of things it be suppress*d.
Some gentler passions slide into my mind,
Or let me live with some more sweet content,
Signed, "Finit, Eliza. Regina, upon
TRANSLATION OF THE BIBLE.'
No literary undertaking in any age of English Literature has proved to be so important in its results, as the Translation of the Bible under the direction of King James I. Of the labors of Wiclif in translating the Bible from the Latin Vulgate, and of the successful exertions of Tyndale, in face of every danger and even of death, in giving to his countrymen a version of the New Testament in their vernacular tongue, short accounts are given under the lives of those scholars, together with specimens of their respective translations. Subsequently, very many versions appeared, of which the following are the most important:—
1. Coveruale's Bible. This was primed in Zurich, in 1535, because the translator, Miles Coverdale, a native of Yorkshire, was obliged to fly from his native land. To him, therefore, must be awarded the honor of being the first to give the whole Bible in English, translated out of the original tongues. It was printed in double columns, folio.
2. Matthewe's Bible. This appeared in 1537. But the name, Thomas Matthewe, which appeared in the title-page, and from which it has received its name, was undoubtedly fictitious, and the real editor was John Rogers, who was burned at the stake in the reign of Mary.
1 In mentioning the several causes that made the age of Elizabeth so distinguished for Its great names In literature, Hazlltt, In his "Literature of the Age of Elizabeth," thus writes:— "Thetranslation of the Bitile was the chief engine In the great work. It threw open, by a secret spring, the rich treasures of religion and morality which had been there locked up as In a shrine. It revealed * the visions of the prophets, and conveyed the lessons of inspired teachers to Uie meanest of the people. It gave them a common interest in a common cause. Their hearts burnt within Uu-ni as they read. It gave a mind to the people, by giving them common subjects of thought and feeling. Tt cemented their union of character and sentiment; it created endless diversity and collision of opinion. They found objects to employ their faculties, and a motive in the magnitude of the consequences attached to them, to exert the utmost eagerness in the pursuit of truth, and the most daring Intrepidity In maintaining it."
1603-1625.] TRANSLATION OF THE BIBLE.
3. Cbasmeb's, or The Giieat Bible, in large folio. This appeared in 1539. The preface was written by Cranmer, then archbishop of Canterbury, but the translation or revision was by many hands, the chief of whom was Coverdale.
4. Tatebseb's Bible. This appeared in 1539, edited by Richard Tavcrner, the text being formed on Matthewe's Bible.
• In May, 1541, Henry VIII. issued a decree that the great volume of the Bible should be set up in every parish church in England, anil all curates, not already furnished, were commanded to procure Bibles, and place them conveniently in their respective churches, and all the bishops were required to take especial care to see the said command put in force. "It was wonderful,"1 says the old historian John Strype, "to see with what joy this book of God was received, not only among the leameder sort, but generally all England over, among all the people; and with what greediness God's word was read, and what resort to places where the reading of it was."
Ihiring the reign of Edward VI. (10-17—1503) eleven impressions of the English Bible were published, but they were merely reprints of one or other of the editions mentioned above.
5. The Geweva Bible. This was translated, with notes, by Miles Coverdale and others, who during the reign of Mary fled to Geneva. On the accession of Elizabeth, 155S, some returned, and others remained to finish the work, which appeared in 10fi0. This long continued to be the favorite Bible of the English Puritans and of the Scotch Presbyterians. Fifty impressions of it, at least, are known.
6. Thb Bishop's Bible, which appeared in IOCS, so called from Matthew Parker, archbishop of Canterbury, who employed others to prepare it.
7. The Docat Bible, of which the New Testament was printed at Rheims1 in 1582, and the Old at Douay* in 100!)—10.
8. Kiso James's Bible. We are now brought to our own translation. At the accession of James I., 1G03, many complaints were made of the discrepancies then existing among the several versions of the Bible. At the great conference held in 1604, at Hampton Court, between the Established Bnd Puritan cleTgy, all parties agreeing in their disapprobation of the version of the .Scriptures then most generally used, the king commissioned fifty-four men, the most learned in the universities and other places, to commence a new translation. At the same time he required the bishops to inform themselves of all the learned men within their several dioceses, who had acquired especial skill in die Greek and Hebrew languages, and who had taken great pains in their private studies to investigate obscure passages and to correct mistakes in former English translations, and to charge them to communicate their observations to the persons dius employed to translate the whole Scriptures.
Before the work was begun, seven of the persons nominated for it were either dead or declined to engage in the task; the remaining forty-seven were classed under six divisions, a certain portion of Scripture being assigned to each. They proceeded to their task at Oxford, Cambridge, and Westminster, each individual translating the portion assigned to his division, and when all in any one division had finished, they met together, compared their several translations, and decided all differences, and settled upon what diey
> About M miles N. E. of FurU.
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deemed the best translation. When the several divisions had finished, they all met together, and one and another by turns road the new version, while all the rest held in their hands either copies of the original or some valuable version. If any one objected to the translation of any passage, the reader stopped to allow time for discussion, comparison, and final decision.
The labor appears to have commenced in the spring of 1004, and the result was published in 1611, under the following title, « The Holy Bible, conteyning the Old Testament and the New, newly translated ord of the Original! longues, and with the former Translations diligently compared and revised by his Majesties speciall Commandement.'1 As a translation, this is generally most faithful, and an excellent specimen of the language of the time. Dr. Adam Clarke remarks, "The translators have seized the very spirit and soul of the original, and expressed this, almost everywhere, with pathos and energy: they have not only made a standard translation, but have made this translation the standard of our language." This is eminently true, for in all human probability this translation will never be changed.
Still, strict truth and justice require us to say that there are some defects and errors, in our present version, which a more advanced state of biblical science enables us to detect. The translators had not access to the various sources of biblical criticism and elucidation which we enjoy at the present day; such as the collation of ancient manuscripts and versions; the multiplication of grammars and lexicons; the enlarged comparison of kindred dialects; and the researches of travellers into the geography, manners, customs, and natural history of the East.1 But after all, instead of dwelling upon errors and discrepancies, which are really unimportant, we must ever wonder that there are so few, and admire the fidelity, the learning, and the wisdom of the great and good men that executed the work.2
I have felt it a duty, in entering upon the reign of James I., when the present version of our Bible was made, to give this short historical view of the sacred volume, because, to say nothing of its divine origin, nothing of its inspired contents, nothing of its being the foundation of all morality, the groundwork of our religion, and our unerring rule of faith and practice, it has done so much for English mind, English literature, and English character. To say nothing of its heavenly influences, wherever faithfully and honestly followed^ in elevating and blessing man, and in removing every wicked practice
l For come very able remarka on our present version, sec Professor Bush's Introduction to his "Notes on Genesis."
i One of the greatest detects In our translation Is a want of uniformity In rendering;, both In regard to tingle words and to phrases. To give a few Instances of what I mean. The Oreek adverb ivSvj (euthw), which means "directly," "Immediately," Is translated in MatL iii. 16, by "straightway;" xlil. 30, by "anonxlll. 21, by "by and by;" Mark I. 13, by "immediately;" John xlx. 34, by "forthwith." In all these places, "Immediately" would have better expressed the original; "by and by" is peculiarly Infelicitous. So the verb imnftvlrt (mtrimnate) lu Halt. vi. as, is rendered "take no thought;" in PhlL Iv. 6, "be carefuL" The latter comes nearer Uie true meaning, wok-u Is, "be not distracted about," "be not over anxious about." In justice, however, to the translators, I should say tliat In King James's day, the phrase "take no thought" had a much stronger meaning than It now has, being nearly equivalent to "let not your thoughts be unduly exercised." In many other cases nlso, the present transhiUon falls to express the sense, owing lu changes which our language has undergone. One more Instance will sufflee. David says, (Psalm cxlx. 147.) "I prevented the dawning of the morning," where "prevent" Is used In Its original I .at In sense of "going before," "anticipating," and in King James's day It was so understood. Now, we know, it is used In the sense of to "hinder." This, though a most interesting subject of inquiry, cannot appropriately1 be pursued any further here.